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Unit 3 Notes
by Danielle Reeves - Monday, October 5, 2015, 09:49 PM
 

Danielle Reeves

9/28/15

Mr. Kann

Unit Three Book Notes

The Constitution and the New Republic

 

Deficiencies of the confederation government

Pg. (159)

  1. During the 1780s Americans were not satisfied with the confederation
  2. Couldn’t deal with different sections
  3. Couldn’t handle economic problems
  4. No power against rebellions. (Ex. Shays rebellion)
  5. Americans purposefully made a weak central government because the feared it would take the states power
  6. In 1787 they created the first American constitution
  7. The constitution took most of the same points from the previous document
  8. “Most wonderful work ever struck off at a given tome by the brain and purpose of man” (William Gladstone on the constitution)

 

Framing a New Government

A weak central government

Pg. (160)

  1. The confederation congress started to fade off in the mid 1780’s
  2. 1783: Members of the congress began to leave Philly to escape from paying army veterans restitutions.
  3. Congress members went to New Jersey then to Annapolis, then finally stayed in New York in 1785
  4. Congress was still able to get a quorum to ratify the treaty with Great Britain to end the Revolutionary war

Supporters of a Strong National Government

Pg. (160)      

  1. In the 1780s wealthier groups of people wanted a stronger national government
  2. Wanted a government that could deal with the nations economic problems
  3. Military men were mad at the fact that the government wouldn’t give them their pensions, therefore they began to inspire people to want a stronger government
  4. American manufactures wanted to replace taxes, shippers wanted to create one policy instead of having 13 different ones
  5. Colonist wanted the Indians gone
  6. People who were owed money no longer wanted paper money, paper money lowered the value of their payment
  7. Confederation securities wanted to be funded by the government
  8. Large property owners wanted protection from mobs
  9. This needs brought up the difference in personal needs and public safety

Alexander Hamilton

Pg. (161)

  1. Most resourceful reformer of the constitution
  2. Lawyer
  3. Military aide to General Washington
  4. Hamilton did not like the original Articles of Confederation
  5. Called a national Convention to get rid of the Articles completely
  6. Five states were represented in a meeting held in Annapolis (1786), in the meeting they agreed to hold a convention with a delegate from each state to re-write the articles
  7. After the news of Shays rebellion spread Washington supported the convention which then gave it credibility

Founding Fathers

Pg. (162)

  1. 55 were at the convention
  2. Every state but Rhode Island was represented
  3. Convention was in the Philly state house (May-Sep. 1787)
  4. “Founding Fathers”:  Educated young men who represented the states
  5. Washington was the leader of the conventions
  6. Each delegate had one vote

Virginia Plan

Pg. (162)

  1. Virginia had the most prepared delegate: James Madison
  2. Madison created the “Virginia Plan” aka a new national government
  3. Edmund Randolph started the idea of the new national government
  • Split into three different sections
  • Legislative -
  • Judicial- Carries out the law
  • Executive- Creates Laws
  1. National Legislature split into two houses
  • Lower house: States represented by population
  • Upper house: People elected by the lower house
  1. Smaller states did not like the Virginia plan
  2. People believed they shouldn’t discus things other then revising the articles
  3. William Paterson of New Jersey
  • Did not agree with Virginia Plan
  • Wanted a federal government instead of a national one
  • New Jersey plan

                                                                                   i.     One-house legislature with states having equal representation

                                                                                  ii.     Congress had more power to tax and regulate commerce

                                                                                iii.     The smaller states supported this plan

  1. The people who supported the Virginia plan realized that if they wanted their plan to work they would have to make compromises with the smaller states
  2. The comprise they made is that members of the bigger house would elect reps. for the smaller house

10. Each state would have at least one person in the bigger house

Small States versus Large states

Pg. (162)

  1. There was a debate on whether or not slaves should be counted in the population
  2. Large slave states wanted their slaves to still be considered property but also have them counted in the population
  3. Non slave states wanted slaves to be counted for taxes but not population

The Great Compromise

Pg. (163)

  1. The convention was starting to fall apart
  2. Solved the problem of representation
  3. Lower house would be based on population
  4. Slaves counted as 3/5 for representation and taxation
  5. Upper house states represented equally: two members each
  6. July 16th 1787 the compromise was accepted
  7. Slave heavy states were scared that the power to regulate trade would interfere with their economy
  8. Legislature could not tax exports
  9. Congress could not more then 10 dollars on imported slaves

10. Congress could not stop slave trade for 20 years

11. People against slavery agreed to these terms because they believed that without the compromise the constitution would not work

12. No citizenship policy

13. No individual rights

14. People feared that the states would abuse their powers without guidance

James Madison

Pg. (163)

  1. Most important figure in the Constitution
  2. Solved the questions of sovereignty and limiting power

The question of Sovereignty

Pg. (163)

  1. A conflict between the colonies and Great Britain
  2. How could national and state governments have sovereignty together?
  3. Neither governments were truly sovereignties
  4. Power should not be from states but from the citizens
  5. Federal government= “Broad powers”

                                                                                   i.     Right to tax

                                                                                  ii.     Right to regulate commerce

                                                                                iii.     Control currency

                                                                                iv.     Pass laws

  1. All states would have the laws that the federal government made
  2. States still had some powers
  3. Keeping the people close to government would avoid tyranny
  4. A Republic would be to distant from the people therefore leaving no way to control them

Separation of Powers

Pg. (166)

  1. Checks and balances
  2. Both houses had to agree before a law could be passed
  3. Pres. Could deny any of these votes
  4. Judicial branch would be protected from other branches because the judges serve for life
  5. The power was spit between the states and government
  6. Checks and balances were put in place to make sure that no one certain thing was ruling

The Federalist Papers

Pg. (166)

  1. Instead of revising the AOC they made a brand new government
  2. Federalist had the most educated people
  3. They wrote a series of essays explaining the constitution and published it in papers  
  4. Essays are now a book

The Anti-Federalist

Pg. (167)

  1. Antifederalist opposed the views of the federalist
  2. They defended the revolution
  3. They believed that creating a strong central government would create a tyranny
  4. Claims of the new government

                                                                           i.     Increase taxes

                                                                         ii.     Weaken states

                                                                        iii.     No more dictatorship

                                                                        iv.     Favor the wealthy and educated over common people

                                                                         v.     Lacked bill of rights

  1. Government could not be trusted to protect the citizens

Debating the Constitution

Pg. (167)

  1. Federalist feared the chaos of the antifederalist
  2. Delaware convention, New Jersey convention and Georgia conventions ratified the constitution
  3. Antifederalist had more strength in larger states but still loss
  4. A bill of rights had to be added to the constitution

The Bill of Rights

Pg. (168)

  1. George Washington was elected as the first president
  2. John Adams was vice president
  3. The first congress was in charge of filling in the gaps of the new constitution
  4. A bill of rights was needed to legitimize the constitution
  5. 12 amendments were written but only 10 were ratified

                                                                            i.     Freedom of religion

                                                                          ii.     Freedom of speech and press

                                                                         iii.     Immunity from arbitrary arrest

                                                                         iv.     Trial by jury etc.…

  1. All powers that congress did not have were given to states (10th amendment)

The Cabinet

Pg. (168)

  1. Three executive departments

                                                                          i.     State

                                                                         ii.     Treasury

                                                                       iii.     War

  1. Also offices of Attorney general and Postmaster General

Competing Visions

Pg. (168)

  1. People believed America needed a strong national government
  2. Other people believed America should have a government with less powers
  3. They wanted America to remain a farming nation
  4. Powers should be given to state and people
  5. Federalist vs. Republicans

Assuming the debt

Pg. (169)

  1. Federalist had control for 12 years
  2. A stable government should have only have wealthy and powerful leaders
  3. Hamilton wanted the new Gov. to take on public debts and debts from the revolution
  4. Hamilton wanted a national bank

Hamilton’s Report on Manufacturing

Pg. (168)

  1. Two new taxes
  2. 1st tax on liquor
  3. 2nd tax on imports
  4. The federalist had the vision of a strong government/nation

Debating Hamilton’s Program

Pg. (170)      

  1. A lot of people agreed that the government should fund the national debt
  2. There was a problem because not everything was still owned by the same person
  3. Madison wanted the funds to be split between new owners and old owners
  4. The Hamilton plan was passed disregarding the old owners
  5. The larger states would have to pay taxes so that the smaller sates could get their money back

Location of the Capital

Pg.  (170)

  1. The Hamilton plan included the location of the capital
  2. Capital was in New York then moved to Philly
  3. Virginia wanted a capital near them
  4. It was agreed that if the capital was moved to the south the northern countries would still have support but the VA had to vote for the Assumption bill.
  5. Government was set to move to the border of VA and MD

Bank of the United States

Pg. (170)

  1. Hamilton’s national bank idea was controversial
  2. Banking was not in the constitution
  3. People believed that the Gov. should only follow what is in the constitution
  4. The house and senate still agreed to the banking system
  5. The first nation bank was built in 1791 and was set to stay for 20 years
  6. Hamilton’s bill of excise tax was also passed
  7. Congress members got a huge profit from the taxes
  8. Farmers had to pay disproportional taxes

Establishment of the Federalist Party

Pg. (170)

  1. Farmers and their supporters feared organized parties
  2. Madison became threatened by Hamilton and his followers
  3. Federalist made a program that leaders opposed
  4. Hamilton established a network that had the worse features of a group
  5. Hamilton pushed for locals to join forces

Formation of the Republican Party

Pg. (171)

  1. In response to the federalist gaining power people who did not support built a republican party
  2. Not the same republican party as today
  3. The Republicans tried harder to enforce their views
  4. They had a committee in every state
  5. Justified their actions by saying the had the true views of the nation
  6. Republicans believed they were protecting to country from the “corrupt views” of the federalist
  7. Republicans believed in farming
  8. They believed that industrialization would leave the country over populated and people with no jobs

Differences over the French Revolution

Pg. (172)

  1. Republicans supported the French Revolution because they agreed with the democratic ways
  2. Federalist were scared of the Revolution

Whiskey Rebellion

Pg. (172)

  1. The federalist strengthening their views by helping to stabilize western countries and strengthening international affairs
  2. Government had trouble ruling over the further west countries
  3. Western farmers started to revolt again
  4. Farmers in West PA revolted by not paying taxes and attacking tax collectors
  5. Hamilton led a group of 15,000 troops into PA distinguishing the rebellion

Indians and the Constitution

Pg. (172)

  1. The constitution failed to mention how to deal with the Natives
  2. Tribes were recognized as legal units
  3. Tribes were not considered foreign but also not citizens of the U.S
  4. No rights to a “nation within a nation”
  5. Relations between the tribes and states were decided by treaties and agreements

Citizen Genet

Pg. (173)

  1. 8 years after the revolution Britain sent a rep to the U.S
  2. Britain sent a rep because the U.S threatened to tax their ships
  3. Edmond Genet used American ports for French ships
  4. Using American land went against their neutrality in the war

Jay’s Treaty

Pg. (174)

  1. John Jay was a chief justice of the supreme court
  2. He demanded that Britain withdraw their ships from American ports
  3. Along with the ships being removed they had to make a treaty
  4. Helped to prevent a war with Britain and America
  5. Did not achieve the goal of removing the ships
  6. Created a trading relationship with Britain

Pinckney’s treaty

Pg. (174)

  1. Jays treaty made it possible for America to solve their conflict with Spain
  2. Spain feared that Britain and America would join forces
  3. Thomas Pinckney was sent to Spain to compromise
  4. The treaty stated that American ships could travel and import goods in their waters
  5. Fixed the northern boundary of Florida

Downfall of the Federalist

Pg. (174)

  1. Federalists succession led to them creating their own problems
  2. These problems led to their downfall
  3. After 1769 the federalist never won another debate
  4. Federalist started to dissipate

Washington’s Farewell Address

Pg. (175)

  1. George Washington did not run for a third term
  2. In his farewell he warned them that the republicans working with the French would lead them into foreign troubles
  3. Federalist were the dominate party in the new election

Divided Federalist

Pg. (175)

  1. John Adams was the 2nd president
  2. He ruled a divided party
  3. Hamilton was a more dominate figure from the federalist

The Quasi War with France

Pg. (175)

  1. Jay and Pinckney’s treaties created a better relationship with Spain
  2. The French relationship was lost
  3. France imprisoned American ships crews
  4. France bribed the American reps before they could make a treaty
  5. When Adams heard about the bribe he pushed for war

The XYZ affair

Pg. (176)

  1. Adams named the three French reps as x, y and z
  2. This created anger towards the French actions
  3. For two years after the affair the U.S and France were at war

The Quasi War

Pg. (176)

  1. Adams wanted congress to cut of trade with France
  2. Ordered to capture French ships
  3. The American navy won battles with France

Alien and Sedition

Pg. (177)

  1. Conflict with France increased federalist majority in congress
  2. Because of their new majority they began to think of way to get rid of the Republican party
  3. The Alien Act: Laws against foreigners wanting to becoming citizens
  4. The Sedition Act: The government was able to prosecute those who rebelled against the government
  5. Republicans believed the new acts were put in place to get rid of them
  6. Alien act discouraged immigration

Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

Pg. (177)

  1. Virginia and Kentucky signed a document
  2. The document stated that the government only certain powers
  3. If the state did not like the power they could ignore it
  4. Republicans didn’t get many supporters for this idea
  5. The fight between Federalist and Republicans became a nation crisis

The election of 1800

Pg. (177)

  1. The federalist and republicans fought for the new president
  2. Federalist accused the republican rep of begin dangerous with wild followers
  3. Republicans said that the federalist rep was a tyrant that wanted to be king
  4. The candidates public life was exposed
  5. Thomas Jefferson had an affair with one of his slaves
  6. Republicans had a majority in this election
  7. Jefferson was elected as president

Judiciary act of 1801

Pg. (178)

  1. The only thing still in federalist rule was the judicial branch
  2. They decreased the justices and increased the federal judges
  3. Federalist were the ones who filled up those spot

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Crash Course Notes

  • 1stgovernment was the AOC
    • Only lasted 10 years
    • One house of government
    • Each state had 1 vote
    • Could not collect
    • Government was made weak on purpose
    • They won the war
    • Northwest Ordinance 1787
      • Created 5 new states
      • Outlawed Slavery in the northern states
      • Shays rebellion led to everyone knowing that congress was weak
      • First attempt at fixing the confederation was trying to regulate trade
      • In 1787 they wrote the constitution
        • There should be a chief executive
        • Republican but also democracy
        • Virginia plan (big states)
          • Two legislatures
          • States have representation in both
          • Representation has to do with population
          • New Jersey plan (small states)
            • Single legislative house
            • Equal representation for each state
            • Great compromise
              • Two houses
              • 1st house: House of reps by population
              • 2nd house: senate two members for each state
              • All escaped slaves should be returned to masters
              • Three branches
                • Legislative
                • Executive
                • Judicial