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Unit 3 notes
by Beminet Desalegn - Saturday, October 3, 2015, 10:24 PM

Beminet Desalegn

The Constitution and the New Republic

                    (pages 160-178)

Framing the New Government

  • Confederation Congress

    • settled in New York in 1785

    • signed treaty with Great Britain ending the revolutionary war

Advocates of Centralization

  • Confederation wanted to keep political power in the centered states where they could control it

  • American manufacturers wanted to replace the various state taxes with high national duty.

    • Merchants and shippers wanted to replace the 13 different policies with only one.

    • Land speculators wanted the Indians out.

    • people who were owed money wanted to stop the issue of paper money.

    • conflicts between liberty and order in American democracy arise.

  • Alexander Hamilton

    • unhappy with the Articles of confederation.

    • 1787

      • news of Shay’s rebellion

A Divided Convention

  • September 1787

    • 55 men representing the states except Rhode Island came

    • “Founding Father”

    • chose George Washington to lead the sessions

      • each state would have a single vote

    • Edmund Randolph

      • proposed that a national government needs to have a supreme Legislative, Executive, and Judiciary.

        • different from current confederation

      • Virginia Plan

        • a new national legislature consisting of 2 houses

          • lower house

            • states represented based on population

          • upper house

            • elected by the lower house

        • opposition for the plan from small states

      • William Paterson of New Jersey

        • The New Jersey Plan

          • each state equal representation

          • Congress larger power over taxation and control over commerce

        • Virginian plan supports agreed to let the upper house be elected by the state legislatures

        • conflicts regarding to count slaves as property or amongst the population arise


  • July 2

    • convention create a grand committee with a single delegate from each state to resolve disagreements

      • Benjamin Franklin as chairman

    • Slaves counted as three-fifths of a free person

  • July 6, 1787

    • the states represented with 2 members from each state in the upper house

    • the new legislature not permitted to tax exports

    • forbidden to impose more than $10 each on imported slaves

    • no authority to stop slave trade for 20 years

    • provided no definition of citizenship

The Constitution of 1787

  • James Madison

    • argued that all levels of government and authorities came from the people

    • distribution of powers between the national and state governments

    • Constitution separated the powers within the government

      • created checks and balances among the legislative,executive, and judicial branches

      • Congress has 2 chambers

        • Senate and House of representatives

        • elected for different amount of terms

      • President has power to veto acts of Congress

      • judges and justices serve for life

        • protected by the legislature and the executive

  • September 17, 1787

    • 39 delegates signed the constitution

Federalists and Antifederalists

  • special that special state conventions, not state legislatures, consider the document

  • Supporters of Constitution

    • better organized

    • supported by Franklin and Washington, and important political philosophers

    • “Federalists”

    • feared Anti-federalists

      • believed the new government would increase taxes

      • destroy the states

      • use dictatorial powers

      • Constitution lacked Bill of Rights

  • 1787-1788

    • Delaware Convention

      • signed the constitution unanimously

        • then the other states followed except for Virginia and New York

Completing the Structure

  • 1789

    • first elections under the constitution

    • Washington received all the votes for President

    • John Adams became vice president

    • 1789

      • Congress approved 12 constitution on September 25, 1789

      • the first ten are the Bill of Rights

    • Judiciary Act of 1789

      • Congress 6 members to Supreme Court

    • The first Congress created 3 departments: state, treasury, and war

Federalists and Republicans

  • two sides

  1. wanted a strong, national government

  • Federalists

wanted America not to be highly commercial and urban
  • Republican

Hamilton and the Federalists

  1. Alexander Hamilton

  • believed the new government needed support from the wealthy and powerful

    • needed to give the elite support

  • the new government takes the responsibility of the existing public debt

    • did not mean to eliminate the debt

  • wanted to create a national bank

  • two kinds of taxes

    • tax paid by companies of alcoholic liquors

    • tax on imports

Enacting the Federalist Program

  • James Madison

    • proposed to divide the federally funded bonds between the original purchasers and the speculators

      • Hamilton's allies disagreed

    • Congress passed the funding bill Hamilton wanted

  • the capital moved from New York back to Philadelphia in 1790

  • Madison, Jefferson and Randolph disagreed with the plan of a national bank

    • believed Congress should use no powers that the Constitution did not give it

  • The Bank of the United States began operations in 1791

  • Hamilton’s tax plan passed in 1792

The Republican Opposition

  • the Federalists used their control and awarding the government franchises to reward their supports and win additional allies

    • their opponents believed they were doing the same thing as the British

  • Republican Party

    • (not connected to the current Republican Party)

    • formed committees and societies in every state

    • working together to influence state and local elections

    • wanted agrarian society

  • 1792

    • second president election

      • Washington as president again

Establishing national Sovereignty

Securing the Frontier

  • 1794

    • Whiskey rebellion

      • farmers in western Pennsylvania refused to pay a whiskey tax

        • terrorized the tax collectors

      • Washington sent 15,000 troops to stop the uprising

    • the Union

      • North Carolina in 1789

      • Rhode Island in 1790

      • New York

      • New Hampshire

      • Vermont in 1791

      • Kentucky

      • Virginia in 1792

      • Tennessee in 1796

Native Americans and the New Nation

  • border conflicts with Indian tribes

    • resisted white settlements in their land

  • the United States defeated the Indian challenges

  • there were little to no places for Indians in the constitution

  • no direct representation in the new government

  • the Indian lands under the United States

Maintaining Neutrality

  • Great Britain sent a minister the the US

  • conflicts during the wars between France and Great Britain

    • US was neutral

Jay’s Treaty and Pinckney’s Treaty

  • John Jay

    • 1794

      • ordered to get compensation from Britain of assaults on American shipping

      • demand withdrawal of Britain forces from the frontier posts

      • negotiate commercial treaty

      • Pinckney's Treaty of 1795

        • provided settlements of conflicts with the Spanish

        • Spain allowed Americans to navigate Mississippi

          • deposit goods at New Orleans

          • agreed to fix the northern boundary of Florida

          • required the Spanish to prevent the Indians in Florida to attack in the north

The Downfall of the Federalists

  • After 1796, the Federalists never on another election

  • Federalists gradually stepped down from effective political force

The Elections of 1796

  • George Washington retired from office in 1797

  • the Federalists faced factional rivalries

  • John Adams became president

The Quasi War with France

  • conflicts with the French arise

    • France captured American ships and sometimes imprisoned the crews

  • some favored war while some wanted conciliation

  • Paris 2797

    • France demanded a loan for France and a bribe for French officials from America

  • The “XYZ” affair

    • Adams published the demand that France asked

      • he cut off all trade with France

      • ordered American ships to capture French armed ships

  • 1798

    • Congress created a Department of the Navy

      • captured 85 French ships and won duels with the French

      • Britain allies with the US against the French

  • Paris 1800

    • France agreed to a treaty with the US

Repression and Protest

  • the Federalists began silencing the Republicans

    • the Alien Act

      • placed obstacles on foreigners to become American citizens

      • help discourage immigration and encourage the foreigners in the country to leave

    • the Sedition Act

      • allowed the government to prosecute those who are a part of a rebellion or “sedition” against the government

  • 1798-1799

    • The Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

      • argued that the federal government had been formed by a contract among the states and possessed only given powers

        • if the government over uses its power, they had rights to nullify the laws

  • By the 1790s, the nation was politically divided

The “Revolution” of 1800

  • Election

    • Adams for the Federalists

    • Jefferson for the Republican

      • The federalists accused Jefferson of being dangerous and wild that him and his party would bring terror if they came to power

      • The Republicans viewed Adams as wanting to become king and accused the Federalists of plotting to overthrow human liberty and impose slavery on the people

    • The Constitution let each elector to vote by ballot for two persons

      • Jefferson and Aaron Burr each had 73 votes

      • On the 36th ballot, Jefferson was elected

  • Judiciary Act of 1801

    • the Federalists reduced the number of Supreme Court justices ships by 1

      • increased the number of federal judgeships as a whole

Crash Course #8

  • 1788

    • first Presidential election

  • Articles of Confederation

    • original American government

    • set up by Continental Congress

    • lasted only 10 years

      • consisted one house body of delegates with each state having 1 vote who made decisions about all the states

      • any decisions required 9 out of 13 votes

      • the government could declare war

      • conduct foreign affairs

      • make treaties

      • could issue (make) money but couldn’t collect money

    • the government was weak

    • However, it won the war against the British

    • Ohio lands

      • through treaties, the Indians surrendered the land north of the Ohio River

    • Northwest Ordinance of 1787

      • created 5 new states between the Ohio and Mississippi rivers

      • Outlawed slavery in all of the 5 states

      • acknowledged the Indians’ claim to the land

    • the revolutionary war created debt to the Americans

      • to pay for the money, the states individually collected taxes since the Articles of Confederation couldn’t collect taxes

    • Shays’ Rebellion

      • 1786 and 1787 Massachusetts

        • farmers closed the courts to prevent them from foreclosing (taking away) their farms

  • Annapolis 1786

    • meeting aimed to better manage international trade

    • next year in Philadelphia

      • the Constitution

        • the delegates wrote a new charter government

        • the government should have executive, legislative, and judicial branches

          • republican with representatives rather than direct democracy

    • Alexander Hamilton wanted the president and Senate to serve life terms

    • conflicts between states with big population and small populations

    • Virginia Plan

      • large states supported it

      • a two-house legislature proportional to states’ population

    • New Jersey Plan

      • small states supported it

      • single legislature house with equal representation of states

    • the Great Compromise

      • two houses

        • House of representatives

        • Senate

    • consideration of slaves as part of population created conflicts

      • slaves counted as three-fifths of population

      • Constitution required escaped slaves to return to their master

    • the legislative can make laws

      • But the president can veto the laws

    • the Judiciary can declare laws void

    • Senators elected by state legislators

    • Federalists Papers

      • 85 essays written by Alexander hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison

      • argued for a strong national government

    • Anti-federalists

      • supported by common people

      • afraid of a very strong government dominated by the wealthy