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by THOMAS MCNULTY - Saturday, October 3, 2015, 11:52 PM

Thomas McNulty

Notes #2

Crash Course #8:

  1. Articles of Confederation

    1. First constitution of the US

    2. Poor in its abilities

      1. Required 9/13 states approval to make decisions

        1. Essentially impossible to do anything

      2. Congress limited in its abilities

        1. They could declare war, conduct foreign affairs, and make treaties

      3. The congress could collect money but not taxes

      4. They could be amended but 13/13 approval

      5. It was poor to avoid tyranny

    3. The colonists did win under the Articles of Confederation

  2. The Claiming of Ohio

    1. They took the land from the native Indians

      1. Many treaties lead the Indians giving the Americans the land North of the Ohio river

    2. Northwest ordinance of 1787 started process to create 5 new states

      1. Acknowledged that American Indians had the land

      2. Ordinance outlawed slavery in the new states

  3. Articles of Confederation replaced and rethought

    1. Shays Rebellion caused people to rethink the poor tax collecting congress

    2. People with government bonds were afraid that they wouldn’t get their money back

    3. Meeting in Annapolis in 1786 trying to improve national trade

      1. Only 6 states showed

      2. Agreed to meet next year in Philadelphia to revise Articles

      3. Rewrote the Articles, now was the Constitution

  4. The Constitution of the United States

    1. It was agreed that the government should have executive, judicial, and legislative power

    2. Should be Republican with representatives

    3. Wanted a middle ground of Democracy and government

    4. 2 plans for how states should be represented

      1. Virginia Plan proposed the idea that each state should have 2 houses and be represented based on their population

      2. The New Jersey Plan called for single house and equal representation for each state

    5. Compromise made between the two plans

      1. 2 houses created

      2. First House of Representatives with representation proportional to each state's population

      3. The other house, called the Senate with two members from each state

  5. Slaves and the Constitution

    1. The slaves at the time made the House of Representatives be challenged

      1. People who had many slaves wanted them to count towards their population

      2. People without wanted it to not be counted

    2. Solved with the 3/5ths Compromise having population be all whites plus ⅗ everything else

    3. Escaped slaves must be returned to their masters

  6. Tyranny Protection

    1. Checks and balances established to make it so that the executive, judicial, and legislative branches all have the upper and lower hand

    2. Federalism is the idea that governmental authority rests in the national and state governments

    3. Also they wanted to protect against too much Democracy

      1. The idea that the poor would vote someone too radical

      2. This instituted the idea of senators

  7. The Fight for the Constitution

    1. 9/13 states were required to approve of the constitution

      1. 85 essays were written for the fight for the constitution

        1. Called the Federalist Papers

      2. Proved why a strong national government is good and not tyrannical

  8. Anti-Federalists

    1. Common people didn’t want a government controlled by the wealthy

    2. State governments were more appealing to the common because they were more responsive


  1. Supporters of a Strong National Government (160-161)

    1. Confederates wanted Revolutionary War to separate them from tyranny

      1. Now they want power to the states

    2. Wealthy calling for a more controlling government to deal with problems

    3. Some of the problems that were being faced were:

      1. Manufactures want a universal tax on goods

      2. Merchants want uniform policies as well

      3. Land speculators want Indians out

      4. People wanted the inflation to stop

      5. Property owners wanted mob protection Etc…

    4. Deep sense of rights or safety

  2. Alexander Hamilton (161)

    1. Conflicts between liberty and order increasing

    2. Universal need for change in Confederation

      1. Most really want increase in taxing power

    3. Alexander Hamilton upset with articles

      1. Wants the Articles out

      2. Aggress with other States to have a convention in Philadelphia over fixing the articles

    4. Shays rebellion causes Washington to go to convention, bringing more attention

  3. The Founding Fathers (162)

    1. The 55 men that attended meetings in Philadelphia over the Articles were the Founding Fathers

      1. Represented the interests of the country

    2. Washington watched over the meetings

    3. Agreed that each state to have single vote

      1. Majority over unanimity

  4. The Virginia Plan (162)

    1. Took James Madison's idea of national government

    2. The premise was a national legislature consisting of 2 houses

      1. Lower house had representatives put in based on state population

      2. Upper house elected by the lower house and the representation didn’t matter

    3. The New Jersey Plan was proposed by William Patterson

      1. One house legislature

      2. Each state would have equal representation

      3. Ultimately rid but still kept in mind

  5. The Great Compromise (163)

    1. Solved the problem of representation

      1. Lower house determined by population plus ⅗ slave and other population

      2. Upper house equally represented with 2 delegates per state

    2. Legislature could not tax exports

    3. 10$ a head per slave no matter what

    4. These were used to win the south in favor of the new constitution

  6. The Question of Sovereignty (163-166)

    1. The Question was if the states and the central government sovereign all, who had the ultimate power?

    2. Answer was that neither had true sovereignty because the people had that

    3. Government was to have the power to tax, regulate commerce, control the currency, and to pass laws

    4. Also they solved the problem of a strong government

      1. The people believed to rid tyranny, they must keep the government close

  7. Separation of Powers (166)

    1. Idea  of each branch being able to check each other

      1. Checks and Balances

    2. The checks and balances along with the federal system of power in both the state and the nation allowed for the idea of tyranny to be less likely

    3. It also protected against tyranny from the people

  8. The Federalist Papers (167)

    1. Franklin and Washington were on the federal side

      1. Coined themselves “The Federalists

    2. Writers such as Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay wrote many essays promoting the constitution

  9. The Antifederalists (167)

    1. Critics of the Federalist Papers

    2. Thought this would only bring chaos

    3. Didn’t like idea of strong central government

    4. Saw that the Constitution lacked Bill of Rights

  10. Debating the Constitution (167)

    1. Federalists afraid of disorder which was common to the Articles

    2. Antifederalists afraid of concentrated power in a central government

    3. Constitution eventually won over the Articles

      1. Succeeded 9 out of 13 and so it was theoretically possible

    4. They needed New York and Virginia

      1. Eventually they joined too

  11. The Bill of Rights (168)

    1. Needed a bill of rights

      1. Was made by making 10 amendments to the constitution

      2. First 9 preventing congress from interfering with basic rights

      3. 10th gave the states all the powers that weren’t already held

  12. The Cabinet (168)

    1. First congress created the departments for the state, treasury, and war

    2. Also they created the attorney general and postmaster general

    3. These new cabinets solved initial issues and had made somewhat peace

  13. Assuming the Debt (169)

    1. Alexander Hamilton believed that the government needed a happy ruling class

      1. Needed the support of the rich

      2. Wanted to give them possible riches to make them support him

    2. Took public debt and made it so that the states would pay it

    3. Also he wanted to create a national bank

  14. Hamilton's Report on Manufacturing (169)

    1. Proposed 2 new kinds of taxes

      1. Tax on distillers

      2. Tax on imports

    2. Protect manufacturing industry

  15. Bank of the United States (170)

    1. Alexander's idea to build a national bank went against the constitution

      1. It was finally agreed upon after debate

    2. The bank began in 1791

      1. Restored public credit

    3. Most people benefited from the banks

      1. Small farmers didn’t find it appealing because they paid more taxes

  16. Establishment of the Federalist Party (170)

    1. Madison believed that federalists had created the worst possible party

    2. Trying only to benefit themselves through others

  17. The formation of the Republican Party (171)

    1. Opposers of Federalist party wanted to form their own party

      1. Called themselves the Republican Party

    2. Were going above and beyond to support their ideas

      1. Believed that this was in the best interests of the people

  18. Differences over the French Revolution (172)

    1. Federalists were horrified

    2. Republicans were understanding

    3. Federalists were more powerful in the Northeast

      1. Republicans more powerful in the South

  19. Whiskey Rebellion (172)

    1. West not tied with government too well

      1. Farmers are upset over taxes and want to revolt

    2. In 1794, farmers in western Philadelphia refused to pay the Whiskey tax

      1. Much like the Stamp Act, they harassed the tax collectors

    3. Washington called upon 15,000 troops and marched them into Pittsburg

      1. This destroyed the rebellion

  20. Indians and the Constitution (172)

    1. Indians in the Northwest and Southwest were causing problems

      1. Fighting back against Republican land claims

    2. Question of who should control the west offered

    3. The problem that the Indians weren't involved in the Constitution a big deal

    4. Indian tribes not represented in the governmental system

  21. Citizen Genet (173)

    1. Edmond Genet wanted to have America manufacture French warships

      1. This was going against the Neutrality Act

    2. Washington demanded that he leave

    3. The second test was when Britain was taking their trading ships

      1. Canada was also said to have given a war speech to the Indians

  22. Jay’s Treaty (174)

    1. Promoted to commissioner to England

    2. Instructed to get compensation and to create a new treaty

    3. His treaty prevented a war and justified America's hold on the northwest

      1. Still, there was more to be done to improve it

  23. Pinckney's Treaty (174)

    1. Jay’s Treaty made a treaty with Spain possible

      1. Spain was afraid that Britain and the US would join to claim North America

    2. He managed to get a lot from the Spanish

      1. He got across the idea that the Americans had the right to the Mississippi

      2. He re negotiated the northern boundary of Florida

      3. He also managed to make Spanish authorities have to check the Indians so they couldn’t launch raids across the border

  24. Washington's Farewell address (175)

    1. George Washington wanted to retire from office in 1797

    2. Showed his feelings for the Republicans

    3. Hamilton could not be the one to run for presidency

      1. He had created too many enemies in his time

      2. Instead they chose John Adams

    4. He fought against Thomas Jefferson and won

  25. Divided Federalists

    1. Republicans did not like John Adams

    2. Hamilton still remained the most prominent figure

  26. The XYZ Affair (176)

    1. When American officials arrived in Paris, a fee was forced

    2. Adams sent a message to congress about the insults

      1. This escalated into a declaration for war

    3. The names of the three officials were changed to x, y, and z

  27. The Quasi War (176)

    1. Adams cut off all trade with France

    2. New navy was created to help seize French ships

    3. Another commission was sent in 1800 and it was successful

      1. New treaty established

      2. Called the Quasi War

  28. Alien and Sedition Acts (176)

    1. The Alien Act made Aliens have a harder time becoming citizens

    2. The Sedition Act allowed the government to prosecute those who engaged in sedition against the government

      1. The definition of sedition was various and so this allowed for the government to prosecute most people

    3. Republicans saw this as the federalists trying to destroy them

  29. Virginia and Kentucky resolutions (177)

    1. Republicans placed their opinions on the state legislatures

    2. They argued that the states could not pass this

      1. They didn’t win popular support and it was ignored by other states

    3. By the 1790’s, the Republicans and the Federalists were in deep dispute

  30. The Election of 1800 (177)

    1. One of the worst elections in history

    2. Same representatives but the supporters were ferral

      1. Called Jefferson dangerous and called his followers wild men

      2. The Republicans called Adams a tyrant and accused the federalists of trying to enslave the people

    3. Ultimately, Jefferson won

  31. The Judiciary Act of 1801

    1. This act reduced the amount of supreme court justices by 1

      1. Increased the amount of judges in general

    2. Republicans finally happy

      1. Believed they saved the nation from tyranny