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Unit 3 Notes and Crash Course 8
by XOLOTL ALFONSO CRUZ-DEJESUS - Saturday, October 3, 2015, 10:42 PM
 

Pilli Cruz-De Jesus

October 2, 2015


The Constitution and the New Republic


Headings/KeywordsNotes:

and Phrases


Confederation Congress

Had been seen as useless and the members fled to different areas to escape army veterans

18 of the members voted for only 8 states

Ended Revolutionary War with Treaty with Britain

Northwest Ordinance most important thing that came out of CC

Content With CC

The CC was designed to be powerless allowing States to govern

intention of avoiding tyranny as what they viewed happened with Britain

Stronger National Gov.

During 1780’s wealthy and powerful groups wanted a strong national gov

Needed a system to deal with nations issues especially economic

Military Men from hereditary Society of the Cincinnati (Revolutionary army officers)

Some envisioned military dictatorship which George W stopped rebellion


Different Groups

American Manufacturers

wanted to replace tariffs with uniformly high national duty

Merchants and shippers

replace thirteen commercial policies

single national one

Land Speculators

Wanted Indian Menace to be removed from western tracts

Large Property Owners

Wanted protection from threat of mobs

appeared particularly menacing because of recent Shay’s Rebellion

Conflict/ fear over disorder and violence raised tension and conflicts between liberty and order remain a central feature of American Democracy

Change to CC

Even those who wanted to keep CC agreed strengthening ability to tax was needed

Alexander Hamilton with help of James Madison drafted a new document

Only 5 delegates showed, agreed to call CC next year to enact change

All 13 colonies were to send reps. to Philly next year

did not expect many people to show up lack of following

George W. stirred by Shay’s reb. supported them

Founding Fathers

55 delegated from all States but Rhode I. showed

Most were wealthy, educated young men who feared too much democracy

Produs of American Rev. and also suspicious of concentrated power

Virginia Plan

Each State delegation given one vote and big issues only need majority not unanimous

Virginia Plan brought by James Madison controlled the agenda of the convention

Began with call for new national legislature

Two branches lower house states represented by their pop. size

higher house chosen by lower house and no regulation ofrepresentation at time smaller states didnt have rep in higher house

Federal gov as opposed to national gov. so that states could maintain equal rep

Kept one house legislature with each state having equal rep

gave congress expanded power to tax and commerce regulation

 

Changed Virginia Plan so all states would have a rep in upper house

Grand Committee

Convention agreed create grand committee with single delegate from each state

BenJamin Franklin chairman to resolve disagreements

Great Compromise

Legislature in which the States would be repd. lower house by population

slaves counted as ⅗ of a person when counting pop.

This basis affected representation of states as well as taxation

upper house would be repd. by 2 members a state

broke the deadlock July 16, 1787 accepted compromise

Agreed that new Legislature would not be allowed to tax exports

 

Slavery

Congress was forbidden from imposing duty of over 10$ a head on slaves

Congress also has no authority to stop slave trade for at least 20 years

Those who believed slavery went against principles of new nation had to agree to allow the constitution to pass

What Lacked

Constitution lacked definition of Citizenship

did not have list of individual rights restrained national gov

Madison opposed idea of listing rights to not limit their rights

others feared new gov. would abuse authority without clear cut definition

Question of Sovereignty

all power at all levels of gov. came from the people

Idea that constitution derived power from citizens not the states

Constitution and New gov. would be the supreme law, no state could defy
Federal gov.

power to tax, regulate commerce, pass laws that were necessary, control currency

Constitution accepted power of separate states

Main setback was the fear of a tyrannical national gov.

Separation of Powers

James madison was able to break the idea of tyrannical national gov.

said that small centers of power that could check each other not be dominated

Congress had house of reps. and the Senate where different sides elected differently

both had to agree for something to pass

Distributed power in a manner that would not repeat tyranny they viewed in England

Fear of excess democracy (mobs) also present

September 17 1787 Constitution was signed

Implementing Constitution

completely new government had been created fear it wouldn't be accepted

changed from needing unanimous gratifying to enact Con. to needing 9/13 colonies

All state legislatures except Rhode I. elected delegate for ratifying conventions

Tensions arose between those who sides with or against Constitut.

Federalists/Anti

Two groups arose Federalists which supported Constitution

behind George W. James Madison and other leaders, well known people

Antifederalists who did notwanted to stay true to the principles of the Revolution

Highlighted how system implemented a strong possibly tyrannical central gov

Would put end to Individual Liberty, increase taxes, obliterate states

Biggest argument was need for Bill of rights where establishing natural rights of people could those rights be preserved

 

Federalists afraid of anarchy and chaos, feared unchecked masses

Antifederalists saw dangers in concentrated powers

Ratified

9 states had become ratified but the two biggest NY and VA had not

after close margin they agreed but assumed Bill of Rights would be added

NC and RI did not ratify

New gov.

George W. president, John Adams Vice, congressmen and senators all favored

ratification most were delegates from Philly Convention

Bills of rights was needed, Congress approved 12 amendments

10 were ratified and are known now as Bill of rights

First 9 amend. placed limitation on Congress forbidding it to infringe on certain rights

10th amend. reserved all states all powers except those withheld by federal gov  


Federal courts created Supreme court which had final say in cases involving constitutionality of state laws

Congress- The Cabinet

departments of state, treasury and war and established offices of attorney general and postmaster general

Competing Visions

Those who agreed with strong central gov. and influence in world affairs

national-state relationship

Began as minority but gained strength that wanted a weaker central gov.

American society should not want to be highly commercial or urban

power would be left in the states and would stay agrarian

Hamilton’s Plan

dominant figure was Alexander Hamilton believed a stable gov. needed enlightened ruling class

This gov. needed support from the wealthy and powerful and give elite a stake

To do this wanted to be constantly in debt to the rich to constantly have their support

Also wanted to establish a national bank

To achieve these things a new form of revenue for the government would be needed

two new taxes one on alcoholic liquors and was a tariff on imports

view of thriving industrial sector and big role in world economic affairs

Integrating Hamilton's Plan

Most agreed with funding for national debt but did not want to face the debt at full cost

Land owners sold bonds to speculators for fractions of the cost

payed the speculators and not the people who originally helped

Issue was that if federal gov. took over State debts those who owed less would pay uneven taxes and would be paying the debt of others

To secure that this happened the capital was moved to VA

Hamilton’s Bank Bill

With slight pushback from Washington and idea that didn't follow constitution

was passed but had to change to reduce taxes on distillers and add new tariff

The more wealthy people merchants, manufacturers benefited from this

Most of pop. small farmers spoke of disproportionate taxes

Federalists program supported small group of elites

political opposition began

Parties

Constitution omitted any talk of organized parties

founders believed organized parties were dangerous

Hamilton had organized a program that held the worst features of a party

Were strengthening their standing in communities

was largely aristocratic

much like the British govs they wanted to avoid

Republican Opposition

Republican groups began banding together to influence state and local elections

were justifying this by trying to protect from the corrupt Federalists

believed in an agrarian republic mainly with farmer-citizens

did not scorn commercial activity and expected crops to be sold in national and international markets, did not oppose industry

Believed that too much urbanization would increase amount of propertyless workers

French Revolution

How each viewed the overthrowing of monarchy represented their values for society

Feds. expressed horror at what occurred

Republicans applauded democratic/anti aristocratic values they fought for

Feds. sups. were mainly in commercial centers in northeast and southern seaports

Republican sups. rural areas of the south and west

Washington favored Feds and Hamilton stayed more dominant

Challenge to authority

Western Penn. farmers refused to pay whiskey tax and terrorised the tax collectors

Washington quickly came to Penn with 15k troops and dispersed rebellion

Last of 13 colonies joined union once Bill of Rights was added to Constitu.

Native Americans (N.A’s)

Native Americans who were allied to British and Spanish raised issues

Many conflicts between N.A that the gov. won but question was who would rule west (N.A, or A’s)

New gov. did not specify legal standing of N.A’s in U.S

Indian nations lived in America but claimed sovereignty within their land

a process lasting 2 centuries of treaties, agreements to determine land ownership

Remaining Neutral

War between France and Great Britain 1793 America wanted to stay neutral

French revolutionist Citizen Genet came

attempting to have americans aid movement disregarding neutrality

was shut down and Neutral was kept

Great Britain began seizing American ships which outraged public

created anti-British sentiment

Hamilton worried because his system was based on English imports

Conflict with Britain would stop these imports

John Jay

John Jay placed as special commissioner to England (recommended by Hamilton

Was to demand compensation for American shipping,

withdrawal of troops from frontier post, negotiate new commercial treaty

Jay did not reach these settlements but avoided war with Britain and settled the conflict

Jay’s Treaty

Created undisputed american sovereignty in northwest

reasonable commercial relationship with Britain

Many people wanted Britain to compensate more and failed to stop it from being ratified

Resolved spanish conflict as well

Spain believed Britain and America may join to challenged their claims in NA

 

Pinckney’s Treaty 1795

Fixed northern boundary of Florida

Americans could navigate MI river to the mouth to deposit goods

Federalist Downfall 1790’s

Republicans slowly gaining favor

Federalists choosing between liberty and Stability in face of peril chose stability i

After 1796 Feds. never won another election respect for group was lost

Election 1796

Republicans sent Jefferson as candidate Feds. chose John Adams (George W. Vice Pres.)

Feds. still dominant party but fierce factional rivalries occurred

Many in Feds. party did not vote for Adams very close elections

Adams won Jefferson became Vice Pres

John Adams as President

Could not challenge Hamilton who held more power

although was very dominant figure was not skilled as politician

Tension with France

France had begun capturing American ships and sometimes imprisoned crews

When America send a diplomat to France they rejected that he was an official rep.

The XYZ affair

American officials sent to France were told negotiations only begin if bribes and loans paid to French officials

Adams told Congress to prepare for war

Report of incident spread changed 3 french officials to Messrs, XYZ

US was now in undeclared with France

War with France (Quasi War) 1798

Congress created department of Navy and constructed new warships

Won duels with French vessels and captured 85 ships

US and Britain basically allied throughout

1800 new commercial agreements ended peacefully with France

Alien Act/Sedition Act

Alien Act

placed obstacles in way of foreigners becoming citizens,

president more power dealing with “aliens”

discouraged immigration encouraged foreigners to leave

Sedition Act

allowed gov. to prosecute those who engaged in “sedition”

no true definition for sedition anyone could be prosecuted

Sedition Act arrested ten Republican newspaper editors

VA and KE Resolutions

VA and KE adopted resolutions to these Acts which were drafted by Jefferson

Stated that if States believed federal gov. was surpassing their powers

They could nullify these laws

1790’s Division

Entire nation completely divided politically

In the US Congress violent disagreements occurred

Election of 1800

Adams and Jefferson held dignity their followers did not

Federalists portrayed Jefferson of being dangerous radical

and his followers as wild men similar to those in French Revol.

Republicans portrayed Adams as being tyrant who wanted to be King

also accused Feds of wanting to impose slavery on the people

Jefferson was elected through NY majority where otherwise was very close race

 

Tie between Jefferson and Burr on 36th ballot finally Jefferson elected VP
Judiciary Act Federalists held strong majority in supreme court and judiciary


Crash Course 8

Articles of Confed.

Only lasted 10 years because was completely ineffective

Was not a national government

one house body of delegates,

each state had one vote for decisions which affected all states

9 of 13 votes need for decision

Congress was very weak but was given the power to be at war

Was able to win the war, and NorthWest ordinance

Could not collect taxes, states had to impose tax individually

Shay’s Rebellion

Farmer’s rose up and fought showing why Art. of Cond. did not work

Was very difficult to deal with without a National gov.

Too much democratic liberty was bad

1786 meeting in Annapolis

6 delegated showed up agreed to meet next year in Philly

Pilly Meeting

Rather than revise Art. of Cond. wrote new charter of gov. The Constitution

55 men in Philly wealthy, college educated, 40% served in the war, all had desire for stronger gov

Should have executive, legislative and judicial branches

Wanted gov. that protected tyranny of gov and tyranny of the people

Population

Supported VA plan called for two houses with power proportional to size

New Jersey plan single legislative house with equal rep

The Great Compromise was established which gave us two houses

where representation was proportional to each state’s population (House of Reps)

Senate with 2 members from each state

Housemen (congressmen) served 2 year terms Senators serve 6 year terms

To determine population of states the white people plus ⅗’s of other persons was added

Separation of Powers

3 branches legislative, executive, judiciary each brand can check power of others

Federalism gov. authority rests in national gov. and state govs.

Electors

Avoid favor in the lower class or too much power in the lower class a President could be someone who did not win majority vote

Electors were educated people who were better suited to elect president than the poor

 

Implementing Constitution

Constitution was ratified when 9 of 13 states agreed to implement it

Federalists papers 3 prominent people convinced why strong national gov was necessary

Anti-federalists supported by commoners small farmers

Viewed less need for strong gov and were afraid of it especially if dominated by the wealthy