Help with Search
 
 
Picture of TARA JONES
unit 2 notes
by TARA JONES - Tuesday, October 6, 2015, 07:47 PM
 

Tara Jones                                                                                                                Sept 27th, 2015

APUSH

Mr. Kann

 

Framing a New Government

  • A Weak Central Government

    • Mid 1780’s Congress had little to no affect at all

    • Members were leaving Philadelphia, running from veterans seeking pay

    • Moved to New Jersey then Annapolis and finally New York

    • Was difficult to sign treaty ending rev. war, only eight states were represented in the signing of the Northwest Ordinance

Advocates of Centralization

  • Citizens used to like the congress because it did not mirror England’s rule, now all the power was in the states

  • Supporters of a Strong National Government

  • Wealthy and powerful began to want a good national government

  • Wanted people to deal with the country’s economic issues

  • Military men weren’t being paid, struggled with the idea of confronting Congress

  • Manufacturers wanted National commercial policy

  • People wanted Native Americans removed

  • People who were owed wanted wanted states to stop making paper money

  • Investors in the existing National Gov. security wanted Gov. to pay the debt

  • Owners of a lot of property wanted protection from threatening mobs

  • It was hard to deny rights granted in the Bill of Rights when they were endangering others

  • It was commonly agreed upon that the National Gov. should be changed

  • Weakest aspect was its inability to tax

  • Alexander Hamilton

    • An influential reformer, strong politician, lawyer, military aide

    • Called for convention to change AoC

    • Allied with James Madison, persuaded VA to hold a conference between states

    • Conference was in Maryland (Annapolis) the five representatives who showed up approved of Hamilton’s proposal that said Congress had to have another conference in Philadelphia to reconsider their decisions

    • Those who made/approved the document wanted it to be recognised by George Washington, he did not seem to care before Shays’ Rebellion

    • Thomas Jefferson was unalarmed by Shays’ Rebellion, Washington was alarmed and went to the convention in PA

A Divided Convention

  • The Founding Fathers

    • PA Convention was filled with 55 men representing all but one state

    • Lasted from May to September of 1787

    • Became the Founding Fathers

    • Convention chose Washington as President

    • Each representative had one vote

    • Decisions were not agreed upon unanimously

    • James Madison made new National Gov. plan

  • The Virginia Plan

    • Edmund Randolph suggested the three branches of government now in existence, this was approved of though it was thought to be very drastic

    • VA plan was a plan for national legislature with two houses, the lower house where states were represented with regard to their population and and the upper house where representatives were voted on by members of the lower house

    • Delaware, New Jersey and other small states disliked the plan, said convention had no power but to change the AoC

    • William Paterson wrote the contrasting NJ plan calling for no national government, but a Congress with power to tax and control trade- was supported by many small states

    • In order to agree on the VA plan, the big states threw smaller states a bone by allowing members of the upper house to be voted on by the state legislature- every state would be rep.

  • Small States vs. Large States

    • Didn’t know if states would be rep. by population or equally

    • Didn’t know if slaves counted towards population or were prop.

 

Compromise

  • Took delegates a long time to decide, months

  • The Great Compromise

  • Agreed to create grand committee w/ one rep. per state, Franklin led

  • Committee's proposal was known as “The Great Compromise”

  • Made legislature where each state was rep. by pop. (each slave was 3/5 of a free man)

  • In the upper house states would be rep. equally, two reps a state

  • Later, reps agreed that legislature could not tax exported goods, also that they had no power to end the slave trade for 20 years

The Constitution of 1787

  • James Madison

    • Was important in the constitution

    • Answered the questions of sovereignty and limiting power

  • The Question of Sovereignty

    • caused tension between Brit. and colonists

    • in new American gov. how could national gov. and state gov. have sovereignty at the same time and how much?

    • Madison decided all power ultimately rooted from the people

    • Constitution (supreme law, no one could defy) now included details on the distribution of power

    • Fed. gov. now could tax, was in control of trade and amongst other things could now pass laws

    • Left important power within states

    • To not risk having a tyrannical gov., the idea was proposed of the Constitution stating government must remain small, common notion was that big gov. was too distant and would become corrupt, strong national gov. was dangerous

  • Separation of Powers

  • Madison argued opposite, big gov. would be less likely to be corrupt because it would have representation of more groups, none could have full power

  • Was called sep. of powers, created "checks and balances" - divided  different elements of power

  • Created a system where no one group had full power, or necessarily more than another

  • Mobs were tyrannical too, which is why a democracy was put into place

Federalists and Antifederalists

  • Rep.s were only supposed to edit Aoc, instead created whole new governing system under the Constitution

  • Feared that Const. would never be fulfilled under AoC so they changed the Const. to say that 9/13 delegates had to approve

  • Congress accepted, sent to states who accepted

  • Const. sparked national debates and some rebellion

  • Federalist Papers

  • Federalists: supporters of Const.

  • Were in good position, were supported by people in power

  • Publius: Hamilton, John Jay and Madison's alius - wrote essays explaining Const. to Anti- Federalists

  • Were worried states with Anti-Federalists wouldn't approve Const.

  • The Anti-Federalists

  • Thought Const. would "betray principles of the Rev."

  • Feared and expected national gov. to be tyrannical (raise taxes, become dictators, disband states)

  • Mostly were upset Const. did not include a Bill of Rights

  • Debating the Constitution

  • Federalists: feared disorder and chaos

  • Anti-Federalists: -not anarchists- feared central, concentrated power

  • Cons. was eventually approved of

Completing the Structure

  • First election took place, many elected were same rep.s from Philadelphia con.

  • Washington was elected Pres., Adams became Vice Pres.

  • Bill of Rights

    • Congress now had to add to the Const.

    • Drafted Bill of Rights

    • Nine amendments restricted Congress, couldn’t deny basic rights (religion, speech, press, etc.)

    • Tenth amendment gave states all power that wasn’t Federal power

    • Created supreme court with 6 members (had power to decide with laws involving the Const.) and 13 district courts

  • The Cabinet

    • Congress then created Cabinet

    • Was only state, treasury and war

    • Created office of attorney gen. and postmaster gen.

    • Treasury: Alexander Hamilton, War: Gen. Henry Knox, Attorney gen.: Edmund Randolph, State: Thomas Jefferson

Federalists and Republicans

  • Were still disagreements about Const.

  • Competing Visions

    • Federalists and Antifederalists were again at odds

    • Antifederalism was growing in membership

    • Federalists were led by Hamilton, Republicans as they were now called were led by Madison and Jefferson

Hamilton and the Federalists

  • Washington supported Federalists, though he pretended not to get involved, they were in power

  • Assuming the Debt

    • Hamilton was aristocratic

    • Thought there should be a ruling class

    • Suggested government take responsibility for the public debt

    • Much of countries debt was now under the responsibility of wealthy, wanted gov. to exchange them for bonds

    • His system would never result in debt being paid off, just a cycle of bond giving so the wealthy could always be crucial in government

    • Hamilton wanted to make National bank

    • Chartered by Fed. gov

  • Hamilton’s Report on Manufacturing

  • New bank would need new sources of revenue, other than selling land

  • Hamilton proposed new forms of taxing: alcohol distillers tax and imported goods tax

  • Famous doc. Report on Manufacturing mapped out system for having a good manufacturing base and making the country money

  • Federalists were now offering their vision of how the country should be

Enacting the Federalist Program

  • Debating Hamilton’s Program

    • Congress agreed to Hamilton’s debt plan but many disagreed on paying it at face value

    • Many bond holders (farmers and merchants in payment for war supplies or soldiers in payment for duty) sold their bonds for less than what they were worth

    • If Fed. gov. was going to be responsible for bonds, some must be returned to original owners

    • Madison proposed bonds should be split between original buyers and those who bought from them

    • Was not agreed upon, thought gov. only had to pay those now holding the bonds

    • Congress agreed on Hamilton’s proposal

  • Location of the Capital

    • Cap. moved from NY to PA in 1790

    • VA citizens wanted cap. in the south, closer to them

    • Agreed to VA if they approved of the Assumption Bill

    • Washington created new Cap.

  • Bank of the US

    • Const. didn’t authorize creation of a bank, but was agreed on

    • Hamilton’s taxes were approved, though was smaller than he wished

    • Once Hamilton’s proposals were in place, most agreed that they were for the best

    • Bonds were selling at large, those who bought bonds from original holders were making a lot of money

    • Manufacturers and merchants were profiting

    • Some disliked the gov.’s new actions: farmers who were the majority of the US pop.  had to pay more taxes than most

    • Understanding that Federalist program supported mostly the wealthy was common

The Republican Opposition

  • There were no organized parties, many including officials believed this to be a dangerous division to make so it wasn’t made

  • Establishment of the Federalist Party

    • Madison and followers were through with Federalist leaders doing as they pleased

  • Formation of the Republican Party

    • Came together to oppose Federalists

    • Wanted to create an influence, were soon going as far as Federalists were to do so

    • In all states had committees and such which banded together in a national network to influence elections

    • Believed they represented the people

    • Neither considered themselves a party because of the stigma that surrounded that concept

    • Jefferson became prominent spokesman for the group, wanted an agrarian society

    • Believed in manufacturing and trade/commercial activity, disliked large cities, mobs, and an industrial econ. Wanted decentralized nation

  • Differences over the French Revolution

    • Rev. attacked organized religion, monarchy system

    • Federalists saw this as bad, Repub.s saw this as good (even mimicked some of France’s rebelling actions)

    • Federalists were mostly in Northeast, Republicans were mostly in South and West

    • Both sides wanted Washington to run for another term

Establishing National Sovereignty

  • Federalists secured their position in power by stabilizing Western lands and strengthening the country’s international position

Securing the Frontier

  • Cont. had not connected western lands to gov.

  • Now with the Const. similar problems were arising

  • Whiskey Rebellion

  • Farmers in 1794 refused to pay whiskey tax

  • Were terrorizing excise men

  • Washington raised army and went to Pennsylvania but revolt stopped before they’d arrived

  • Fed. gov. had scared them from continuing to rebel

  • Gov. also accepted their territories as own states

Native Americans and the New Nation

  • Indians and the Constitution

    • Natives were challenging American rights to Northwest and Southwest America

    • Ordinances had caused lasting tension

    • Const. put no place for Indian territory

    • Barely mentioned NA

    • Was unclear in weather NAs were considered members of a foreign nation

    • Were not rep. in gov.

Maintaining Neutrality

  • Eight years post rev. war Britain sends first rep. to America because Republicans were threatening to restrict British trade ships

  • Then two years later, America was acting neutral in French and British war

  • Citizen Genet

    • Edmond Genet was French rep. sent to America

    • First encouraged American shipowners to sail for France before talking to American officials, there commissioned George Rogers Clark

    • These actions made Washington and Federalists angry, embarrassed the French supporting Republicans

    • Washington demanded France remove Genet from America

    • Britain began to seize American ships trading with France’s West Indies

    • Anti- British feelings rose

Jay’s Treaty and Pinckney’s Treaty

  • Hamilton did not trust State dept. to settle with Britain

  • Jefferson had resigned as sec. of State, Edmund Randolph his successor was pro French

  • Hamilton convinced Washington to create the position of commissioner to England, it was John Jay

  • Was ordered to receive compensation for Britain’s acts on American ships, demand that Britain leave frontier posts and negotiate new trade treaty

  • Jay’s Treaty

    • Treaty did not fulfill orders

    • Prevented any future war from taking place

    • Created American sovereignty over all of Northwestern America

    • Created good laws around trade with Britain

    • Members of Amer. public were angry, felt Britain did not agree to as much as they should have, disliked Jay for it

    • Republicans mostly and some Federalists put a lot of effort into trying to keep the treaty from being passed by senate

    • Was approved

  • Pinckney’s Treaty

    • Now Spain had fear of Amer. and Brit. allying against them

    • Thomas Pinckney went to Spain and negotiated

    • America gained nearly all the things they wanted, now were able to travel Mississippi river, stop in New Orleans, gained some of FL etc

Downfall of Federalists

  • Americans still disliked the concept of political parties

  • Republicanism was becoming popular

  • In late 1790’s, there was international trouble the gov. had to deal with, Fed. wanted to go against opposition

  • Fed. chose to have a stable system over respecting individual rights, was not responded to well

  • Federalists never won another election

The Election of 1796

  • Washington’s Farewell Address

    • Did not wish to run for third term

    • In farewell letter to the public he reacted negatively to republicans

    • Republicans were allying with French to eliminate Fed. gov.

    • Jefferson was Republican candidate for pres.

    • Hamilton could not be Fed. candidate because he made a lot of enemies, VP John Adams became candidate

    • Federalists were still dominating

    • Washington couldn’t mediate election

    • Some Federalists including Hamilton preferred Pinckney for pres., so they didn’t vote

    • Adams won, Jefferson became VP

  • Divided Federalists

    • Hamilton was still leader of Federalism though Adams was pres.

    • Adams had little political skills

Quasi War with France

  • Amer. relationship with Brit. and Spain was good

  • Relationship with France became bad, France was capturing American ships are refused to speak with US representative

  • Some of Adam’s officials (Thomas Pickering) advised him to send US to war

  • Hamilton advised him to conciliate and he agreed

  • Formed bipartisan commision of Charles Pinckney, John Marshall and Elbridge Gerry

  • When they arrived in France, foreign minister demanded money for negotiations

  • XYZ Affair

    • Adams then urged for preparation for war

    • Adams gave report of incident to public after changing names of French officials in the story to “Messrs. X, Y and Z”

    • Report made people angry with France, supported Fed. response

    • US was in undeclared war

  • The Quasi War

    • Congress stopped all trade with France, Americans were allowed to capture French ships

    • US Congress created Department of the Navy and ships were created for war

    • Fighting began, navy won many battles and captured many ships

    • US allied with Britain

    • France, led by Napoleon Bonaparte, decided to negotiate with US and ended war

Repression and Protest

  • Alien and Sedition Acts

    • Quasi war helped Fed. party grow in pop.

    • Fed. now wanted to eliminate Republicanism

    • Alien act put in place obstacles for immigrants seeking citizenship

    • Put this power with the president

    • Sedition act let gov. persecute those involved in sedition against the gov

    • This gave gov. power to persecute anyone opposing them

    • Adams approved but was cautious in acting on them

    • Alien act discouraged foreigners from coming and convinced some leave, Sedition act resulted in the arrest of 10, mostly republican men who criticized Fed. gov.

  • Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions

    • Republicans looked to state legislature to get rid of new acts

    • Laid out two resolutions, one written by Jefferson and approved of by Kentucky's state leg. and one written by Madison and approved of by Virginia’s state leg.

    • Argued that Fed. gov. only had certain delegated powers, what it was doing was unauthorized, claimed state had power to nullify these rights

    • Republicans were only supported by VA and KN

    • Divided the country in a big way, caused violence

The Revolution of 1800

  • The Election of 1800

    • Adams and Jefferson ran for pres. again

    • Fed. accused Jefferson of being a radical with wild followers

    • Republicans accused Adams of being a tyrant aiming for a monarchy with followers who wanted human cruelty and slavery

    • Election was close, swing state was NY and they voted majority Republican, Jefferson won

    • Complication arose, no party had majority vote so the House of Rep.s had to choose between Jefferson and Aaron Burr

    • Jefferson was elected

  • The Judiciary Act of 1801

    • Only Judiciary branch was Federalist

    • Adams wanted to secure this in his last months in office

    • The Jud. Act decreased the number of judges in Supreme Court by one and increased number of judgeships

    • Adams put Fed.s in positions he created for them