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by EMMA ATLAS - Sunday, October 4, 2015, 09:34 AM

The Constitution and the

New Republic

Framing A New Government


  • The Confederation Congress was very unpopular

Advocates of Centralization

  • Congress wanted to keep political power centered in the states

    • Others wanted a stronger central government

  • Newburgh Conspiracy

    • Military men were mad at congress

      • Wanted a military dictatorship

  • Merchants and shippers wanted a single national state of commerce

  • Articles of confederation were failing

    • needed to be changed

  • Most resourceful reformer Alexander Hamilton

    • political genius, NY lawyer, military aid to  G.Washington, illegitimate son

    • Was very unhappy with the articles of confederation

      • did not like weak central government

      • told pple to overturn the entire document

    • Annapolis, MY: 1786

      • delegates approved proposal drafted by Hamilton

    • George Washington approved

A Divided


  • Constitutional Convention sept. 1787

    • “Founding Fathers” met

  • Edmund Randolph:

    • Proposed 3 branches of Government

      • legislative, judicial, executive

  • the Virginia plan:

    • Two different parts of legislative branch

  • New jersey Plan:

    • one house legislature w. equal representation


  • The Great Compromise

    • Legislature w. in lower house on basis of population

      • slaves 3/5ths of a person

The Constitution

of 1787

  • Madison addressed how to solve

    • question of sovereignty and limiting power

      • state and federal government not sovereignties

    • Federal Government: power to tax, regulate commerce, control currency, pass necessary laws

  • Separation of Power within government

    • Congress has two factions: Senate, house of representatives

      • elected in terms

      • President can veto acts in congress

  • September 17, 1787: 39 signed the constitution

Federalists and


  • Congress had to vote whether to adopt the constitution (Accepted it)

  • Those who supported constitution were Federalists

    • had support of political philosophers: A.Hamilton, J.Madison, J.Jay

      • Wrote essays explaining the constitution (Federalist Papers)

  • Antifederalists: constitution would create a tyrannical government

    • Constitution lacked bill of rights

  • All states except NY VA accepted the constitution

    • divided

  • End of june: Both accepted it

Completing the


  • First elections under constitution: 1789

  • G.W. first president

  • Bill of rights accepted by all states 1791

    • 9 placed limitations on congress

    • 10th reserved powers for states

  • Judiciary Act 1789: congress gave supreme court power to make final decisions

  • Alexander Hamilton: Became Secretary of the treasury

  • Jefferson: Secretary of the state (Recently served as minister to France)

Federalists and Republicans


  • A lot of opposition from two sides

    • one wanted strong central government(Federalists) A. Hamilton

    • One wanted a less centralized government

      • thought americans should not have commercial or urban center

      • wanted more agrarian system

      • (Republicans) T. Jefferson, J.Madison

Hamilton and the Federalists

  • G.Washington favored Federalists

    • First 12 yrs more federalist system

  • A. Hamilton: dominant figure in Washington's administration

  • Hamilton proposed that the government take responsibility for states debt

    • Wanted to create a national bank

      • Help businesses

      • give government safe place to put federal funds

    • Proposed two different taxes

      • tax on alcoholic liquors

      • tax on imports

Enacting the Federalist


  • Few opposed Hamilton

  • Madison proposed: dividing federally funded bonds between original purchasers and speculators

    • Congress passed bill that Hamilton wanted

  • Bill sparked many debates:

    • Washington signed it. Bank came into opperation in 1791

  • hamilton won a lot of support from the public

  • Everything worked

    • Bonds of the U.S. were selling at home and abroad

  • Small farmers did not benefit

    • Said too much taxes

  • Americans started to believe federalist system only benefited a few

Republican Opposition

  • Said the Federalists had used their control to reward supporters and win allies

  • Republicans went to greater lengths to create influence

  • Jefferson believed in an agrarian republic

    • did not like large cities

    • Invitation society dominated by small property owners

  • 1792: Jefferson & Hamilton urged Washington to run for another term (Agreed)

    • Hamilton remained prominent figure in government

Establishing National



Securing the Frontier

  • Government had trouble controlling western states

  • Farmers in Western PA refused to pay tax on Whiskey

    • Washington led troops to confront them

  • New states emerged

    • Kentucky, Tennessee 1792, 1796

Native Americans and

The New Nation

  • Still many clashes with the native tribes

  • Constitution did not mention Native Americans

  • Congress had the power to regulate commerce with foreign nations and Indian tribes

    • Constitution made clear that tribes were not foreign nations

      • Did not have representation

Maintaining Neutrality

  • 1791 Great Britain sent minister to U.S.

  • 1793 France went to war with G.B.

    • Americans remained neutral

  • Challenges 1: Edmund Gent

    • Wanted to use american ports to outfit French warships

  • Challenge 2: 1794 G.B. seized american trade ships trading with france

Jay’s Treaty and pinckney’s Treaty

  • Hamilton did not trust the state department to reach a settlement with G.B.

  • Jefferson resigned as Secretary of state 1793

    • Edmund Randolph took over

      • Too Pro-French

    • Hamilton convinced Washington to appoint John Jay

      • As commissioner to England

  • Jay’s Treaty: Jay was instructed to receive compensation from the British

    • Negotiated treaty in 1794

    • did not achieve this goal

    • Settled conflict with Britain--Prevented war

      • Made satisfactory relationship with G.B.

  • Pinckney’s Treaty: Spain recognized the right for Americans to navigate Mississippi

    • Got stuff in the south

The Downfall of

The Federalists


  • Federalists were losing popularity

The Election of 1796

  • G.W. did not run for 3rd term

  • Election

    • Rep. Side---Jefferson

    • Fed. Side---Adams

  • Adams won Jefferson became vice president

  • Hamilton was still the most important Federalist

  • Adams was not as talented

The Quasi War

With France

  • Relations improved with Britain and Spain

    • Deteriorated with revolutionary France

      • French captured American ships

  • Some wanted war with France

    • Hamilton convinced Adams of conciliation

  • XYZ affair

    • French wanted embassador to pay bribes to France

    • Adams called for war

    • Quasi War

      • Cut off trade to france

        • U.S. began to have closer ties with England

    • Before conflict grew france made amends

Repression and Protest

  • Federalists: in order to increase majority in congress passed

    • Alien Act: placed new obstacles for those who wanted to become American citizens

    • Sedition Act: allowed government to prosecute those who engaged in sedition against gov.

      • Republicans thought new laws were passed to destroy them

    • Adams prevented major crusade against Republicans

  • Virginia and Kentucky Legislations: claimed that Rep. had the right to nullify laws they disagree w.

  • 1790s: Country was deeply and bitterly divided politically

The “Revolution”

of 1800

  • Election 1800: Adams against Jefferson

    • Federalist portrayed Jeff. as a dangerous radical

    • Rep. Portrayed Adams as a tyrant conspiring to be king

  • Burr was running for vice pres.

    • He and Jeff were tied

      • House of representatives had to choose

    • Leading federalists (most prominent A. Hamilton)

      • Decided burr was too unreliable for presidency

      • Jeff elected

  • Judiciary Act 1801: reduced number of supreme court

Crash Course 8

  • Constitution not original form of government

    • First ws articles of confederation

      • Bad

    • not firm gov.

    • Any decision had to have 9 majority votes

    • Had to ask states for everything

    • Good

      • Northwest ordinance

    • Could not collect taxes

  • Shays Rebellion

    • Farmers rose up against taxes

  • The Constitution

    • Annapolis convention decided to meet to fix articles

    • Decided to rewrite the whole thing

    • All the people were impressive

      • Wanted strong central gov.

  • Executive Legislative judicial

    • Each branch checks others

  • Virginia Plan New Jersey plan

    • The great compromise

    • gave both

  • A. Hamilton Jay Madison John Jay wrote Federalist papers

    • why strong national gov. was important

  • Anti Federalists

    • Small farmers

      • Afraid of wealthy leaders

      • small gov able to support citizens