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Unit 7 Notes
by Rheanne Carbonilla - Saturday, November 14, 2015, 03:54 PM

Unit 7 Sectionalism

Rheanne Carbonilla


Period 1

12 November 2015

Manifest Destiny

pg 340

•Characterized Amer. nationalism in mid 1800s

•Idea that America was destined by God and history

→ Expand boundaries over huge area

•John L. Sullivan, influential Democratic editor gave the name, 1845 American claim to new territory

•1840s idea grew across the nation by the “penny Press’’ & by nationalist politicians


•Clay & other politicians feared expansion would reopen controver. over slavery and be a threat to Union

Racial Justification

pg 341

•1840s Americans defended idea of westward expansion by citing the superiority of “American Race” (white people of n. hemisphere)

→ Indians, mexicans, others in w. regions were racially “unfit” to be part of American Race

•Westward Expansion - movement to spread political sys. & society racially defined


pg 341

•1830 part of Republic of Mexico (Louisiana Purchase) → Renounced claim 1819

•1824 colonization law designed attract Amer. settlers promised newcomers cheap land & 4 yr exemption from taxes

•Land good for cotton → Immigrants mostly Southerners → Brought slaves

•Most settlers came to TX w/ the American intermediaries : who received sizeable land grants from Mexico in return for promise to bring settlers into regions

•Successful immigrant, Stephen F. Austin est. 1st legal settlement in TX in 1822

→ Created centers of power in region tht competed w/ Mex. Gov’t

San Jacinto

pg 342

•April 23,1836 at Battle of San Jacinto, Gen. Sam Houston defeated the Mex. army & took Santa Anna prisoner

→ Santa Anna signed treaty giving TX independence, forced by captors

•Americans didn’t trust mex. residents → Feared they were agents of Mex. Govt

→ Drove many out of new repub.

Opposition of Annexation

Texans hoped for annexation by US

•Sam Houston (Prs. TX) was to send delegation to Wash. w/ offer to join Union

•Amer. Northern. opposed acquiring large new slave territory

•Others opposed increasing S. votes in Congress

•Pres. Jackson feared might cause sectional controv. & war w/ Mex.

→ Didn’t support annex. & ‘recognized’’ new repub. till 1837


pg 343

•Britain & US claimed rule in Oregon

- Basis of explorations in 1790s by George Vancouver, naval officer (British)

- Americans, Robert Gray, fur trader (US)

→ Agreed in 1818 treaty to allow citizens of each country equal access to territory

→ Known as “joint occupation”

•Fur trading post est. by John Jacob Astor’s Co. at Astoria & other posts by Brit. Hudson Bay XCo. N. of the Col. Riv. - Residents combined fur trading w/ farming & recruited Indian labor to compensate for small numbers

•White amer. emigrated in 1840s → Devastated much of Indian Pop. through measles epidemic spread through Cayuse → Tribe blamed Whitman → 1847 attacked & killed 13 whites

Westward Migration

pg 343

•Largest # of migrants came from Old NW - white men, women, few blacks

•Most traveled in family groups until early 1850s → Gold Rush attracted mainly young single men

•Without $ joined more est. groups, families

•Areas mining or lumbering was principal economic for men

•Families headed towards farming

•Most migrants looked for economic opportunities

Life on the Trail

pg 344

•About 300,000 migrants traveled west along trails during 1840-1860

•Major route west - 2,000 oregon trail, stretched across Great plains & through S. of Rocky Mts. to CA coast

→ Others moved Santa Fe trail, into New Mex.

•Most journeys lasted 5-6 months (May-Nov)

→ Thousands died on trial of cholera during great epidemic of early 1850s

•Indians helped aid travelers & guide them through terrain

→ Conflicts between whites & indians created fear to the whites

Democrats & Expansion

pg 346

•2 leading candidates in in elec. of 1844, Clay & Van Buren → Tried avoiding taking stand on issue of annex. w. TX

→ S. Democrats supported annex.

James K. Polk

•Represented TN in House of Rep. (14 yrs), 4 as Speaker

→ 1844 out of office

•Oregon & Texas ?’s had democrats hoped to appeal N. & S. expansionists

→ Outgoing pres. won congress approval for TX annex. Feb 1845 → Dec became state

•Oregon - British Min. in Wash. rejected compromise Polk offered → To establish US - Canadian border at 49th parallel

→ Polk again asserted Amer. claim to all of Ore.

→ Brit. gov’t accepted Polks prop. → Senate approves treaty fixes June 15, 1846 boundary @ 49th para.

SW & California

pg 346

•US admitted TX state → Mex. gov’t broke diplomatic relations w/ Wash.

•Polk accepted TX claim, Rio Grande Riv. be the W. & S. border

→ Summer 1845 sent army under Gen. Zachary Tay. to protect TX against Mex. possible invasion

•1820s Mex. gov’t invited Amer. traders to NM → Hoped to speed the prov. development

•Region of CA - Sev, W. tribes, 7,000 Mex. (Spanish colonies) → Whites began arriving

•Maritime traders & captains of whaling ships → Bartered goods or bought supplies

•Merchants → Est. stores, imported merchandise, trade w/ Mex. & Indians

•Pioneering farmers

Mexican War

pg 347

•Minister John Slidell tried to buy off Mex. → Leaders rejected offer to purchase disputed territories

•Jan 13, 1846 Polk sent Taylor’s army in TX to move across Nueces Riv.

→ After months Mex. finally attacked Amer. soldiers & some crossed Rio Grande

•May 13, 1846 Congress declared war

•40 to 2 Senate

•174 to 14 House

•Pres. ordered Taylor to cross Rio Grande, seize parts of NE mexico

1.Monterrey → Captured in Sept 1846

2.March on Mex. City

Taylor becomes powerful rival

Bear Flag Revolution

pg 348

•Col. Kearny & small army captured Santa Fe → CA joined a conflict where it was staged by Amer. settlers, armed party led bt Calhoun & Amer navy

•1846 Kearny completed conquest CA

** Feb 2,1848 Polk & New mex. govt reached agreement on Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo -

1.Mex agrees to cede CA & NM to US

2.US promised to assume financial claims new citizens had against MX & pay $15 million

→ Senate approved by 38 to 14

Wilmot Proviso

pg 351

•David Wilmot - Rep of PA, Antislavery Demo. introduced amend. to appropri. bill to prohibit slavery in in territ. acquired by MX

→ Passed the house, but failed in Senate

Competing Plans

pg 351

•Polk supp. proposal to extend Missouri Compromise line through the new territories to the P.A coast

- Banning slavery N of the line & permit it S of line

•Pres. campaign of 1848

•Demo. nominated Lewis Cass (MI) - Whigs nominated Gen. Zachary Taylor (LA), no political exper

•Free Soil Party - drew from Liberty Party & Antislavery wings of Whigs & Democrat Parties

→ Candidate: Van Buren

Free Soil Party

pg 351

•Taylor won over Cass, Free Soilers elected 10 mem. to Con.

•Important part of process that lead to collapse of 2nd party sys. in 1850s

CA Gold Rush & 49er’s

pg 351

•John Sutter in Jan. 1848 Carpenter James Marshall found gold on foothills on John Sutter’s sawmills

•Non indian pop. increased in four yrs from 14,000 (1848) - 220,000 (1852)

•Majority 49er’s - men, attracted chinese migrants

•Adventurers thought they could make it rich & go back to China

•Emigration brokers lent $$ to migrants for passage → migrants paid off out of earnings

•Chinese in CA: Merchants, Free Laborers

•Early 1850s CA had become largely diverse

→ Pressure grew to make a more stable govt

Indian Slavery

pg 352

•White Vigilantes, called themselves “Indian Hunters” hunted & killed thousands of Indians

→ State law permitted arrest of “loitering” or orphaned Indians & assignment to term of “indentured labor”

Compromise of 1850

pg 353

•Jan 28th, 1850 Clay presented piece of legislation by several measures that were proposed separately

•Bill provisions: admis. of CA as free state

•Formation of terr. govt in lands acquired by MX w.out rest. on slavery

•Abolition of only slave trade in DC

•New & more effective slave law

Resolutions → Launched debate lasted 7 mo. (Congress & nation)

1.Dominants (Congress) argued for or against compromise on basis of broad ideals

New Leadership

pg 354

•William H. Seward: NY,opposed the compromise

•Ideals of Union (to him) less important than issue of taking away slavery

•Jefferson Davis: MI, rep of new cotton S

•Slavery issue less of principles & ideals & than one of economic self interest

****** Stephen A. Douglas: 37 yr old, Demo Senator (IL)

•Sectional gain & personal self promotion

Temporary Compromise

pg 354

•Douglas was to break up “omnibus bill” Clay thought was a solution to a sectional crisis & introduce series of separate measures to be voted

•Mid Sept Congress enacted & pres. signed all components of the compromise

•Unlike Missouri Com. victory of self-interest

Opposition to Fugitive Slave Act

pg 355

•Southerners began occasionally appearing in N states pursuing ppl claimed fugitives

•Mobs formed in some N. cities to prevent enforcement of law

•Sev. N. states passed own laws barring the deportation of fugitive slaves

Transcontinental Railroad & Slavery

pg 356

•Lack of comm. between older states & areas W. of MI river → Building transcontinental Rlrd.

•N. favored Chicago rapidly growing

•S. sup. all slave states

Gadsden Purchase

pg 356

•Sec of war, Jefferson Davis (MI), 1853 sent James Gadsden to MX → Persuaded the MX govt to accept $10 mill in exchange for strip of land tht comprises part AZ & NM

Kansas - Nebraska Act

pg 356

•Douglas’s bill prepared the way for a new free state in area of La. Purch N of the Mo. Compromise line therefore hence closed to slavery.

•Douglas provision inserted that status of slavery in the terr. would be determined by terr, legislature

Birth of Republican Party

pg 356

•N. Demo were driven from the party thus spurring the crea. of the Rep. Party

•Major parties who opp. Douglas’s bill called themselves “Anti-Nebraska Demo.” which in 1854 named themselves the “Rep. Party”

Pottawatomie Massacre

pg 357

•After events in Lawrence, John Brown gathered 6 followers & murdered 5 proslavery settlers in one night → led to more civil strife in KS

•N & S believed that events in KS showed aggressive designs of other sec.

→ “Bleeding Kansas” symbol of sectional controv.

•May 1856 Charles Sumner (MA) gave speech “The Crime Against Kansas”

→ Gave attention to Sen. Andrew P. Butler (SC) defender of slavery

Preston Brooks & Charles Sumner

pg 357

•Preston Brooks: Butlers nephew, member of House of rep (SC)

•Brooks approached Sumner in senate chamber & beat him on head sev. times, collapsd bleeding

→ Unable to return to Senate for 4 yrs, later returned to house

Free Soil Ideology

pg 358

•N. assumptions abt a proper structure of society → Belief Min “free soil”

•White Northerners believed slavery was dangerous bc of what it threatened them to do to whtes

Dred Scott Decision

pg 360

•March 6, 1857, the Supreme Court projected itself into the sectional controversy in its ruling in the case of Dred Scott.

•Sandford handed down days after Buchanan was innaug,

•Sanford took Scott into Ill. and Wi. where slavery was forbidden

•Scott sued his masters wife after his death for freedom on grounds that his resi. in free terr. had liberated him from slavery.

•Scott appealed to the fed courts but Sanford’s attorneys claim. that Scott had no standing to sue because he was not a citizen

Taney’s Sweeping Opinion

pg 360

•Sup. cout was so divided → Unable to issue a single ruling on the case

•Chief Justice Roger Taney, declared Scott couldn’t bring a suit in fed. courts bc he wasnt a citizen

•Taney concluded Con. possessed no authority to pass a law depriving persons of their slave property in the territories

*** Ruling did nothing to challenge right of indiv. state to prohibit slavery within borders

•N. decision produced widespread dismay

•S. whites were elated

Lecompton Constit. Rejected

pg 362

•Majority of the people of Kansas opposed slavery

•Buchanan pressured Congress to admit Kansas under the Lecompton constitution

•Stephen Douglas and other western Demo. refused to support.

•April 1858 Congress approved a compromise: The Lecompton constitution would be submitted to the voters of Kansas

•If approved, Kansas would be admitted to the Union; If it was rejected, statehood would be rejected

Lincoln-Douglas Debate

pg 363

•The debates attracted enormous crowds and received wide attention.

•Lincolns attacks on slavery had made him nationally prominent

•Lincoln believed slavery was morally wrong, but was not an abolitionist

•Douglas had no moral position on the issue.

Lincoln’s Position

pg 363

•Lincoln believed slavery was morally wrong, but not an abolitionist → Couldn’t envision something else in areas where slavery existed

•“arrest further spread” of slavery → To prevent expansion in territories

•Lincoln lost election, emerged w growing following in and out the state

•Elections against Demo. → Lost almost every N. state

John Brown’s Raid

pg 363

•Fall 1859, made elaborate plans to seize mount. fortress in VA (Aid from E. abolitionists)

•Believed could foment a slave insurrection in the S

•October 16, him and group of 18 others attacked a US arsenal in Harpers Ferry, VA

→ US troops, local militia co., citizens under Robert E. Lee → 10 men killed → Brown surrendered

→ Trialed for treason & sentenced to death → Hung w his 6 followers

Election of Lincoln (divided democrats)

pg 363-364

•Presidential election of 1860 had the most momentous consequences of any in American history.

•The party convention met in April in Charleston, South Carolina.

•The decimated convention at Baltimore nominated Stephen Douglas

•The Republican convention chose Abraham Lincoln as the party’s presidential nominee

•Appealing because firm but moderate position on slavery and reputation for eloquence

Crash Course 17

1.Expansion had lot to do w economics

2.1860 300,000 made trip

3.Mex. banned immigration in TX

4.1837 TX called for Union

5.Henry D. Thoreu - refused to pay taxes

6.Scott captured MX city

7.Nativism - Anti Catholics

8.1848 Gold found in CA

9.CA Constit. of 1850 limited civil partic. toward white

→ Led to decrease in N.Amer pop

10 . Compromise of 1850

•CA free state - Slave trade outlawed in DC - New fugitive slave law - Popular sover.

Crash Course 18
1.Fugitive Slave Law - Any citizen was required to turn in anyone he/she knew to be a slave to authority

1.The Kansas-Nebraska Act formalized the idea of popular sovereignty - white residents of states could decide for themselves whether the state should allow slavery

2.Kansas joined the US as a free state in 1861

3.Court held that Scott was still a slave → went even further, attempting to settle the slavery issue once and for all.

4.Dred Scott decision helped convince even more people than the entire govt

5.Constitutional Union Party, dedicated to preserving the Constitution

6.March 1,1861 Seven states had seceded and formed the Confederate States of America