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Unit 3 Notes
by NIHAL DHILLON - Saturday, October 3, 2015, 10:03 PM
 

Unit 3 Chapter 6 The Constitution and the New Republic


  • Confederation(160)

    • Became unpopular by the 1780’s

  • National Government(160-161)

    • For economic problems

- People wanted:

13 diff policies to become one

- No more paper money

- Protection

  • 1786 - change(161)

    • A Broadside Against ”Nobility” 1783

    • Alexander Hamilton

      • Wanted a national government and found James Madison  of Virginia

      • Proposal was to render the constitution

      • Annapolis - meeting, 5 delegates showed up and the proposal of Hamilton was approved

      • Thomas Jefferson did not care much at that time

  • 1787 - Convention(162)  

    • All 55 reps except Rhode ISland

    • The founding fathers

James Madison rep. Viginia

    • Edmund Randolph first proposed the idea of a nation government

  • The Virginia Plan

    • Lower house people selected upper house

    • A new national legislature with 2 houses

      • Lower- Proportional to population

  • William Paterson Proposed a Federal plan

    • One house

    • Equal representation

    • Extended powers to congress

      • tax

      • regulate commerce

-

  • The Great Compromise - July 2nd -16th(163)

    • Lower house - rep would be based on population

      • Slaves would be counted as ⅗ due to the fact that they thought slaves were not as productive and only contributed to ⅗ of the wealth

    • Upper house- each states had 2 rep

    • Legislature could not tax exports

    • Congress could not have a duty of more than 10$ on a slave and could not stop the slave trade for the next 20 years

  • Constitution-1787(163-166)

    • James Madison - Question of Sovereignty and limiting power

    • Separation of powers

      • Senatate

      • House of rep

        • Chosen by the people

    • Would check on each other

    • Both agree on a law before it could be passed

    • President can veto acts

    • Federal would have protection from the other two

    • Judges and justices would serve for life once approved by president and senate

    • Federal

      • protect the people

      • finance

      • protect from oppression

  • Federalists and Antifederalists(166-168)

    • Instead of changing the constitution, the convention wanted to change the government

      • They needed up changing the rules

        • 9 out of 13 states had to ratify

        • Congress accepted it

      • Supporting the constitution meant you had the support of washington and Franklin

    • Federalists

      • Alexander Hamilton, James Madison and john Jay

      • wrote essays explaining the constitution

    • Antifederalists

      • wanted a new government

        • increase taxes

        • obliterate the states

        • wield dictatorial powers

        • favor well born over common people

        • and individual liberty

      • Constitution lacked bill of rights

    • Debating the constitution(167)

      • Placed obstacles between the people and exercise of power

      • 1787-1788 delaware convention and soon after so did the others

      • new york thought that the bill of rights would be added

    • Bill of rights()168)

      • 12 amendments

      • September 25 1789

      • 10 ratified by 1791

      • Tenth amendment states had all power except delegated ones to  the federal government

      • Judiciary act of 1789

        • supreme court

          • 6 member

          • chief justice

          • 5 associate justices

          • 13 district courts

          • one judge a court

          • 3 circuit courts of appeal

            • 1 district with 2 supreme judges

        • Made final decision- constitutionality of state laws

    • The Cabinet

      • State

      • Treasury

        • Hamilton

      • War

        • Henry Knox

      • General Attorney

        • Edmund Randolph

  • Federalists and Republicans(168-172)

    • Centralizers known as federalists

      • wanted to remain rural and agrarian

      • Hamilton

      • power in the hands of the state and people

    • Republicans

      • Madison

    • Hamilton/Federalists

      • Had power for 12 years

        • from the support of george washington

      • Hamilton resigned in 1794

      • New government for the debt

        • wanted the wealthy to help

        • As old bonds were paid

        • new bonds would be made

        • Help keep the government

      • Hamilton wanted a bank(169)

        • keep government bond  through judicious bonds

        • charted by the federal government

        • conroles by directors

          • ⅕ would be chosen by government

        • It Would keep the government stable

      • 2 new types of taxes

        • excise to be paid by distillers(Whiskey

        • Tariff on imports(Increase revenue)

        • Report on manufactures 1791

      • Hamilton's proposal eventually won

        • to sort out the deal the capital was moved back to philadelphia

    • Republican(170)

      • Some people believed federalists were creating a tyrannical structure and were doing many of the same things british governments were doing

        • formed

          • committees, societies, caucus

      • Thomas jefferson and James Madison

        • Agrarian republic

        • manufacturing capacity

    • Differences in support(172)

      • republican- rural areas and the south and the west

      • federalists- Commercial centers northeast and seaports southern

      • Hamilton remained dominant because washington supported hum

  • National Sovereignty(172)

    • 1794- Whiskey rebellion- western pennsylvania

      • An army of about 15,000 went to pennsylvania and the rebellion collapsed due to intimidation

    • Vermont became the 14th state in 1791

    • Tennessee became a state in 1796

  • Native Americans

    • Ordinances 1784-1787

    • Indians were not mentioned in the constitutions( A little)

      • No direct representations

      • not a foreign nation

      • were not taxed

    • They did not sort out their relation(whites and Indians)

  • The British(173)

    • threats to place restrictions on trading for british ships

    • french went to war with britain

    • 1794 royal navy seized american ships

  • Jay’s and Pinckney’s Treaty (174)

    • 1794 - jay negotiated with britain through a treaty which failed but helped prevent a predicted war

      • created sovereignty in the north west

      • good commercial relationship

    • Pinckney treaty

      • Mississippi to new orleans

      • northern boundary of florida

      • prevents indians to go to florida

  • Downfall of the Federalists(174-176)

    • 1796 they lost the elections

    • John Adams became nominee after thomas jefferson

    • Even after having JOhn adams as president Hamilton was still the dominant

- Two American men go to France to negotiate a

- Resulted in an undeclared war two years after

- 1798 warships were made and won 85 ships from france

- Ultimately became an ally with britain in The war with France(Quasi War)

  • Alien and Sedition Acts

    • Sedition Act

      • prosecute those who were engaged in sedition against the government

    • Alien

      • New obstacles for foreigners trying become a citizen

      • discourage immigration

    • Virginia and Kentucky resolution(177)

      • by Madison

      • used John Locke’s ideas

      • Federal government was made by a compact

      • certain delegate powers

    • People were divided politically(violence)

    • The election of 1800

      • The two parties accused each other for doing horrible things

      • after a deadlock between burr and jefferson

      • Jefferson won

      • Judiciary Act of 1801


 

Crash Course 8 Notes


  • Government Continental Congress- Article of Confederation

    • lasted for ten years

    • no president

    • no judationary

    • Decisions required 9 of 13 votes

    • limited to  declare war, conduct foreign affair and make treaties

    • Coin money but no taxes

→ Meant to be a bad government

  • Accomplishments

    • Won The war

    • Ohio - got land north of the ohio river

    • Northwest ordinance of 1787

      • 5 new states made between ohio and mississippi river

      • Outlawed slavery

      • Indians had to treated properly

→ Still could not tax

  • 1786/1787- Shays Rebellion

  • The constitution

    • 55 men decided

    • Executive

    • Legislative

    • judicial

    • Republican with rep.

    • Alexander hamilton - senate + president - life time - bad idea

    • No tyranny

    • Populations

      • Big-  james madison's- virginia plan

        • two house legislature with reps. in both

      • Small - new jersey plan

  • Roger Sherman

    • Two house

      • 1) Rep. proportional to population

⅗ compromise - All white people + 3/5 other people

    • House Members 2 year terms

    • responsible for people

  • 2)Senate from 2 members per state

    • 6 year terms

    • ⅓ for election


  • Separation of powers and federalism

      • National and state authority

    • 3 branches

      • Legislative -Laws

      • Executive - Veto laws

      • Juditionary - declare laws void to

→ Senators were elected by states - leading citizens

→ Elector college

  • 9/13 - ratified the constitution

    • 3 men wrote 85 essays which were known as the The federalist papers

      • National government and not necessarily a threat


  • Anti federation- farmers supported

    • State government- smaller