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Unit 3 Notes
by Pascal Beckert-McGirr - Sunday, October 4, 2015, 11:31 AM

                        Pascal Beckert

September 30, 2015

US History 1, Period 1

Kann, Marlin

Chapter 6:

                                           The Constitution and the New Republic



Deficiencies of the confederation Government

            -Late 1780’s many Americans unhappy with govt.

                        -Unhappy with instability, and failure to handle economic problems

            -In 1787 decided to create a new govt. defined by Constitution of the United States

American Constitution

            -Derived ideas from state documents before it

            -Constitution considered one of the most important documents in American history

            -From a failed govt. they designed a govt. that lasted centuries

                        -Public was happy with the constitution

Weak Central Govt.

            -Members of the confederation Congress fled to Princeton, New Jersey

            -Only 8 states voted on the Northwest ordinance

            -The public was infuriated at the way the govt. was handled

Different ideas for strong central Govt.

-Wealthy and powerful people began a push for stronger govt.

-Military Men angry at Congress’ refusal to pund their pensions

-Some envisioned a military dictatorship

-George Washington stepped in and stopped the potential rebellion

            -Merchants and shippers wanted to replace the separate commercial policies with a single national one

            -Land speculators wanted native americans removed so they could continue westward expansion

Alexander Hamilton

            -New york lawyer and political genius, ex military aide to George Washington

                        -One of first to call for a complete replacement of weak central govt.

            -James Madison of Virginia became a strong ally to him

                        -During a meeting in Annapolis, Maryland in 1786 Hamilton proposed to gather special delegates from each state to create a stronger govt.

Founding Fathers

            -55 men represented all states except rhode island at the convention in Philadelphia

                        -Convention unanimously chose Washington to lead the proceedings

            -James Madison had previously created a plan for a nation govt.

            -Edmund Randolph proposed the idea of the three branches of government

The Virginia Plan

            -The Virginia plan called for two houses in national legislature

                        -In lower house states represented by population                

                                    -Members of upper house elected by lower house representatives

            -Proposal received immediate criticism from small states




New Jersey Plan

            -William Patterson submitted the New Jersey plan

                        -Extended the power of congress to tax and regulate commerce

            -Small states greatly supported because of equal representation

Small vs. Large States

            -Unsure of whether to have equal or population based representation

            -Reps. with large slave populations argued that slaves should be considered as persons

                        -However no one argued seriously about giving slaves rights of citizenship or voting rights

Great Compromise

-Resolved the problem of representation

-Called for legislature in lower house based on population with each slave counting as ⅗ of a person and in the upper house there should only be 2 members per state regardless of population

            -July 16, 1787 the convention voted to accept the compromise

James Madison

            -The most important contributor to Constitution

                        -Helped resolve problems of sovereignty and limiting power

-Question of Sovereignty

            -One of the main places of friction between colonies and Britain

                        -Continued trouble as America tried to create its own government

            -Madison decided that all power of the government flowed from the people

                        -Therefore no governments were truly sovereign


Federalists were supporters of the constitution

-Supporters of the constitution had the backing of the two most powerful men in America- Ben Franklin and George Washington

                        -Also had the support of brilliant philosophers including Alexander Hamilton and James Madison


Criticized the constitution

            -Federalists called their opposition “Antifederalists” believing they were only trying to disrupt the federalists and had no ideas of their own


            -Most states ratified the constitutions without much hassle

                        -Rhode Island was the one state that did not hold a convention to ratify it as they did not consider the possibility of ratification

Bill of Rights

            -First Ten Amendments of the constitution

                        -Tenth Amendment gave all powers to states other than those delegated to the federal govt.

            -Congress determined the number of supreme court judges




Federalists and Republicans

            -There were always compromises struck during the revolutions

                        -As a result of this many conflicts remained in the start of the new govt.

            -Still have same arguments as during the foundation of the Constitution

                        -Some believed that America needed a strong central govt.

                                                            -Became known as Federalists

                                    -Others believed it was better to have a more modest govt.

                                                                        -These became known as Republicans


            -Alexander Hamilton recommended the federal govt. assume the debt that the states created during the war

                        -Wanted to create a national debt which would see wealthy people lend $ to the govt. which he believed would see the govt. survive for a longer time

National Bank

            -Hamilton wanted to create a national bank

                        -At time very few banks in country

            -National Bank would create a well-developed banking system the country was lacking

                        -Bank chartered by the federal govt.

                                    -Has monopoly on govts. banking business

                                                            -Creates stable banking system

Federalist Program

            -Few congressman objected to plan to fund the national debt

                        -Congress passed the funding bill after much debate

            -Proposal to assume the national debt met with greater resistance

                        -Opponents argued that if fed. govt. took over state debts people of states with little debt pay to service debts of other states.

                                    -Eventually struck a deal with states of lesser debt for the program

Securing the Frontier

            -The Confederation Congress failed to establish control of the outlying western areas of the countries

                        -Settlers in VA, KY, TN had began to think about separation from the US

                        -In 1794, farmers in western PA refused to pay a tax and began assaulting the tax collectors

                                                -This raised problem of federal authority in western colonies

                        -In return Washington led an army of nearly 15,000 people into pennsylvania causing the center of the rebellion to quickly collapse

-Federal govt. would use intimidation to win over loyalists

Native American Relations

-The new govt. had to decide on how to proceed with westward expansion

-The Constitution barely mentions native americans other than exempting them from taxation and being counted as population towards the House of Reps

-Article VI stated the new govt. had to respect treaties with native american tribes





            -In 1791 Britain sent a minister to the United States

                        -The two countries had a hard time developing relations post war

            -In 1794 a challenge to neutrality came from the british when the royal navy seized hundreds of american ships engaged in trade with the French west indies



Jay’s Treaty

            -John Jay = Supreme court justice

                        -Created compensation for British assaults on American Shipping

                                    -British forces to retreat from the front and create a new commercial treaty

                        -The complex treaty failed to achieve these goals but it settled the conflict with britain and helped prevent a likely war

Pinckney’s Treaty

            -Spain recognized the right of Americans to navigate the Mississippi river to its mouth and to deposit goods at New Orleans

Downfall of Federalists

            -Success for the federalists seemed to produce problems that led to their downfall

                        -Everyone thought there couldn't be internal struggle to have a stable republic

The Quasi War

            -Adams persuaded congress to cut off trade with france

                        -In 1798 Congress funded new warships, they became allies with britain in the war against france

                                    -In the end france chose to consolidate the US before the conflict grew

                                                -As a result the Quasi War ended in 1800 peacefully

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

            -Used the ideas of John Locke to argue that the federal govt. possessed only certain delegated powers

                                    -When exercised undelegated powers its acts were void

            -The Kentucky Resolution claimed they had the rights to nullify actions of the central govt. if it stepped out of its delegated powers

                        -VA and KY were the only states to declare the congressional statutes void.

The Judiciary Act 1801

                        -After election of 1800 only branch of fed govt. was Judiciary

                                                -The Adams Administration made sure that the parties hold on the courts were secure


















Crash Course #8

-1788 first presidential election

-Articles of confederation was first US Govt.

-“Firm league of Friendship”

                        -Decisions had to be 9/13

-Could Declare War, Conduct foreign affairs, and make treaties

            -If needed money had to ask states

                        -No amendments ever passed

-Took land from Indians, they signed treaties and surrendered the land

                        -Set up 5 new states between ohio and mississippi river

                                    -Ordinance outlawed slavery in all states

-Shays Rebellion

            -QUelled by state militia

                        -Sign that Articles of Confederation had to go

-Meeting in Annapolis

            -Agreed to meet next year in philadelphia

-Alexander Hamilton wanted president to serve life terms

-They didn’t Want too strong central government or too weak central govt.

-⅗ compromise

            -Slaves counted as ⅗ of poeple

-Govt. was desperate to avoid tyranny

-Electoral College

            -The electors were meant to be be intellectual men

-9/13 states had to ratify constitution

            -Idea of second amendment is that people could protect themselves            r

from a standing army

            -Antifederalists were supported by common people(small farmers)

                        -Very afraid of small govt.     

                                    -Wanted state governments