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Unit 3 Notes
by KAMRUL RUHIT - Sunday, October 4, 2015, 09:18 AM
 

Kamrul Ruhit

Mr. Kann

APUSH

29 September, 2015

Unit 3 Notes


  • Pg. 159, The Confederation was not working for the citizens Couldn’t handle economic issues

    • proven unworthy in Shay’s Rebellion

    • Was made bad on purpose

      • Created Const. to replace it

  • Const partially made from previous docs

    • Known as most successful gov. in world to date

    • Said to be best human idea

      • Interpretation on the doc are still debatable

  • Pg. 160, The Confederation was slowly falling apart in strength

    • Confed Congress officials hid from angry veterans

    • Seeked refuge in NJ, Annapolis, then finally NY

  • The Confed in the beginning was a pleasing form of gov to many

    • They saw it as keeping the power local and free

      • Some veterans wanted pensions but the nat gov couldn’t provide

      • A rebellion was on the rise until George W. stopped the process

  • How the many differences started the downfall

    • Artisans wanted 1 national tax amongst all

    • People in debt wanted equal monetary value

    • Landowners wanted protection from mobs

      • This disorder threatened the meaning of the bill of rights

  • All the tensions toiling upon the confederation secured it’s change

    • It was agreed that the system had to be changed heavily

    • Alexander hamilton was a lead reformer. He was a Lawyer, had political theories and was a military aide

  • Pg. 161 A convention in Maryland was held to rethink the Confed Doc

    • Only 5 states attended

    • They decided to hold another meeting next year

      • That meeting was thought to be as unsucessful as the current one

      • The plan was to attract George W to give the meeting attention

      • George W did not give much attention till Shays rebellion occurred

  • Pg. 162 The Phil. convention attracted all states but Rhode Island

    • It lasted about for months and was attended what we now refer to as Our Founding Fathers

    • They were mostly young educated men who knew the danger of concentrated power

      • Was then closed to public and led by Washington

    • They decided the rule, Majority Rules

    • Edmund Randolph Suggested the three main branches; Judicial, Executive and Legislative

      • The new gov had Two houses, the lower and upper

  • William Paterson had a different idea

    • He wanted one house where each state had equal representation

    • And the federal gov had more power among all of the states

    • With that they could tax the states and regulate commerce

      • IT was still questioned whether the plan would involve equal representation

      • And the slave or Black population was another issue, deciding whether to count them as property or population, or both

  • Tensions rose

    • For weeks the representatives argued and were on the verge of giving up

    • Ben Franklin was the calm voice of reason who warned if they failed, the world would never be organized again

  • Pg. 163 They finally agreed on something

    • They decided on a Grand committee with one representative from each state, with Ben Franklin as a resolver

    • A slave counted as ⅗ of a person for tax and population purposes

    • on 7/16/87, the comp was accepted

  • The southerners were worried for their economy

    • Regulations on impositions of southern trade were made

    • The south could not be taxed too high per slave

    • And the slave trade could not be affected for over 20 yrs

      • The only reason others agreed was because if not, the Const may fail

  • Missing components of gov

    • No definition of citizenship

    • No individual rights

      • It was argued that indiv rights may limit rights, aw well as that it may allow the gov to abuse power

  • Pg. 164James Madison was the most important of the people to create the constitution

    • The question of Sovereignty was an issue among everybody

    • It was question whether the states or the fed gov held it

      • Pg. 165 James madison was the one who decided the citizens controlled it

        • This allowed for the proper distribution of power between the states and fed gov

        • Fed gov was highest power with broad abilities

  • The Idea of a LArge republic

    • A large republic was a thought many had

    • Madison Argued that a large republic would less likely lead to tyranny

      • IF the rep is large, then everyone is constantly keeping everyone at bay

    • This whole system was made to stop any form of gov relating to Britain

    • The only full rights of voting the public had was the house of reps, any other form varied

      • The Dec Of Ind was signed on 9/17/87

  • The AOC was not revised, yet was changed to a new and much improved form of gov

    • That worried some and a rule was made that the Const would come to effect if 9/13 states chose it

    • The states could either vote yes or no, changes could only be made after it came into effect

    • Ratifying conventions were held, and everyone but Rhode ISland attended

      • Debates had started and some people were passionate enough to kill each other

  • The Adv of the Const supporters

    • The Cons was supported by two highly significant men

    • The const supporters were much more organized

    • The Const supporters (federalists) were supported by three very known philosophers

    • The philosophers wrote several essays to compel others to federalism

      • All those papers were put in a book called the Federalist Papers

    • Gained upper hand by making opponent seem like pessimistic chaos junkies

  • Anti-federalists had decent points as well

    • The anti-federalist argued that the const is another form of tyrannical gov which goes against the entire purpose of the revolution

    • The Const. did not have a bill of rights

    • That meant no one really had security

  • Both groups had their own worries

    • Fed were scared of disorder

    • Anti-fed were scared of another form of tyranny

  • The ratifications

    • Eventually nine states ratified the Const

    • However without the two biggest states, Virginia and NY. The Const. would not prosper as well

  • Pg. 168 The start of a new system

    • Most of the elected reps supported the const

    • The President was expected to be Washinton all along, for the cons was succesful mostly due to his support

    • First Inaug was in NY

    • Congress worked on the Cons to improve it

    • Bill of rights was goal

    • Bill of rights estab. by 1791

    • was made of basic human rights

    • Supreme court was to hold most of Judicial power

    • Other courts were to be made along the way

  • Const hinted executive departments

    • Three were initially made

    • State, treasury and war

    • Offices were made for attorney and postmaster general

      • Treasury- Alexander HAmilton

      • War- Henry Knox

      • Att Gen- Edmund Randolph

  • Old standing issues

    • OLd problems later rose because they were not solved, but compromised

    • Two ideas of Gov

      • Expanding large Gov

      • Modest, rural gov

    • Madison and Jefferson aimed towards the rural aspect of gov

  • Federalists leading the first 12 years

    • Pg. 169 President avoided taking interest in controversial topics

    • Hamilton wanted the gov to run on a group of wealthy people

    • Hamilton wanted gov to take over public debt

    • Also to take over debt from revolution

      • Hamilton wanted a running system of national debt

    • Hamilton wanted to create a national bank

      • It would allow for loans, place for fed funds, help collect taxes

    • Gov needed new source of revenue

      • old sources were selling western land

    • TWo new taxes

      • One one alcohol and another on imports

        • Alcohol taxes hit farmers very hard  

    • Federalists wanted a well running nation that is able to be active throughout the world

  • Pg. 170 Paying the Nation's debt

    • Debt payment was based on those who had bonds to prove so

      • However many people sold their bonds for a fraction of their worth

    • Hamilton wanted to pay both original and current bondholders

    • Others wanted only current holders to receive payment

  • Taxing of the debts

    • Fed gov assuming all debts was complex

    • States with little debt would have to pay taxes for states with larger debt

  • Location of the capitol

    • Capital moved from NY to philadelphia

    • Virginia wanted a capital near the south for reasons

    • Capital was moved near VA, MD border

  • The Banks

    • Bank was said to be implied in const

    • Others said nothing otherwise directly stated should be applied

    • First nat bank began 1991 with 20 yr charter

  • Hamilton’s affects

    • Got support

    • Restored public credit

    • US bonds selling well

    • Farmers (making up large portion of population) felt they were being mistreated)

    • An organized opposition came

  • Constitution did not specify creation of political parties

    • George W disagreed with the thought of organized resistance and opinion

    • Most org. pol. parties interest’s did not think much  for the public's well being

    • Hamilton’s continuous rallying of support and influence to create a majority based voting style alarmed the anti-federalists

    • They found Hamilton’s methods similar to those of the British

    • Hamilton’s opponents thought that the only way to stop him would be a violent rebellion

    • THat was called the Republican Party

  • Republicans

    • Worked hard to gain acknowledgement

    • Worked to create and spread influence through the states

    • Reasoned their doing with promise of achieving justice

    • both parties believed they were right and others were wrong

    • Jefferson and Madison led republicans

      • Jefferson was better to represent party

        • Jefferson believed in agrarian society For the purpose of independence among each other

    • Jefferson did not want society to advance far enough to leave many behind

  • Philosophies

    • Federalists reacted bad towards French rev whereas repubs agreed

    • Feds had urban support, repubs had rural support

    • Washington supported feds but was not to open with it

    • repubs urged wash to run for prez

    • he did, but hamilton was more active than him in his term

  • Feds

    • Feds worked towards previous confederation issues

    • They stabilized western lands and internationally raised America’s standing

    • Confed had not assigned western land to gov, fully

  • Whiskey tax

    • Farmers in Penn. started a rebellion towards taxing

    • Treated collectors similarly to british stamp act collectors

    • Instead of letting rebellion play out, Washington had sent out militia ,led by him

    • The rebellion was not remaining as strong

    • The rebels out of fear complied

    • Frontier folk now admired and complied with feds

    • many other states joined after bill of rights

  • Natives and land conflicts

    • Confed had raised this issue

    • 1784-1787 ordinances conflicted with native lands

    • America had no problem dealing with natives

    • Yet was undecided, main ruler of western territory

    • Const did not properly address natives, all it said was no taxing them

    • Const gave recognition to tribes

    • yet they were sovereign from America

  • American British ties

    • 1791, british sent someone to America, after being threatened

    • America wanted british to admit it’s legitimacy

    • British went to war with the new french gov

    • America wanted to stay neutral

      • A french diplomat came to America to test that

      • Instead of meeting with prez, he went to charlestown and started asking for help

      • Prez heard and wanted him deported

      • his party was disbanded so he lived rest of life in farm

    • British navy started seizing American trade ships

      • Hamilton’s revenue relied on that

      • Canadian general instigated natives against America

  • America’s retalliation

    • Hamilton believed the time for diplomacy had been long gone

    • He wanted a commissioner to deal with london

    • A treaty was reached

      • It was not completely fulfilled, but it still prevented a war and ended the British siezing of ships

    • Everyone disagreed with Jay’s treaty, yet it was still passed

  • Jay’s Treaty

    • The treaty ended the Amrican- Spanish feud

    • Spain allowed American boats through the Mississippi

  • Feds and Repubs

    • The republicans were the feds only competition

    • They were popular till they disregarded a line

    • They were never voted for again

    • Their methods however still were popular

    • George W did not run for a third term

    • He made a farewell address warning future presidents about international affairs, but also lowering the republicans who plotted with the french to overthrow feds

  • New election

    • Repubs chose Jefferson

    • Feds couldn’t chose hamilton beacuse of all the enemies he made

    • Vice president John Adams ran

    • Feds were still popular

    • But without Washington, they had a smaller defense

    • Hamilton was still main feds leader

    • Adams was not as qualified

  • War

    • American, British and Spanish relations bettered

    • French started capturing American ships

    • When a rep from U.S went to france, he was not rightfully acknowledged

    • Sec of state wanted war

    • he was denied

    • American agents sent to reconsile with French, French demanded paymment

    • ADams heard and started prep for war

    • Navy was formed

    • CAught many french vessels

    • Congress cut off trade

    • The French wanted conciliation

    • A treaty was made

    • War ended peacefully

  • Aliens

    • laws were made that made it hard to become citizen

    • Also made it easy to prosecute anyone who “opposed” America

    • Repubs wanted law reversed

    • Repubs made resolutions that made feds executive power virtually nothing

    • 1790’s, everyone was as politically divided as they ever were

    • Two reps even fought in the house of reps

  • 19th century

    • New elections

    • Same cantidates

    • voters were very unethical

    • ADams was seen as tyrant

    • Jefferson seen as enslaver of citizens

    • Jefferson’s romance with slave woman deflected his good side

    • The Tammany society helped repubs

    • Jefferson was elected

    • Judiciary Branch was only one to remain in federalist hands



Crash Course Notes


  • We are not using the original gov system

  • Articles of Confederation was first

  • Lasted 10 years

  • Any decision from AOC required 9/13 states to vote yes

  • Congress could not do much

  • NW ordinance of 1778 good for AOC

  • No slavery from new states from ordinance

  • AOC could not collect taxes

  • States had large debts

  • States had to make taxes

  • Bad for International trade

  • Shays rebellion taught Americans that AOC had to be replaced

  • Convention in MD was first attempt to make new gov

  • Agreed to meet again in PHD

  • Those people were rare people who collabed together

  • Two plans, Virginia for larger states and New Jersey for smaller states plan

  • Great compromise was a mix of both plans

  • Problem of who should be counted as people

  • ⅗ compromise was made

  • Const had fugitive slave law

  • Const went against tyranny

  • No one had full power

  • No one is too free

  • Senators were leading citizens

  • Const had to be ratified

  • Feds wrote letters to persuade states

  • Federalist were supported by lower class

  • LOcal govs better protected people