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Unit 7 Notes
by EMMA ATLAS - Saturday, November 14, 2015, 02:14 PM

The Impending Crisis


Looking Westward

  • 1840: a lot of new territory

    • Ideology of Manifest Destiny

Manifest Destiny

  • reflected pride of American Nationalism

    • Said America was destined by God to expand its boundaries

      • American expansion was not selfish

      • John Sullivan gave it its name

  • Had a Racial justification for moving west

    • Superiority of American race

      • Was to spread a political system and a racially defined society

  • Idea of Manifest destiny spread throughout the country by newspapers

  • Henry Clay opposed manifest destiny

    • Reopen sensitive topic of slavery and threaten the union

Americans in Texas

  • Was part of Mexico

    • Americans offered to buy Texas

      • Mexicans refused

  • Mexican Gov. encouraged Americans to immigrate to Texas

    • Hoped it would strengthen economy

      • Thousands took the offer

        • Land good for growing cotton

  • Stephen Austin

    • Created first legal settlement in Texas

      • Created centers of power that rivaled Mexico

  • 1826 pple led a revolt for Texas to become an independent nation

    • Mex. gov stopped revolt

      • Barred additional immigration

        • Americans still immigrated

Tensions Between the

United States and Mexico

  • Mex. Gov made slavery illegal in Texas

    • Wanted to legalize it

  • People were unhappy with the Mexican Gov.

    • Some wanted to get more recognition in Mexican republic

    • others wanted to fight for independance

  • 1830s: General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

    • seized power as a dictator

  • Sporadic fights between Texans and Mexico

    • Mexicans sent troops into territory

    • 1836 Americans declared independence

  • Santa Anna led army into Texas

    • Americans had a hard time organizing defense

      • Could not agree on commanders

  • Battle of San Jacinto: LEd by Sam Houston

    • Defeated Mexican army

      • Texans wanted annexation from the United States

        • Became an issue in the election of 1844


  • Both Britain and America claimed the region

    • 1818 Treaty

      • Allows citizens of each country equal access to the region

      • Neither country had a big presence in the region

  • 1840 Americans began to move to Oregon region

    • Devastated Indian population

The Westward


  • Southerners flocked mostly to Texas

    • most were usually young

  • Those heading to mines or lumbering were mostly men

  • Farms mostly families

  • People searching for gold hoped to become rich

    • Others wanted to take advantage of the vast lands

Life on the Trail

  • Most migrants traveled along the Great Overland Trails

    • Joined a wagon train with guides

  • Oregon Trail: Major route west

    • 2,000 miles

      • Hard trip

      • Lasted 5 to 6 months

  • Was fear of the Indians

  • Many expeditions consisted of family, friends and neighbors

    • Some internal conflict

Expansion and War

  • US  was pushed into war over annexation of their territories

The Democrats and


  • Presidential candidates tried to avoid taking a stand on the annexation of Texas 1844

    • Southern Democrats supported annexation

      • Polk

        • Feb 1845 Texas became a state

        • US-Canadian Border 49th parallel

The Southwest and


  • New tensions growing with Mexico

    • After Texas became a state

      • Mexico broke off diplomatic relations with Washington

    • Polk Sent army into Texas to protect from Mexican invasion

    • Sent people to seize california ports if Mexico declared war

The Mexican War

  • sent john slidell to  to buy territory off the Mexicans

    • Was rejected

      • Polk ordered army to go to the Rio grande

        • Mexicans refused to fight

          • Finally crossed and attacked Americans

  • Many did not like the war

    • Beleved it was draining resources

  • Americans did well against the Mexicans

    • Ordered offences against Mexico in california

      • Won battles in that region

        • Mexico still refused to accept defeat

  • Scott seizes Mexico City

  • President sent Nicholas Trist to negotiate

    • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

      • Mexico agreed to cede New Mexico and California

      • If us. would pat Mexico 15 million

The Sectional Debate

  • Northerners and Westerners believed that Polk favored the south

Slavery and the


  • David Wilmot proposed a bill that would not allow slavery into the new regions

    • Passed in the House did not in the senate

      • polk wanted to extend the Missouri compromise through the new territories

      • Popular Sovereignty: People of the territories could decide to incorporate slavery

  • Election of 1848

    • Whig Nominee: General Zachary Taylor

      • Hero of the War

      • No political experience

The California

Gold Rush

  • January 1848 James Marshall found gold in California

    • Hundreds of thousands of people went to California

  • California Migrants (49rs)

    • Mostly men

  • Gold rush attracted first chinese immigrants

  • Created labour shortage in California

    • Created new opportunities for Chinese

    • Exploitation of natives like slavery

      • Could arrest orphaned Indians and have them in indentured labour

  • Man could not find gold

    • People mainly stayed on the west coast

  • Gold rush brought people from all over the world

Rising Sectional Tensions

  • Taylor believed that states should discuss whether to have slavery or not

    • South was scared free states would outnumber slave states

      • The inclusion of California would outnumber them

  • Southern leaders began to talk about secession from the union

The Compromise of 1850

  • Clay proposed that California would be a free state

    • All the other territories could decide

      • Did not pass

  • New leadership in Washington

    • William Steward

    • Jefferson Davis

    • Stephen Douglas

  • 1850: Millard Fillmore became president

  • Compromise

    • Uta and New Mexico territories could decide for themselves

      • All other new territories Free

The Crisis of

the 1850s

  • There were still tensions between the north and the south

The Uneasy

  • 1852 Presidential Campaign

    • Franklin Pierce

      • Avoided the issue of slavery

  • North did not like the Fugitive Slave Act

    • made southerners were angry

“Young America”

  • “Young America” movement in the Democratic party

    • Saw expansion of American democracy

  • Pierce was trying to buy Cuba from Spain

    • ostend manifesto

      • leaked the the thought to invade Cuba by force

        • angered Abolitionist Northerners

Slavery, Railroads,

and the West

  • By 1850s white settlements had moved into the midwest

    • People discovering the great plains was a good place for farming

  • The country needed a transcontinental railroad

    • Southern states wanted it to go places in the south north opposite

  • Gadsden Purchase

    • Would not go through southern states bc. would pass through Mexican ter.

The Kansas-Nebraska


  • Stephan Douglas organized the Nebraska Territory with bill 1854

    • South would not like

      • Another free state

        • Said slavery would be determined by state legislature

  • Kansas-Nebraska act

    • Got rid of missouri compromise

      • kansas Nebraska decide whether to have slavery Free

  • Whig party disappeared 1856

    • Republican Party emerged

“Bleeding kansas”

  • White settlers from both north and south settled in Kansas

    • Legalized slavery in Kansas

      • Some people were angry

        • Tried to form a new state but president called them traitors

  • John Brown was a big abolitionist in Kansas

    • Went to kansas to make it a free state

      • Murdered 6 pro slavery settlers

        • “Pottawatomie Massacre”

  • Charles Sumner

    • Gave speech against slavery

      • Offended many people

      • Was attacked and could not return to senate for 4 years (Penston Brooks)

        • Penston was hailed a hero

The Free Soil


  • “Free Soil” Ideology

    • White Northerners believed that slavery was dangerous

      • Scared how it threatened the whites

  • The south was not prospering like the north

  • “Slave Power Conspiracy”

    • Fight the spread of slavery

    • Lay at the heart of Republican party

      • Republicans wanted to keep the union together

The Pro-Slavery


  • Nat Turner Rebellion Terrified whites

    • Determined to make slavery more secure

  • White southerners began to produce intellectual defense of slavery

    • The Pro-Slavery Argument (John C. Calhoun)

      • Southerners should stop apologizing for slavery

      • good for slaves

      • Good for economy

      • Was basis for southern way of life

  • Southerners thought northerners were greedy

  • Slaves were genetically inferior

Buchanan and


  • Democratic party chose: James Buchanan

    • Know-Nothing Party began to break apart

  • Buchanan was old

    • Was too timid

    • Financial panic struck

      • was strong in the north

      • strengthened republicans

The Dred Scott


  • 1857: Dred Scott vs. Stanford

    • Dred scott was a slave

      • Sued master's wife for freedom bc. his master brought him to a place where slavery was illegal

      • John Stanford had ownership over Scott

        • Supreme court was divided

          • Taney said blacks had no claim to citizenship

  • North did not like the decision

  • Republicans won control over national gov.

    • Reverse decision by packing the court with new members

Deadlock over


  • Buchanan endorsed the Dred Scott decision

    • Tried to resolve conflict in kansas

      • Made it a slave state

        • Majority of people in Kansas opposed slavery

  • Stephan Douglas refused to support president’s decision

    • Died in House of rep.

  • Lecompton Constitution

    • If was accepted kansas would become a state if not acc. it would not

    • Was rejected

The Emergence of Lincoln

  • Abraham Lincoln was not well known

    • Was him against Stephen Douglas

  • Lincoln-Douglas Debates

    • Lincoln was trying to gain more popularity

      • His attacks against Slavery made him popular

        • Believed it was morally wrong

        • Not an Abolitionist

          • Believed Black race was not prepared to live on equal terms as whites

John Brown’s Raid

  • 1859 John Brown made plans to seize a Virginia fort

    • Seized control of Arsenal in Harpers Ferry Virginia

      • U.S. Troops led By Robert E. Lee faced them

    • Brown surrendered and was hanged

  • Made the South not feel safe in the Union

    • Did not trust the Republican party

The Election

of Lincoln

  • Democratic party was torn north and south

    • Republican Candidate: A. Lincoln

    • S. Democrat: J.C. Breckinridge

    • N. Democrat: Stephen Douglas

    • Constitutional Union: John Bell

  • Lincoln Won 1860

    • Discussion

      • Would lead to war

Crash course 17-18

  • Manifest Destiny

  • Expansion had to do with economics

    • 300,000 people went west

  • Oregon was partially owned  by GB

  • Mexicans lived in New Mexico and California

  • Americans in texas wanted independence

    • Mexico beat them

    • Then Texas gained independence

  • texas wanted to be a slave state

    • Congress annexed texas

    • Brought oregon as a free state

  • Polk tried to buy California

    • Sent troops to texas

      • Majority of Americans supported a war

  • Henry David Thoreau

    • Did not like the war

      • Neither did A. Lincoln

  • treaty of Guadalupe

    • Gave Americans Texas and California

      • Mexicans were seen as inferior

        • and Catholic

  • The American Party

    • They did not know anything about their party

  • 1848: Gold was discovered in California

    • Chinese people moved to California

      • More Men than women

  • California Constitution

    • Only white people could vote

    • Indian children were sold as slaves

      • California was a free state

  • The compromise of 1850

    • Slavery abolished in DC

    • People could decide if they wanted to have slavery or not

Crash Course 18

  • The Fugitive Slave Law

    • Any citizen was required to turn in slaves to their owners

      • Scared Black people in the North

        • Even if they were born free they could be sold into slavery

          • Many went to Canada

  • Made Northerners angry

  • Railroads

    • Made transportation easier

    • Douglas wanted transcontinental railroad

  • Kansas- Nebraska act

    • Could decide whether they wanted slavery

    • A lot of violence in Kansas

      • Helped create Republicans

        • Drew supporters from the north

  • Slave Power

    • Congress was controlled by plantation owners

  • John brown abolitionist killed people

    • Congress brought Kansas into the union as a free state

  • Dred Scott

    • Sued that since he lived in Illinoi he was not a slave

    • The court said that he was still a slave

      • Black people did not have any rights

      • people could bring their slaves anywhere

  • John Brown

    • Wanted to get guns and give them to slaves

    • Became a martyr to the abolitionist cause

  • 1860: A.Lincoln became the democratic

    • Democrats were split

    • Lincoln won

      • Led southern states to secede from union