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APUSH Unit 3 Notes
by LAURA GILL - Saturday, October 3, 2015, 10:02 PM

Laura Gill

Crash Course

  • ●  The first US government was the Articles of the Confederation

    • ○  one house body of delegates

    • ○  each state had a single vote

  • ●  No president and no judiciary

  • ●  Ohio was called the Northwest

  • ●  Indians surrendered land north of the Ohio River

○ Indians had to be treated better because they had a claim to the land

  • ●  The Ordinance outlawed slavery in the five new states

  • ●  The Articles government could not collect taxes

○ main source of revenue became tarifs

  • ●  Shays Rebellion signalled to many that the government was


  • ●  Too much liberty among the lower class could threaten private


  • ●  6 states met in Annapolis in 1786 to regulate international


    • ○  states agreed to meet in Philadelphia the next year to


    • ○  the Constitution was written instead

    • ○  More than half the men who wrote the constitution

      had a college education and 40% had served in the


    • ○  the Constitution aimed to prevent tyranny by the

      government or tyranny by the people

    • ○  Roger Shermanbrokered a two house senate

    • ○  slave­holding states argued that slaves should count to

      the population

  • ○  the Constitution stated that fugitive slaves had to be returned to their masters

  • ○  the Electoral College was supposed to allow better educated men to elect the president

  • ○  9 out of 13 of the states had to ratify the Constitution

  • ○  The Federalist Papers argued why a strong national

    government was necessary and not a threat to people’s


  • ●  The second amendment allowed citizens to wield weapons to

    defend themselves against the army

  • ●  Anti­federalists were afraid of a government dominated by the


A Weak Central Government (p. 160)

● Members of the Confederation Congress withdrew ○ army veterans were demanding back pay

  • ●  It was difficult for Congress to ratify the treaty with Great Britain ending the Revolutionary War

  • ●  Representatives from only eight states voted on the Northwest Ordinance

Advocates of Centralization (p. 160)

● Revolutionary army officers formed the exclusive Society of Cincinnati

○ aspired to provoke the formation of a national government

  • ●  George Washingtonblocked the potential army

  • ●  The country began to slowly come to the agreement that the

    government needed the power to tax

Alexander Hamilton (p. 161)

James Madisonpersuaded the Virginia legislature to convene an interstate conference on commercial questions on Alexander Hamiltons request

○ 5 states sent delegates


○ Hamilton drafted a proposal that all the states meet in Philadelphia the next year to render a constitution

● George Washington was the support the meeting in Philadelphia

  • ○  he showed no interest at first

  • ○  Shays Rebellion caused him to attend

The Founding Fathers (p. 162)

  • ●  All of the states except Rhode Island were represented at the Philadelphia State House

  • ●  James Madison devised a plan for a new national government

The Virginia Plan (p. 162)

Edmund Randolphof Virginia proposed a national government with Legislative, Executive, and Judiciary branches

  • ○  the Virginia Plan called for a two house legislature

    • ­  the lower house would have a proportionate

      number of representatives per state by


    • ­  the upper house representatives would be

      elected by those of the lower house

  • ○  states with smaller populations were upset with the


­ they were not guaranteed representation in the

upper house
William Pattersonof New Jersey submitted an alternative,

the New Jersey Plan
○ the New Jersey plan proposed a one house legislature

with equal representation for every state
­ states with smaller populations gave heavy

○ delegates eventually voted against the plan

● Supporters of the Virginia conceded to state legislatures to elect members of the upper house of the national legislature


○ in this plan every state was guaranteed at least one seat in the upper house

Small States vs Large States (p. 162)

● States with large populations of slaves argued that slaves should be counted in population size

○ they maintained that slaves should be considered property when taxes were levied based on population of the state

  • ●  States with diminished slave populations argued for the opposite conditions

  • ●  No states argued to give slaves the right to vote

Compromise (p. 162)

● Benjamin Franklinremained calm during the long weeks of deliberation

○ he aided the perseverance of the delegates

The Great Compromise (p. 163)

  • ●  The Grand Committee produced the proposal “The Great Compromise”

    • ○  they determined that three­fifths of the slaves would count towards the population

    • ○  the upper house was to have two seats for representatives of each state

  • ●  The convention was accepted on July 16, 1787

○ southern states ensured that exports would not be

­ they feared trade regulation would interfere

with their agrarian economy
● James Madison thought that writing down individual rights

would limit them

The Constitution of 1787 (p. 163)

● James Madison was the most important contributor to the Constitution


○ explained how both the country and the state could be sovereign

  • ­  power in all levels of government flowed through the people

  • ­  neither the federal nor the state governments were truly sovereign

● Americans believed the best way to avoid tyranny is to keep the government close to its people

  • ○  a large nation would make the rulers too distant from the people and become corrupt

  • ○  many maintained that sovereign states were safer than a national government

Separation of Powers (p. 166)

● The Constitution instituted “separation of powers” ○ congress would have two chambers

  • ­  the Senate

  • ­  the House of Representatives

  • ●  Judges and justices served for life

  • ●  Power was divided between states and the country to avoid the despotism that occurred in England

  • ●  The Constitution was signed in 1787

Federalists and Antifederalists (p. 166)

● The convention changed the number of states needed to ratify the Constitution to nine instead of all thirteen

○ states could make changes until the Constitution was ratified

● All states except Rhode Island elected delegates to vote on the Constitution

The Federalist Papers (p. 167)

  • ●  Franklin and Washington were the Constitution’s most influential supporters

  • ●  Supporters took on the name federalists


● Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay wrote the Federalist Papers

The Antifederalists (p. 167)

  • ●  Federalists called their opposition the antifederalists

    • ○  antifederalists believed that a national government

      would betray the purpose of the revolution

    • ○  they claimed that the Constitution would favor the

      higher social classes

  • ●  Those that opposed the Constitution wanted a bill of rights

Debating the Constitution (p. 167)

● Ratification went through in the winter of 1787­1788 ○ there was more opposition in larger states

Completing the Structure (p. 168)

  • ●  The first elections were held in 1789

  • ●  George Washington was expected to take power

○ many supported ratification believing that he would run the Constitution’s government

  • ●  John Adams became vice president

  • ●  The inauguration was held in New York in 1789

○ NY was the national capital

The Bill of Rights (p. 168)

  • ●  A bill of rights was necessary to validate opponents to the ratification of the Constitution

  • ●  First 10 amendments

  • ●  Tenth amendment gave states all power not specifically

    withheld by the national government

  • ●  The judicial power is in the Supreme Court and all of the

    courts under it

○ the Supreme Court had the final decision about the

constitutionality of state laws

The Cabinet (p. 168)

● The first Congress established the executive departments of state, treasury, and war

  • ○  Alexander Hamilton was appointed secretary of the treasury

  • ○  General Henry Knox was appointed secretary of war

  • ○  Edmund Randolph was appointed attorney general

  • ○  Thomas Jefferson was appointed secretary of state

Federalists and Republicans (p. 168)

● The country stayed in disagreement about how strong the centralized government should be

  • ○  those who wanted a strong centralized government were called the Federalists

    ­ led by Alexander Hamilton

  • ○  those who wanted more freedom from the government

    were called the Republicans
    ­ led by James Madison and Thomas Jefferson

Hamilton and the Federalists (p. 168)

● Hamilton had more influence on domestic and foreign policy than Washington

○ Washington avoided personal involvement in Congress

Assuming the Debt (p. 169)

● Hamilton believed that the US needed an educated ruling class ○ the wealthy would assume the country’s debt

  • ●  His plan would not allow the debts to be paid
    ○ instead, the bondholders would be invested in the

    government’s survival

  • ●  He also wanted to establish a national bank

    ○ would provide loans and currency ○ would store government funds
    ○ would help collect taxes

Hamilton’s Report on Manufacturing
(p. 168)

● Hamilton proposed two types of taxes

  • ○  an excise on liquor distillers

  • ○  a tariff on imports


● “Report on Manufactures” established plan to expand American industries

Debating Hamilton’s Program
(p. 170)

  • ●  Most of Congress accepted Hamilton’s plan

  • ●  Many believed that some bonds should be returned to the

    original purchaser

○ his supporters said this was impractical

● His whole plan passed

Location of the Capital (p. 170)

  • ●  The capital moved from New York to Philadelphia in 1790

  • ●  Hamilton agreed to move the capital to the south to gain

    Virginia’s support

○ Washington selected land on the Potomac between

Virginia and Maryland

Bank of the United States (p. 170)

  • ●  Some argued that Congress should not have any powers not explicitly assigned to it by the Constitution

  • ●  Hamilton passed a bill authorizing a Bank of the United States in 1791

○ the charter allowed to operate for 20 years
● Bonds of the United States began to sell at above their par


  • ○  many profited from the Hamilton Program

  • ○  small farmers were taxed disproportionately to the

    higher class

The Republican Opposition (p. 170)

● Many of the framers of the Constitution believed political parties were a dangerous institution

Establishment of the Federalist Party
(p. 170)

● Federalists used their influence to reward allies
○ encouraged local associations to spread the political

mindset on a local level

Formation of the Republican Party
(p. 171)

● To combat the unified Federalists, opposition formed the Republican Party

  • ○  developed even greater partisan influence in local communities

  • ○  justified themselves that they were representing the true interests of the public

  • ●  The first party system was established

  • ●  Thomas Jefferson and James Madison represented the

    Republican party

Differences Over the French Revolution
(p. 172)

● Federalists were horrified by the French Revolution
○ they were more numerous in the North as well as

southern seaports
● Republicans supported the anti­aristocratic movement in

○ they were more numerous in the South and West

● Washington appeared neutral was more of a Federalist than a Republican

Whiskey Rebellion (p. 172)

● Farmers in western Pennsylvania began to riot about whiskey taxes

○ the violence towards tax collectors was at the same height as it was in response to the Stamp Act

● Washington called the militia of three states to intervene in Pittsburgh

○ the rebellion collapsed quickly

  • ●  The rebels were intimidated into loyalty

  • ●  The last of the original colonies joined the union when the Bill

    of Rights passed

○ NC in 1789 and RI in 1790

  • ●  NY and NH gave up claims to the territory that became the fourteenth state, VT, in 1791

  • ●  VA gave up its claim to KY in 1792

  • ●  TN became a territory then a state after NC gave up its claim

    to it in 1796

Native Americans and the New Nation
(p. 172)

● Native Americans frequently challenged white settlements for domain over land

○ the United States eventually defeated almost all challenges

Indians and the Constitution (p. 172)

  • ●  The Constitution recognized tribes as legal entities

  • ●  The tribes were not considered foreign countries or citizens of

    the United States

Maintaining Neutrality (p. 173)

● The US established neutrality in the war between Britain and France

Citizen Genet (p. 172)

  • ●  French representativeEdmond Genetviolated the Neutrality Act in America

    • ○  he encouraged shipowners to serve as a French privateers

    • ○  commissioned an American to lead a military expedition against the Spanish territories in North America

  • ●  Washington attempted to get him recalled to France

○ he was granted political asylum because his party had

been overthrown
● The British began intercepting American trade to France

○ ignited American outrage against Britain

Jay’s Treaty and Pinckney's Treaty
(p. 173)

John Jaywas appointed special commissioner to England ○ aimed to receive compensation for British attacks

  • ●  Jay’s Treaty was unsuccessful

    • ○  however, it improved US­Britain relations

    • ○  it established undisputed American sovereignty over

      the Northwest

  • ●  Pinckney’s Treaty gave Americans the right to navigate the

    Mississippi River to its mouth

The Downfall of the Federalists
(p. 174)

  • ●  The Federalists believed there could be no political opposition

  • ●  They fought forcefully against opposition

  • ●  They never won another election

Washington’s Farewell Address
(p. 175)

  • ●  Washington retired from office after his second term

  • ●  His Farewell Address denounced Republicans

  • ●  Vice President John Adamsbecame the Federalist candidate

    for president

Divided Federalists (p. 175)

  • ●  Hamilton was the most influential Federalist

  • ●  Adams became president instead

    • ○  talented diplomat

    • ○  not a skilled politician

The Quasi War with France (p. 175)

  • ●  US relations with France deteriorated

  • ●  Adams appointed a bipartisan commission to negotiate with


  • ●  The French demanded a bribe to begin negotiations

Charles Cotesworth Pinckneyrefused

The XYZ Affair (p. 176)

● Washington turned a report of the negotiations to Congress ○ he replaced the names of the French officials with

Messrs. X, Y, and Z
● The XYZ Affair was known for the insults from the French

○ undeclared war was engaged with France

The Quasi War (p. 176)

● The US built up their navy and cut off trade with France ○ captured 85 French ships

  • ●  A virtual alliance developed with Britain

  • ●  Napoleon signed a treaty agreeing to new commercial policies

    and ending the Quasi war

Alien and Sedition Acts (p. 176)

● The Alien Act made it more difficult to become a US citizen ○ discouraged immigration


● The Sedition Act allowed those who spoke against the government to be prosecuted

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
(p. 177)

● The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions used John Locke’s ideas to state the the government only had certain powers under the compact with which it was devised

The Election of 1800 (p. 177)

● Jefferson was elected president

  • ○  Jefferson and Aaron Burrtied for votes

  • ○  Congress decided Burr was unreliable

The Judiciary Act of 1801 (p. 178)

  • ●  The judiciary branch was still under Federalist control

  • ●  Adams increased the amount of judgeship opportunities and

    appointed more Federalists

○ they were called “midnight appointments”

● Republicans incorrectly believed they had complete control of the government