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Unit 3 Notes: Raul Madera Torres
by RAUL MADERA TORRES - Saturday, October 3, 2015, 10:03 PM
 
Raul Madera Torres

HUS1­APUSH
Mr. Kann

Crash Course 8:
● Articles of Confederation

  • ○  First government

  • ○  Lasted ten years

  • ○  1 house body of delegates

  • ○  each state gets one vote

  • ○  Congress very limited power

■ couldn’t collect taxes

  • ○  Gov. weak

  • ○  Won them the war

  • ●  Northwest Ordinance 1787

    • ○  create 5 new states

    • ○  Ohio and Mississippi river

    • ○  Ordinance outlawed slavery

  • ●  1786­87

    • ○  MA

    • ○  Farmers closed courts

    • ○  Shay’s Rebellion

    • ○  Articles gov. had to go

    • ○  Too much Liberty can among lower class threaten private property

  • ●  Annapolis, Maryland

    • ○  1786

    • ○  Better regulating int. trade

    • ○  only six state delegates

    • ○  They wrote a new charter of gov.

  • ●  Constitution

    • ○  Executive, Legislative, Judicial Branches

    • ○  Create a gov. that would protect against Tyranny of gov. and people.

    • ○  Not too much gov, or democracy

    • ○  538 members Electoral college vote for President

■ President doesn’t need popular vote ○ Great compromise

  • House of reps. rep proportional to state pop. 2 year terms

  • Senate two members from each state 6 year terms

  • 3/5 compromise

● Total number white people and 3/5 other person

  • To avoid Tyranny separation of powers and Federalism

  • Each branch can check others power

  • Federalism: Gov. authority in both national and state governments

○ Federalist papers
■ Argument for why strong nat. gov. is necessary and not threat for people

○ Anti­federalist

  • supported by common people

  • Very afraid of strong government

● dominated by wealthy ○ Constitution is starting point

Chapter 6 Notes:
Framing A New Government:

  • ●  18 members, repping 8 states

    • ○  Voted most important legislation of Confederation

    • ○  Northwest Ordinance

  • ●  Advocates of Centralization: ● 1780

○ wealthiest most powerful groups
■ claim for better gov. that can take care of nat. problem

  • ○  Society of Cincinnati

    • Revolutionary army officers 1783

    • Direct challenge to Congress

    • George Washington stopped the possible rebellion

  • ○  American manufacturers want replacement state tariffs with high nat. duty

  • ○  Merchants/Shippers want change in state commercial policies into a nat. one

  • ○  Land speculator want Indians off land

  • ○  Investors in Confederation securities

■ gov. to fund debt and to enhance the value of their securities ○ Large property owners protection of mobs

■ like shay’s rebellion ○ 1786

  • Changes to be made in Confederation

  • *lack of power in tax

  • Alexander Hamilton

    • ●  NY Lawyer

    • ●  unhappy with AOC/ weak central gov.

    • ●  national convention to change document

    • ●  Allie: James Madison of Virginia

○ persuaded Virginia to have interstate conference

● 1787
○ Shay’s rebellion

● only 5 states sent delegates
○ meeting in Annapolis, MD 1786

■ Washington leaves home in VA towards Philly PA ● Constitutional convention

A Divided Convention:
● 50 men all states except RI

  • ○  Philly State house Sept. 1787

  • ○  “Founding Fathers”

  • ○  Young men (average age 41)

  • ○  Ben Franklin 81

Compromise:
● July 2nd

■ Delegates to meet in PA next year
● render constitution of Federal gov.

■ With help of Washington hopes to prevail

  • Well educated men at the time

  • Washington chosen to preside session and the close business to public

  • Each state delegation has single vote

  • James Madison intellectual leader

● Devised plan for new national gov. ■ Edmund Randolph

  • ●  nat. gov.

    • ○  supreme Legislative, Executive, Judiciary

    • ○  resolution approved after debate

  • ●  The Virginia Plan

    • ○  nat. legislature consisting of two houses

      • states rep. by proportion of population

      • members of upper house elected by lower house

    • ○  small states immediately opposed

    • ○  William Paterson of NJ

      • federal gov. instead of nat. gov.

      • only small support

    • ○  Virginia Plan stayed as basis for discussion

      • decide upper house be elected by state legislatures

      • each state has at least one member in upper house

  • ○  convention create “ grand committee”

  • ○  Ben Franklin as chairman

■ Made proposal “Great Compromise
● most important achievement in resolving representation

  • ○  States represented in lower house based on pop.

  • ○  Slave counts as 3/5 of a free person

  • for taxation and representation

  • comes from assumption slaves do 3/5 of the work

    free working men do

○ Upper house has two member from each state

■ July 16, 1787 convention accepted compromise

  • ●  Convention as whole compromise on issue of slavery

    • ○  southern reps. feared power of regulating trade will interfere with agrarian eco.

    • ○  relied on sales abroad and slavery

    • ○  new legislature that doesn’t allow taxation on exports

      • forbidden to impose more than $10 a head on imported slaves

      • no authority to stop slave trade for 20 years

  • ●  Constitution had no definition of citizenship

○ absence on list of indv. rights

  • Madison opposed idea because specifying rights would limit their rights

  • Others feared without it nat. gov. might abuse power

    The Constitution of 1787:

● James Madison

  • ○  most important person in creation of American Constitution

  • ○  Most creative politician of his generation

  • ○  most important achievement was to resolve 2 philosophical questions

■ question of sovereignty and limiting of power
○ Question of sovereignty one of main sources in col. problem with British

  • continued to be problem as Americans form nat. gov.

  • Madison and his contemporaries decided all power at all levels of gov,

● neither state gov. or federal gov. were truly sovereign. ○ Opening phrase of Constitution

■ “We the people of the United States” ­ made by Robert Morris ● Gov. gets powers from citizens not states

  • ○  Resolving problem made possible for distribution of powers between nat. and state gov.

  • ○  “Neither a national nor a federal Constitution, but a composition of both.”

  • ○  Constitution and gov. “supreme law” states cannot defy

  • ○  fed. gov. power to:

    • tax

    • regulate commerce

    • control currency

    • pass necessary and proper laws

  • ○  Constitution gave solution to concentrated authority

  • ○  Madison­ a large republic is less likely to produce tyranny

    • many groups so it’s hard to take control and dominate gov.

    • idea of centers of power checking on each other

● help create structure of federal gov.
■ Constitution unique trait was separation of powers within gov.

  • Branches constantly compete with each other

  • Congress

● House of Reps.

● Senate

  • President can reject acts of congress

  • Federal Court

● Judges and Justices

  • ○  Appointed by President and accepted by Senate

  • ○  Serve for life

■ Gov. created to protect U.S from despotism Americans believed emerged in England

● Also created to protect nation from tyranny of the people

● Sept. 17, 1787
○ 39 delegates signed the Constitution

Federalist and Anti Federalists:

  • ●  Instead of revising AOC delegates produced completely dif. form of gov.

  • ●  Constitution exist if 9/13 states ratified it

○ delegates recommend state conventions to vote (not legislatives) ● old Constitutional Congress passively accepts convention’s work

○ submitted it to the states for approval
● All state legislatures except RI elect delegates to the convention

○ began meeting in early 1788
● Great national debate on new Constitution starts

○ Albany, NY
■ clashes caused injuries and some deaths

● Supporters of Constitution had many advantages

  • ○  better organized

  • ○  two most important men: Franklin, Washington

  • ○  “Federalist”

  • ○  Support of ablest political philosophers:

■ Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay

  • ●  Wrote many essays to explain meaning and virtues of Constitution

  • ●  Made to counter arguments of Anti­federalist

  • ●  Afraid Anti­federalists might repeal in important states most

    notably NY

  • ●  Essays known as The Federalist Papers

● Federalist call critics “ Antifederalist” because the only offer opposition and chaos
○ Anti­federalist see themselves as defenders of true principles of the Revolution

■ believe Constitution would betray those principles

  • ●  create a powerful, tyrannical, center of power gov.

  • ●  new gov. would increase taxes, destroy states, favor the powerful/

    rich, and individual liberty

  • ●  Constitution lacked Bill of Rights

○ basic mistrust of human nature
● No gov. could be trusted with liberties of citizens

  • ●  Federalist afraid of disorder, anarchy, chaos, unchecked power of people

  • ●  Anti­federalist afraid of dangers of concentrated power, Constitution placed obstacles

    between people and power

  • ●  Ratification proceded during winter of 1787­1788

    • ○  THE first to act, ratified Constitution unanimously

    • ○  NJ and GA did the same

    • ○  larger states like PA and MA

      • Anti­federalist made it more difficult for vote

      • Anti­federalist lose

    • ○  NH ratified June 1788

■ ninth state to do so, possible for Constitution to go into effect

  • ○  By end of June, VA and NY consent Constitution by narrow margins

  • ○  MA, VA,NY

■ ratified on assumption a bill of rights would be added to Constitution ○ NC adjourned w/o taking action

■ waiting to see what happens with amendments ○ RI

■ didn’t even consider ratification Completing the Structure:

● 1st elections under Constitution early 1789
○ no real doubt about 1st president
○ George Washington presided at the Constitutional Convention

■ received votes from all presidential electors
○ Washington inaugurated in NY( Nation’s Capital at the time) on April 30, 1789 ○ John Adams vice president

  • ●  most important task for congress was drafting bill of rights

  • ●  Constitution approved 12 amendments on Sept. 25, 1789

○ 10 of them ratified by states end of 1791 ■ 10 known as Bill of Rights

● 9 placed limitation on congress
○ freedom of religion, speech, of the press, immunity of

arbitrary arrest, trial by jury; and others ● 10th amendment

○ reserved to the states
■ all powers except those specifically withheld from

them or delegated to the federal gov.
● Left to Congress to determine how many judges in Supreme Court

● Judiciary Act of 1789
○ Supreme Court of 6 members

■ 1 chief justice, 5 associate justices
● 13 courts with one judge apiece

● three circuit courts of appeal
○ each consist of one of the district judges

■ Supreme Court power to make final decisions in cases involving constitutionality of state laws

● Congress created 3 executive departments ○ state, treasury, war

  • ●  Congress establishes offices of attorney general and postmaster general

  • ●  Office of secretary of treasury, Washington appoints Alexander Hamilton of NY

○ age 32 was expert in public finance ● Secretary of War

○ MA federalist, General Henry Knox ● Attorney general

○ Edmund Randolph of VA ● Secretary of state

○ from VA, Thomas Jefferson Hamilton and the Federalist

  • ●  12 years, cntrl of new gov. in hands of Federalists

  • ●  Washington’s prestige was one of the Federalist’s greatest assets

  • ●  Presidency should remain above political controversies

  • ●  Alexander Hamilton exerted more influence on domestic and foreign policy than anyone

    else

    • ○  Most aristocratic in personal tastes and political philosophy

    • ○  stable effective gov. required enlightened ruling class

    • ○  new gov. need support of rich and powerful

■ needed to give elites a stake in its success

  • ○  new gov. take responsibility in public debt

  • ○  indebtedness from old Congress during and after Rev. in hands of wealthy

    speculators

  • ○  federal gov. take over debt each state gained during Rev.

  • ○  wanted to create a national bank

    • would create a well­developed banking system

      • ●  provide loans and currency to businesses

      • ●  gov. safe place for federal funds

      • ●  chartered by federal gov.

    • provide stable center to nation’s small banking system

  • ○  Hamilton proposed two taxes

    • excise to be paid by distillers of alcoholic liquors

    • tariff on imports

● raise revenue and protect American manufacturing from foreign competition

○ Report on Manufactures of 1791
■ scheme for stimulating the growth of industry in U.S

● Federalists offered more than a vision of how to stabilize new gov.

Enacting the Federalist Program:

  • ●  Few members of Congress opposed plan for funding nat, debt

  • ●  Many objected accepting debt

  • ●  members of Congress believed the federal gov. was to take responsibility for these

    bonds

  • ●  James Madison proposed dividing the federally funded bonds between the original

    purchasers and speculators

  • ●  Congress finally passed the funding bill Hamilton wanted

  • ●  the capital moved from NY to PA in 1790

  • ●  Hamilton meet with Thomas Jefferson

○ Agree over dinner to provide norther support from placing capital in south ■ In exchange for virginia's vote for assumption bill

● New capital city on banks of Potomac River
○ Gov. moved thereby beginning of new century

  • ●  Hamilton's bank bill started first of many controversial issues

  • ●  Madison Jefferson Randolph and other argued Congress should not have powers that

    the Constitution had non assigned it

  • ●  Bank of the US began in 1791

  • ●  Hamilton's program quickly restored public credit

  • ●  Many American started feeling the Federalist program served only for the elite

    The Republican Opposition:

  • ●  Most of the framers and washington believed organized parties were dangerous and

    should be avoided

  • ●  Federalist appeared to be creating tyrannical structure of power

○ No oprimited to organize vigorous opposition ■ Called the Republican party

  • ●  Republican groups were joining together to influence states and local elections

  • ●  Republicans believe their party represented best interest of people

○ Institutionalize factionalism known as first party system

  • ●  from beginning big figures among Republican were Thomas Jefferson and James

    Madison

  • ●  Jefferson emerged as most prominent folks person for Republicans

○ He considered himself a farmer

  • ●  Jefferson envisioned a decentralized society dominated by small property owners

  • ●  Federalist express horror

  • ●  Republicans anti­aristocratic spirit they believed the French Revolution embodied

  • ●  Both parties had supporters in all parts of countries among all classes

  • ●  Federalist mostly in North East

  • ●  Republican mostly in rural areas South and West

  • ●  Securing the Frontier:

  • ●  Confederation Congress failed to tie outline western areas firmly to go

  • ●  1794 farmers in PA raised major challenge to federal authority

○ Refused to pay whisky tax and began terrorizing tax collectors

  • ○  Whisky rebellion

  • ○  Washington raised army of about 15,000 towards PA

■ When they reach Pittsburgh rebellion collapsed Native Americans and new Nation

  • ●  the ordinances 1784­87 produced many border conflicts with Indians

  • ●  Constitution barely mentioned Native Americans

  • ●  Did not clarify legal standings of Indian/ Indian nations in the US

  • ●  Tribes received no direct presentation in new gov.

  • ●  Relationship between tribes and US tbd by treaties agreements and judicial decision Maintaining Neutrality:

● 1791 Britain sent minister to US
○ Madison and Republicans threatening to place special trade restriction on British

ships

  • ●  1793 new French gov. went to war with British and allies

  • ●  US remained neutral

  • ●  First challenge to American neutrality from French diplomatic rep. Edmond Genet

  • ●  1794 royal navy started sending hundreds of US ships trading in French west indies

Jay's Treaty and Pinckney's Treaty:

  • ●  Hamilton didn't trust State Department to reach settlement with Britain

  • ●  Hamilton persuaded Washington to make Jay the new commissioner

  • ●  Jay negotiated treaty in 1794 to achieve goal of stop preventing a war

    • ○  Produce satisfactory commercial relationship with british

    • ○  known as Jay’s Treaty

  • ●  Pinckney's treaty 1795

○ Spain recognized right of Americans to travel the mississippi to its mouth to deliver goods to New Orleans agree to fix northern boundaries of Florida

The Elections of 1796:

  • ●  Jefferson was the candidate of Republicans in 1796

  • ●  John Adams federalist nominee for president

  • ●  John Adam becomes president, Jefferson vice president

    The Quasi war with France:

  • ●  French ships captured American ships on high seas and imprisoned crews

  • ●  When Charles Cotesworth pinckney arrived in france the gov. refused to receive him as

    rep of US

  • ●  Two years after XYZ Affair the US engaged in undeclared war with france

  • ●  Adams persuaded congress to stop trade with france and to capture french armed ships

    in high seas

  • ●  1798 Congress created department of navy and gave money to make new war ships

  • ●  British became virtually an ally in war with france

  • ●  In 1800 Quasi war came to a peaceful end

    Repression and Protest:

● Conflict with France helped federalist increased majority in Congress in 1798

○ with this new strength they began to consider ways to silence republicans

■ the Alien and Sedition acts

  • ●  Alien act placed new obstacles for foreigners who wanted to

    become US citizens

  • ●  the Sedition let the gov. prosecute those who commit treason

    against gov.

  • ●  Adams did not deport aliens and prevented gov. from launching

    major crusade against Republicans

  • ●  Republicans made theories in two sets of resolutions in 1798­99

○ Virginia and Kentucky resolutions
● by late 1790’s entire nation deeply and bitterly divided politically

The “Revolution” of 1800:

  • ●  campaign of 1800 was one of the ugliest in american history

  • ●  federalist accused Jefferson of being dangerous radical who would bring a rain of terror

    comparable to French Revolution

  • ●  Republicans portrayed Adams as tirent conspiring to become king

  • ●  Jefferson elected president

  • ●  Constitution called for each elector to vote by ballot for two people

  • ●  newn congress elected in 1800 with republican majority

  • ●  On the 36 ballot Jefferson was elected

  • ●  after election of 1800 only branch in Federalist hands was judiciary

  • ●  Judiciary Act 1801

    • ○  Federalist reduced number of supreme court justice ships

    • ○  greatly increased number of federal judgeships as a whole