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Unit 3 Notes and Crash Course
by BMENET GIRUM - Sunday, October 4, 2015, 12:35 PM
 

Bmenet Girum

Marlin Kann

HN US history 1/APUSH

1 October 2015

  1. Framing A New Government

  1. In 1783 the members little by little left Philadelphia to escape from angry veterans wanting to get payed.


     B.   They went to Princeton, New Jersey, then moved to Annapolis and in 1785 settled in New York.

      

     C. The Treaty with Great Britain ending the Revolutionary War.


     D. 18 members, representing only eight states, voted on the Confederation.

    

     E.  The most important legislation was the Northwest Ordinance


II.  Advocates of Centralization

  1. They believed that they found in the Revolutionary War and considered remote and Tyrannical authority.


B. In 1780 the wealthiest and most power groups in the country began to try to save the nation they lived in.


C. In 1783 Hereditary society of Cincinnati were angry about the refusal of Congress to fund their pensions.


D.Hereditary society of Cincinnati tried to envision a national government that they wanted to see.


E. They wanted to challenge the Congress and wanted to prove what they believed was right.


F. The artisans and mechanics wanted the state tariffs to be gone and wanted a uniformly national duty.


G. Merchants and shippers wanted to replace the state commercial policies (13 of them to be exact) into a single national one.


H. The “Indian menace” were wanted to be removed by the land speculators from their western tracts.


  1. The debtors were trying to make the states issue paper money because there money they earned would be lower and have basically no value.


  1. If the states issued the paper money a riot would occur and eventually everything would fall.


  1. Then someone knew would have to start everything over from the bottom and attempt to build a foundation/society that can work and reach the top.


  1. Large property owners looked for protection from threats of mobs, and fear from episodes of the Shay Rebellion.


J.  By 1786 the problem was not just finding a way to change the Confederation but what kind of changes that need to occur in general.


Alexander Hamilton


  1. He was a New York Lawyer, one time military aide to General Washington.


  1. Hamilton did not improve the Articles of Confederation and took matters into his own hands.

  2. He made an ally with James Madison of Virginia.


  1. 5 states  sent delegates to the meeting in Annapolis, Maryland, in 1786.


  1. He represents New York and listen to his plan  an approved his proposal.


  1. They agreed to set up a meeting in a year with the special delegates in Philadelphia.


  1. In 1787, the news of Shay Rebellion spread throughout the nation.


  1. A letter was sent  to James Madison that stated “that a little rebellion, now and then, is a good thing , and as necessary in the Political world as storms in the physical”.


  1. Washington supported what James Madison was trying to do and that made it an important event in history.


III. A Divided Convention


  1. 55 men representing all states besides Rhode Island attended at least one of the sessions from May to September of 1787.


  1. The “Founding Fathers” were well educated by the standards of their time.


  1. The Convention closed its business to the public and the press.


  1. Each state delegation had a single vote.


  1. James Madison  was its intellectual leader.


  1. He made a plan for a new “national” government and Virginia used it set the convention when it began.


  1. Edmund Randolph of Virginia thought having a national government would make a supreme legislative, Executive, and judiciary.


  1. The Virginia plan called for a new national Legislature consisting of two houses.


  1. lower house would handle the representation in proportion to their population.


  1. Members of the higher house were to be elected by the lower house under no system


      i. William Paterson of New Jersey submitted a substantive alternative to the Virginia Plan that they oppose the “national” government.


     J. New Jersey wanted one house legislative in each state had equal Rep, but would result in the congress to have power to tax and regulate commerce whenever they pleased.


Small States versus Large States


  1. Delegates from states with slave populations wanted to have it both ways.


  1. some of them did not believe that slaves should have representation because they were considered property.


  1. Representations from states with slavery and not thought that slaves should be in calculation taxation but not representation.


IV. Compromise


  1. July 2nd, the convention agreed to create a “grand committee”.


  1. This gave every single delegate from each state got resolve the disagreements.


  1. The committee created a proposal that became known as “Great Compromise”.


  1. They believed that it was the most important way to solve the problem of representation.


  1. The committee proposed that in the upper house, the states should be represented equally with two member apece.


  1. On july 16, 1787, the convention voted to accept the compromise.


V. The Constitution of 1787


  1. The opening phrase of the Constitution was “We the people of the United States”


  1. It is an expression of the belief that the new government derived its power not from the states but from its citizens.


  1. James Madison wrote that “ in strictness, neither a national nor a federal Constitution, but a composition of both.”


  1. The constitution and the government created a way to make a “supreme law” for the land.


  1. The law was that no state would have the authority to defy it.


  1. The “federal” structure of the government designed to protect the U.S. from the kind of despotism Americans believed had emerged in England.


  1. On September 17, 1787, 39 delegates signed the Constitution.


VI. Federalists and Antifederalists


  1. And they seized an appealing label for themselves: “Federalists”


  1. The term that opponents of Centralization had once used to describe themselves that they were less committed to a “nationalist” government than in fact they were.


  1. Like in every group has supporter and in this one it was not just but three men by the name of Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, and John Jay.


  1. Those three men have been writing essays that have been published in newspapers throughout the nation explaining the Constitution.


  1. The powerful arguments let those opposed the constitution those who became known as the Antifederalists.


  1. The Antifederalists might repeal in several crucial states and most notably in New York.


  1. The work the three men did became known as the famous “The Federalists Paper”.


  1. Federalists and Antifederalists were really just rivals and the exact opposite.


  1. The Federalists believed that they just wanted to be on the opposition and stated a lot of chaos.


  1. Antifederalists had serious and intelligent arguments of their own.


  1. They thought that what the Federalists idea would lead to increase taxes, obliterate the states, wield dictatorial powers, favor the “well born” over the common people, and put an end to individual liberty.


VII. Completing the Structure


  1. The first elections under the Constitution took place in the early months of 1789.


  1. John Adams, a federalist, became vice president.


  1. Washington was inaugurated in New York the national capital for the time being on April 30, 1789.


  1. The first Congress served in many ways almost as continuation of the Constitutional convention.


  1. In 1789 Madison agreed to some of the bill of rights which was essential to legitimize the new government in the eyes of its opponents.


  1. Congress approved 12 amendments on September 25 , 1789.


  1. 10 of them were ratified by the states by the end of 1791.


  1. 9 of them placed limitations on Congress on basic rights:religion, freedom, speech, and the press.


  1. The tenth amendment reserved to the states all power except those specifically withheld from them and delegated to the federal government.


Judiciary Act


  1. It was issued in 1789.


     Job of the Act


  1. Congress provided for a Supreme Court of six members.


  1. Chief justice and five associate justices.


  1. 13 district courts with one judge apiece.


  1. 3 circuit courts of appeal, each to consist of one of the district judges sitting with two of the Supreme Court.


     B. Congress gave the Supreme court the power to make the final decision in cases involving the constitutionality of state laws.


     C. The first Congress created three such departments which were state, treasury, and war.


VIII. Hamilton and the Federalists


  1. Alexander Hamilton, who exerted more influence on domestic and foreign policy than anyone else both during his term of office and, to an almost equal extent, after his resignation in 1794.


  1. Hamilton was one of the most aristocratic in personal tastes and political philosophy.


  1. He wanted to create a national bank.


  1. It would help fill the void that the absence of a well developed banking system had created.


  1. In famous “Report on Manufactures” of 1791, he laid out a grand scheme for simulating the growth of industry in the U.S. and wrote glowingly of the advantages to the nation of a healthy manufacturing base.


IX. Enacting the Federalist Program


  1. The bank of the United States  began operations in 1791, under a charter that granted it the right to continue for 20 years.


  1. He won passage, too, of a new tariff in 1792, although it raised  rates less than he had wished.


  1. Hamilton had the support of the population.


  1. Manufactures profited from the tariffs, and merchants in the seaports benefited from the new banking system.


X. The Republic Opposition


  1. The Federalists had used their control over appointments and the awarding of government franchises toward their supporters and win supporters and win additional allies.


  1. The Federalists appeared to be creating such a menacing and tyrannical structure of power that they organized a vigorous opposition.


  1. The first “Republican Party is not a direct ancestor of the Modern Republican Party, which was born in the 1850’s.


  1. By the 1790s, the Republicans were going to even even greater lengths than the Federalists to create apparatus of partisan influence.  


  1. In every state they formed societies, committees, and caucuses.


  1. Jeferson was suspicious of large cities, feared urban mobs as “sores upon the body politic,” and opposed the development of an advanced industrial economy.


  1. He feared, increase the number of propertyless workers packed in cites.


  1. The difference  between Federalist and Republican because of their reactions to the French Revolution.


  1. It attacks on organized religion, the overthrow of the Monarchy, and eventually the execution of the king and queen, the Federalists expressed horror.


  1. The Republicans at times praised the democratic, anti aristocratic spirit they believed the French Revolution embodied.


  1. Federalists were well represented in the Northeast.


  1. Republicans were well represented in the South and the West.


XI. Securing the Frontier


  1. In 1794, farmers in western Pennsylvania raised a major challenge to federal authority when the refused to pay a whiskey excise tax and began terrorizing the tax collectors (much as colonists had done at the time of the Stamp Act).


  1. Hamilton urging washington that called out the militias of three states, raised an army of nearly 15,000, and personally led the troops into Pennsylvania.


  1. The federal government won the alliance of the whiskey rebels by intimidating them.


  1. 13 colonies joined the Union once the Bill of Rights had been appended to the Constitution to North Carolina in 1789 and Rhode Island in 1790.

  2. Vermont became the 14th state in 1791 after New York and New Hampshire gave up their claim to it.


  1. Next came Kentucky in 1792, when Virginia gave up its claim to that region.


  1. After North Carolina finally ceded its western lands to the Union, Tennessee became first a territory and, in 1796, a state.


XII. Native Americans and the New Nation


  1. The ordinances of 1784-1787 had produced a series of border conflicts with Indian tribes resisting white settlement in their land.


  1. The Constitution barely mentioned Native Americans.


  1. Article XI bound the new government to respect treaties negotiated by the Confederation, most of which had been with the tribes.


  1. They never mentioned the legal standing of Indians or Indians nations within the U.S.


XIII. Maintaining Neutrality


  1. Not until 1791-eight years after the end of the Revolution did Great Britain send a minister to the U.S., and then only because Madison and the Republic were threatening to place special trade restrictions on British ships.


  1. Another crisis in Anglo-American relations emerged in 1793 when the new French government, created by the revolution of 1789, went to war with Great Britain and its allies.


  1. The first challenge to American neutrality came from revolutionary France and its first diplomatic representative to America, the brash and Youthful Edmond Genet.


  1. A second and even greater challenge came from Great Britain.


  1. Early in 1794, the Royal Navy began seizing hundreds of Americans ships engaged in trade in the French West Indies, outraging public opinion in the U.S.


XIV: Jay’s Treaty and Pinckney’s Treaty


  1. Jefferson had resigned as secretary of state in 1793 to devote more time to his political activities, but his successor, Edmund Randolph, was even more ardently pro-French than Jefferson had been.

  2. The long and complex treaty jay negotiated in 1794 failed to achieve these goals.


  1. Under Pinckney’s Treaty which was signed in 1795, spain recognized the right of Americans to navigate the Mississippi to its mouth and deposit good at New Orleans for reloading on ocean going ships ; agreed to fix the northern boundary of Florida where Americans always had insisted it should be along the 31st parallel; and required Spanish authorities to prevent the Indians in Florida from launching raids across the border.


  1. After 1796, the Federalists never won another election.


XV. The Election of 1796


  1. George Washington insisted on retiring from office in 1797.


  1. Jefferson was the uncontested candidate of the Republicans in 1796.


XVI. The Quasi War with France


  1. When the Americans arrived in Paris in 1797, three agents of the French foreign minister, Prince Talleyrand, demanded a loan for France and a bribe for French officials before any negotiations could begin.


  1. In 1798, Congress created a department of the Navy and appropriated money for the constructions of new hardships.


  1. Adams ent another commision to paris in 1800, and the new French government(headed now by “first consul” Napoleon Bonaparte) agreed to a treaty with the U.S. that canceled the old agreement of 1778 and established new commercial agreements.


XVII. Repression and Protest


  1. The conflict with France helped the Federalists increase their majorities in Congress in 1798.


  1. The Republicans laid out a theory for state action in two sets of resolutions in 1798-1799.


  1. By the late 1790's the entire nation was a deeply and bitterly divided politically as it would ever be in its history.


XVIII. The “Revolution” of 1800


  1. But the campaign of 1800 was very different from the one preceding it.


  1. To avoid a tie between Jefferson and Aaron Burr (the Republican vice presidential candidate in 1800), the Republicans had intended for one elector to refrain from voting for Burr.


  1. When the votes were counted, Jefferson and Burr each had 73.


  1. No candidate had a majority.


  1. The new Congress, elected in 1800 with a Republican majority, was not to convene until after the inauguration of the president, so it was Federalist Congress that had to decide the question.


  1. After the election of 1800, the only branch of the federal government left the Federalist hands was the judiciary.


  1. By the Judiciary Act of 1801, passed by the lame duck Congress, the Federalists reduced the number of Supreme Court justices ships by one but greatly increased the number of federal judgeships as a whole.


Crash Course Notes: The Constitution, the Articles,  and Federalism


  • The government was not created  in 1788 during the time of the First election.


  • The first government was set of up by the Continental Congress and called the Articles of Confederation.


  • It was bad and could not support the land who call today the United States of America.


  • The Article was set government was set up with a government with one house body with each state having a single vote.


  • The government was weak and they were scared of forming a tyrant government.


  • The government allowed them to win the War.


  • Northwest Ordinance of 1787 which was set up the process to create 5 new states between Ohio and the Mississippi River.


  • The Ordinance outlawed slavery in the new five states.


  • The Articles of Confederation were bad because they could not collect taxes.


  • Jefferson stated that “ A little Rebellion now and then is a good thing, The tree of liberty has to be refreshed from time to time with the blood of the Patriots and Tyrants”