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Apush Unit 3
by Jamia Yard - Sunday, October 4, 2015, 01:15 AM
 

Jamia Yard

Kann

HN US History 1

3 October 2015

 

The Constitution and the New Republic pg.159

  • New American government created in 1787
  • Americans agreed that the Constitution was brilliant but disagreed on what it meant

Framing a New Government pg. 160

  • Confederation Congress lost most power in mid-1780s
  • After treaty ends Revolution, debate starts over future of Confederation

Advocates of Centralization pgs.160-162

  • Confederation kept many happy for awhile
  • During 1780s people wanted gov. more oriented towards nation’s problems
  • Merchants/Shippers wanted unified state commercial policy instead of 13
  • Explorers wanted Natives out of ‘their’ land
  • Debt collecting ppl. wanted paper money to stop being issued
  • Conf. securities investors wanted gov. to invest in debt
  • Large property owners wanted protection from rabbles
  • Gov. needed power to tax
  • Alexander Hamilton calls for overhaul of AOC
  • 5 states send reps. To Alexander Hamilton meeting
  • States agree to send reps. To meeting in PA to make constitution more useful
  • George Washington attends convention – gives it credibility

 

A Divided Convention pg. 162

  • 55 reps. From all states but RI
  • Washington presides over sessions – sessions closed to public and press
  • James Madison reps. VA
  • Edmund Rudolph suggests three branches of government (legislative, executive, and judiciary) – opposed by small states like DE, NJ
  • William Paterson proposes federal rather than national gov.
  • Each state has 1 rep
  • Slaves counted as people for everything except tax purposes

 

Compromise pgs.162-163

  • Each slave counted as 3/5 of a person in census
  • Each state has 2 reps. In upper house – July 16, 1787 compromise accepted
  • New legislature cant tax imports, slave trade not stopped
  • Some feared gov. would abuse authority without defined rights of citizens confirmed

 

The Constitution of 1787 pgs. 163-166

  • James Madison solves problems of limiting power and of sovereignty – said all power from people, no gov. was truly sovereign
  • Solving this allowed distribution of power w/ national and stat gov.
  • Gov. had all 3 branches – people afraid of tyrannical gov.
  • Americans believe large nation would breed corruption and despotism
  • Checks and Balances and separation of power within branches – branches compete and get frustrated with each other
  • Gov. designed to not end up like Americans viewed English gov.
  • Members of House of Representatives voted into power by people
  • 39 delegates sign Constitution on Sept. 17 1787

 

Federalists and Antifederalists pgs.166-167

  • Convention changes rule about states needing to vote unanimously – only 9/13 need to ratify
  • Federalists are supporters of the Constitution
  • Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay wrote under the pseudonym “Publius” works in newspapers about the Constitution
  • Antifederalists against Constitution, believed gov. would increase tax, obliterate the states, wield dictatorial powers, favor “well born” and put an end to individual liberty – complained constitution lacked Bill Of Rights
  • Federalists afraid of chaos and unchecked power
  • Antifederalists afraid of concentrated power
  • Delaware first state to ratify – 9 states ratify by June 1788
  • Some states assumed Bill Of Rights would be added later on

Completing the Structure pg. 168

  • George Washington elected first president in 1789, John Adams Vice President
  • 10 amendments ratified by end of 1791
  • Supreme court of 6 members, 13 district courts, 3 circuit courts of appeal created under Judiciary Act of 1789 – same act gives Court power to make the final decision on cases involving the constitutionality of state laws
  • First Congress created three departments – state, treasury, and war as well as attorney general and postmaster general
  • Hamilton led Treasury, Henry Knox led war, Thomas Jefferson led state

 

Federalists and Republicans

  • Federalists under Alexander Hamilton, Republicans under James Madison and Thomas Jefferson

Hamilton and the Federalists

  • Federalists in control of gov.
  • Wealthy and powerful had upper hand in gov.
  • New gov. takes responsibility for existing public debt, larger national debt
  • National bank would allow better dist. Of money
  • Hamilton proposes two taxes – excise to distillers of alcohol and a tariff on imports – “Report on Manufactures” in 1791 laid out grand scheme of how to stimulate industrial growth

 

Enacting the Federalist Program

  • Disagreement over payment of debt
  • State debts unfair because states who owed little money would be paying for states who owed a lot
  • Washington signs off on Bank of the United States in 1791 under a 20 yr. charter
  • Public credit restored, bonds sold widely by Hamilton

The Republican Opposition

  • Most framers believe organized parties were dangerous
  • Republicans formed by opposition of federalist gov. structure
  • By late 1790s Repub. Influence state and local elections
  • Thomas Jefferson and James Madison prominent Repub.
  • Jefferson believes in manufacturing goods, suspicious of large cities – feared mobs – envisioned an agrarian society controlled by small property owners

Securing the Frontier pg. 172

  • 1794 – farmers refuse to pay whiskey tax – Washington raises an army of 15,000 and leads them to PA to oppose the farmers
  • Gov. won allegiance of whiskey rioters by intimidation
  • NC becomes state in 1789, RI in 1790, Vermont in 1791, Kentucky in 1792, Tennessee in 1796

Native Americans and the New Nation

  • Tribes recognized as legal entities, not foreign nation
  • Relationship between tribes and US determined by many treaties, agreements and judicial decisions

Maintaining Neutrality

  • In 1791 Britain sends minister to US because Repub. Threaten to place trade restrictions on British ships
  • 1793 – France goes to war with Britain and allies – America tries to remain neutral
  • Edmond Genet docks in Charleston – tries to convince people there to side with French
  • 1794- British Royal Navy seizes American ships trading with France
  • Hamilton concerned – war meant end of trade w/ England which most revenue for financial system came from duties of

Jay’s Treaty and Pinckney’s Treaty

  • Jefferson resigns as secretary of state 1793
  • John Jay commissioner to England – to get compensation for recent British wrongdoings to America, withdraw British armies from their frontier posts, and to negotiate a commercial new treaty
  • Jay’s Treaty of 1794 established sovereignty over Northwest, made trade policy with England
  • Jay’s Treaty ratified despite strong opposition
  • Under Pinckney’s Treaty of 1795, Spain recognized the right of Americans to navigate the Mississippi to its mouth and to deposit goods at New Orleans for reloading on oceangoing ships – agreed to allow American boundary of Florida to be final – stopped Spanish from allowing Natives to raid America from Florida’s border

The Election of 1796 pg. 175

  • Washington retires in 1797
  • “Farewell Address” reacts to Repub.
  • Jefferson repub. Presidential candidate in 1796, John Adams Federalist candidate for President
  • Thomas Pinckney receives many votes
  • Jefferson becomes Vice President – Adams becomes president
  • Hamilton still most influential in party

The Quasi War with France

  • Relations with Britain and Spain improve after treaties, deteriorated with France – France capturing American ships and crews
  • Adams appoints a bipartisan commission – Charles Cotesworth Pinckney, John Marshall, Elbridge Gerry – to negotiate w/ France
  • France demands loans and bribes, Adams sends word to Congress – demands prep. For war
  • Turns report over to Congress after deleting the names of the 3 French agents and naming the X Y Z (The XYZ Affair)
  • Adams asks for cut off trade w/ France, authority to capture armed French ships
  • In 1798 Congress creates dept. of Navy for warships – successful in capturing ships
  • New Treaty signed in 1800

Repression and Protest

  • Alien act made it difficult to become an American citizen, Sedition act allowed gov. to persecute anyone who commits sedition against US
  • Adams cautious of enforcing Acts
  • KY and VA adopt two theories of state action into one – states could “nullify” laws if national gov. broke contract
  • By late 1970s nation as deeply politically divided as ever

The “Revolution” of 1800

  • Same candidates for president in both parties
  • Aaron Burr mobilized an org. of war veterans – the Tammany Society, to serve as Repub. Political machine
  • Jefferson and Burr tie for votes, House or Reps. If no majority
  • Jefferson elected
  • Judiciary Act of 1801 creates new judiciary positions Adams fills before – appoints Federalists to the jobs
  • Republicans believe nation is saved from tyranny