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Malcolm's Unit 3 Notes
by Malcolm Scannell - Sunday, October 4, 2015, 10:07 PM

Malcolm Scannell

Mr. Kann

HN U.S. History 1

29 September 2015

Unit 3 Notes

American History Textbook:

  • US experiences pol. + econ.  problems in very early hist. (159).

  • Weaknesses of Art. of Confed. greatly exposed by Shays’s Rebellion, 1786-’87

    • Shows lack of national power, states like own countries

      • Fear of English Tyrannical sit. causes US to make a weak central gov., a well supported move for some time (160).

        • 1780s, nation’s elites plead for national gov. to help fix econ. problems that they were impacted by

          • Confed. era generally tentious + anarchic, need for unified commercial policies + power to tax (161).

  • Alexander Hamilton leading figure in political reform

  • Organizes Annapolis Conference, low turn out from delegates, agree to Hamilton’s proposal, plan to hold convention in Philly next year

    • Low expectations of trun out due to conference, but Shays’s Rebel. captures GW’s attention, attends conven., adds validation (161-162).

      • 55 total delegates, “Founding Fathers”, still held revolutionary bias, suspicious of centralized power (162).

        • Convention shows divide between big + small states

          • VA Plan, proposed 2 houses, one based on pop., other elected by first house, small states counter w/ NJ Plan, one house, equal rep. per state, cong. gets power to tax + regulate commerce (162).

            • Debate over place/position of slave, no one argued for citizenship or voting rights

              • “The Great Compromise” ultimately met, 3/5s rule (162-163).

              • Constitution, signed Sept. 17, 1787

  • James Madison, key intellectual thinker, answered q’s of sovereignty (163-164).

    • Gov. power from people, not states, hence the phrase “We the people...”

  • Constitution was to set up a permanent, ultimate system of governing the US, ex. Tax, reg. commerce, pass laws (164).

    • Resonating fear of “concentrated authority”, serves as major obstacle in making US gov. (165).

      • Beliefs of dangerous national gov. + power to the states, Madison argues opposite, saying larger gov.=less tyrannical due to diff. groups that would not be able to have dominate gov. (165-166).

        • Checking sys. imposed to separate power + reduce chance of sole tyrannical force, but also from “the tyranny of the people”, citizens only elected House of Reps. (166).

    • Following convention, Federalists (supporters of const.) + Antifederalists (opposers of const.) emerge (166-167).

      • Hamilton, Madison, + John Jay all Federalists, write series of essays, “the Federalist Papers” to defend const. (167).

      • Antifeds., titled by Feds., complained of lack of bill of rights, feared of the favor of national elites

        • Despite efforts, constitution gains support + ratified in many states

          • Controversial passing in NY + VA, 2 biggest states, DE opposed ratifying (167).

      • GW unanimously elected pres., 1789 (168).

        • First cong. acted like cont. Const. Coven., worked on creating Bill of Rights, ten amen. ratified by all states 1791

          • Most amendments focused on the limitations of cong., ex. freedom of press + religion, trial by jury

          • Also creates Cabinet, diff. exec. dept.: state, treasury + war (168).

  • 1790s marks divide in two pol. groups philosophically, Hamilton + centralized gov. w/ commercial econ. Federalists v. Madison + Jefferson + modest gov. w/ agrarian econ.

  • Feds have initial control due to GW, but Hamilton still main symbol of party due to great influence “on domestic and foreign policy” (168-169).

    • Suggests paying off debt to attract powerful ruling class, and to create national bank to stabilize nation’s small + weak sys. (169).

    • 2 new taxes, one on liquor, other on imports to raise revenue + protect Amer. manufacturing

      • Federalists in general sought out the stabilization of Amer. gov., + visions for econ.’s future, putting the in global econ. affairs (169).

  • Great debate over Hamilton’s plan for funding national debt, but the bill is ultimately passed by Cong. (170).

    • Placement of capital. NY-Philly, moved South at request of Jefferson, placed on Potomac riv. between MY + VA (170).

    • Controversial passing of Hamilton’s bill for a national bank, began operating 1791, charter granted continuation for next 20 yrs. (170).

    • Hamilton’s plan eventually passed, but strong opposition of a majority of small farmers ultimately leads to creation of Republican party (170).

  • Rep. Party formed in overwhelming opposition towards Feds., very quickly gained popularity (170-171).

    • Both sides claimed they were reps. of people’s best interests (171).

    • Founding figures of Madison + Jefferson, but Jefferson was the “...more prominent spokesmen…” (171).

      • Farmer, passionate about an agrarian econ., ok w/ commerce, but feared cities, urban mobs, + centralized societies (171-172).

    • Philosophical diff. apparent in reactions to French Rev. of 1790s (172).

    • Geographically, Feds. in Northeast, Reps. in South + West

    • GW remains in office (w/ reluctance) for another term, therefore Hamilton remains as dominant public figure (172).

  • Sim. to Shays’s Rebellion, PA whiskey farmers refuse to pay taxes, terrorize exiscemen (col. reaction to Stamp Act), GW urged by Hamilton + raises army of militiamen, rebellion collapses at sight of army (172).

    • Following act of defiance, time of stabilization occurs, new states founded + all original col. ratified the constitution (172).

    • Unclear in const. about place of Indians, ex. rights of their nation w/in the US, relations portrayed by treaties + conflict w/ US, ultimately resulting w/ their progressive loss of land territory (172-173).

  • New French gov. from rev. goes to war w/ Eng. in 1793, French send 1st diplomatic rep., Edmond Genet, to US (173).

    • Met w/ “icy reception” do to lack of cooperation w/ GW’s policies regarding US’s neutral position, plus Brit. seized Amer. ships in W Indies, outraging public opinion of Brit., + “gov. gen. of Canada had delivered a warlike speech to the Indians on the NW frontier”  (173).

      • Hamilton worried of war (173).

    • Ultimately put to test twice, but Amer. remains neutral (173).

    • 1793, Jefferson resigned as Sec. of State, Hamilton convinces GW to name John Jay as “special commissioner to England” (174).

      • Creates treaty, (Jay’s Treaty) very disputed on both sides, did not meet initial goals, but ultimately ratified by senate (174).

        • Thomas Pinckney form treaty w/ Spaniards, the treaty met unaddressed matters that Jay’s Treaty failed to meet:

  • Spanish now recognize Amer.’s rights for transporting and depositing goods down Miss. riv.

  • Agreed fix northern boundary of FL

  • Attained Spanish aid in dealing w/ Indian raids   from across border (174).

  • Feds. success created problems that led to ultimate downfall

    • Never elected following 1796, begin to lose power and influence (174).

    • 1797, GW steps down, writes “Farewell Address” w/ Hamilton, published in Philly newsletter, criticized the actions of Republicans (175).

      • Hamilton would have been candidate but had too many enemies, torch passed to VP John Adams, beats Jefferson who becomes VP

        • Adams wins by slim margin, Feds. were still able to win majority of electoral votes, but not for long (175).

A politically difficult time for Adam’s presidency, divided Feds., Hamilton prominent figure but Adams is president (175).

  • As result of treaties, Spanish relations improved, but  French did not, ex. French navy capturing Amer. ships + imprisoning crews (175).

    • After Amer. agents arrive in France, signs of the deteriorating relations emerge, brink of war, titled the “XYZ Affair” (175-176).

      • Amer. went to an undeclared, or Quasi, war, w/ France:

  • Cut off trade

  • Captured French ships, 85 total

  • “Virtually” allied w/ Brit. (176).

  • Ended in 1800 w/ peaceful treaty reinstating the terms from 1778 (176).

  • Cong. pass Alien + Sedition Acts, 1798, placed obstacles to foreigners looking to become citizens (Alien Act), gov. able to prosecute people who want to rebel/engage in sedition against the gov. (Sedition Act), Republicans outraged (176).

    • Adams signed yet cautious to enforce Acts do to fear of greater pol. tensions w/ Reps., Acts ultimately achieve purpose (176-177).

    • VA (written by Madison) + KY (Jefferson) resolutions, state that if gov. exercised undelegated authority, the states had rights to nullify those void laws (177).

    • Time of extreme political tension in 1790s, resulting in violence in some cases (177).

  • In midst, 1800 election has much mudslinging from both sides, same candidates (177).

  • Sally Hemings story breaks (178).

  • Jefferson + Aaron Burr ran as Republican candids., Jefferson chosen by House of Reps. do to tie, ultimately wins presidency, becomes nation’s 3rd pres. (178).

  • Feds. remaining power in Judicial sys., Adams admin. passes Judiciary Act (1801) subtracting one member from supreme court but adding many federal judges, all of whose positions were filled with Feds. (178).

    • Shows their little remaining power but resilience even when defeated (178).

    • Republican victory titled as the “Revolution of 1800”, but they saw it as complete even when Feds. still had some power (178).

Crash Course Notes:

1.) Video 8: The Constitution, the Articles, and Federalism

  • Articles of Confederation were 1st gov.

    • Riddled w/ non-permanent traits and flaws:

  • Every state gets one vote

  • 9/13 required to pass a law

  • Not able to collect taxes

  • Unanimous votes were required to amend the Articles

  • Gov. could only “declare war, conduct foreign affairs, and make treaties”

    • It served its purpose of being a weak, decentralized gov . due to Amer.’s fear of tyrannical, ‘all-powerful’ gov.

      • However, still won col. the war, got them the land of OH, NW Ordinance (set up ability to make 5 new states between OH + the Miss. riv.)

        • Slavery outlawed in new states

        • Although overall, Art. of Confed. were major fail, main reason being the inability to tax

          • Shays’s Rebellion seen as symbol of Art. of Confed.’s flaws + weaknesses, rebellion was not able to be stopped

            • A need for political change

  • Annapolis Convention

    • Only six states sent delegates to attend meeting

      • Accomplished setting up revision-oriented meeting in Philly the following year

        • Instead of revising, they published a whole new document, the Constitution

        • Men who attended meeting mostly wealthy, 50 % had college education, 40 % veterans of rev., all had desire for stronger central gov.

        • Tensions form between big and small states

          • Large states for Madison’s VA plan (two house system based on pop.), smaller states for NJ Plan (wanted sim. sys. as in Art. of Confed.)

            • Great Compromise, 1 house proportional to states’ pop., other house of 2 reps. per state

              • 2 yr. terms vs  6yr. terms

              • Brought of issues of how to account for total state pop. w/ or w/out slaves,  ultimately solved w/ 3/5s compromise

ex. Total white pop. plus 3/5 of slave pop

  • Issues regarding slaves later boil down to Civil War

  • “ Federalism is the idea that governmental authority rests  in both the national +  state gov.”

    • Const. also protects against “too much radicalism”, solved prob. by senators elected by states

      • Still needed to be ratified by 9/13 states

      • Opposers of const. labeled as “Anti- federalists”

      • Supported by common people, small farmers, people who were generally afraid of a strong gov.

      • In particular, one that would be dominated by the nation’s wealthy elites

      • Wanted separate state gov.s, not one centralized force

      • Although Feds. win, pol. issues + debates do not cease