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Unit 7 Notes
by KAMRUL RUHIT - Saturday, November 14, 2015, 09:36 PM
 

Kamrul Ruhit

Mr.Kann

APUSH

4 September, 2015

Unit 7 Notes


  • Pg. 340 Looking Westward

    • 1840’s America got 1,000,000+ Sq miles of land

    • (Almost) All of present day U.S acquired by 1900’s

    • Thousands moved into western regions

    • Manifest Dynasty

      • reason to move west

  • Manifest Dynasty

    • Nationalistic reasoning

    • said it was god’s will for them to expand

    • Justified as not selfish, but it is to spread American Liberty

    • Pride in political system

    • Racial justification

      • White Americans were superior

    • Manifest against Republicanism

    • Expansion to spread political advice and White values

    • Penny press gave manifest fame

    • The group disagreed on their boundaries of expansion

      • some wanted to stay in America

      • Other wanted the entire world

        • People thought they needed to use force

        • other felt it be done peacefully or not at all

    • Manifest Dynasty had Many powerful detractors

    • They thought talk of slavery would re-open

      • it would harm the union

    • Texas and Oregon were very bad

  • Americans in Texas

    • Was part of Mexico

    • Owned it in the Louisiana Purchase

    • Gave it to Spain for Florida

    • Offered to buy it twice

      • turned down twice by Mexicans

    • Mexican Government offered American immigration to Texas

      • Mexicans did it to earn revenue from that area

    • Mexicans liked having a people in between the violent tribes

    • Mex Gov thought having settlers in Texas would prevent expansion to Mex

    • Mex Gov made laws to encourage settler migration

      • wanted U.S to become loyal to Mex

    • Mass migration to Texas occurred

      • Most were southerners

      • most bought slaves over

    • Americans overpopulated Mexicans

    • Mexico gave land grants

    • Settler from Missouri established first legal American establishment in Texas

      • Stephen E Austin

    • 1826, American revolt to make Texas independent

    • Mex Gov reacted by attempting to end American Immigration

      • Did not work

  • U.S Mexican Tensions

    • U.S wanted legal slavery in TX

    • Also wanted more U.S integrated gov

    • Some wanted peaceful settling, others wanted to fight

    • General Antonio Lopez took power as dictator

    • Mexico fed gov given more power

    • Mexicans and Americans fighting in TX

    • 1836, Americans declared independence from Mexico

    • Mexican troops went against unorganized Americans

    • General Sam Houston fought against Mexicans and defeated Santa Anna

    • Texas received independence

    • Mexicans in Texas were kicked out

    • President of Texas: Sam Houston

      • Wanted to join Union

    • Northerners not wanting another whole slave land

    • President Jackson against Texas

      • He didn’t want trouble with Mexico

    • Next two presidents also against recognizing Texas

    • Texas sought help from Europe

      • Europe agreed to help because Texas wanted to make nation rivaling U.S

        • Europe and France opened trade to Texas

    • Prez Tyler wanted Texas in 1844

  • Oregon

    • Control of Oregon Country Disputed

    • 500,000 sq miles

    • U.S and British had Joint occupation

      • 20 years

    • Most settlement by American and Canadian Fur traders

    • Oregon seen as religious revivalism grounds

    • 4 natives travelled westward

    • seen as religious message for expansion

    • want to counter catholics from Canada

    • first tried converting indians

    • Then tried immigrating whites

    • Early 1840’s had American immigration

    • Americans overpopulated British

    • Settlers urging gov to take over land

  • Westward Migration

    • 100,000+ people went westwards

    • Most people to Texas

    • Many from old NW looking for opportunity

    • Great Gold Rush Attracted lots of young men

    • People became labourers to migrate

      • Women even became prostitutes

    • Western lands selling at good prices

    • People on religious missions

    • escaping diseases

    • looking for work

  • Life on The Trail

    • 300,000 migrants

    • Travelled mostly by 2,000 mile Oregon Trail

      • Dangerous mountainous and desert regions to cross

    • Travel was fairly slow

      • 5-6 months

    • Many died on the trail from cholera

    • Natives use to be helpful to migrants

      • Traded with settlers

    • Trail life similar to regular life

    • People walked for most of the trail

    • Many people travelled together

      • lots of isolation

  • Expansion and War

    • The growing number of migrant required for the Annexing of Texas and other territories

    • caused war

  • Democrats and Expansion

    • Clay and Van Beuren not wanting to Annex

    • James K Polk was nominated

      • Former house rep for Tennessee

    • 12-1845 Texas annexed

    • Polk wanting to establish Canadian border

    • War was proposed for Oregon Boundary

    • No one really wanted war

    • British agreed to boundary line

  • The Southwest and California

    • New tensions

    • Leading to war with Mexico

    • Mex Gov broke relations with American Gov

    • Dispute over boundary line (Rio Grande or not?)

    • New Mexico was multiracial society

      • fitted more with American traditions

    • Americans want California

      • was inhabited by Natives and Mexicans

    • Americans started settling in California

    • Polk wanted New Mexico and California

    • He sent military to California to capture posts if war starts (Military Tactic)

  • The Mexican war

    • Polk wanted diplomatic ending

      • paying Mexicans

    • Offer refused

      • American troops moved to Rio Grande, TX

    • War was declared

    • Critics saying Polk used deception

    • Polk worried on Mexico

      • taking attention from more important objectives

    • Pg. 348 Pres wanted Americans to advance and capture beyond Rio Grande

    • Sante Fe captured in 1846

      • no opposition

    • California also captured

    • Mexico still reluctant to give up

    • An elite army was sent to Capture Mexican capital

    • Fought their way down with minimal American casualties

    • New Mex gov wanted peace treaty

    • America got New Mexico and California and Rio Grande borderline

    • Pg. 349 Mexico got 15 million dollars

  • Pg. 351 The Sectional Debate

    • James polk was creating a southerner biased face for himself

  • Slavery and The Territories

    • Polk asked Congress for 2 mil for Mex

    • PA rep made amendment to prohibit slavery in Newly aquired states

      • was not passed by senate

    • Southerners wanted to move slaves to region

    • President Polk wanted to extend Missouri Compromise line

    • Others wanted (squatter sovereignty) Popular sovereignty

      • allowed each territory to decide their standing on slavery

    • Polk left office 1849

    • General Taylor was Whig party candidate

      • had no political background

    • Anti slavery followers disliked candidates and made new party

      • Free Soil Party

        • Martin Van Buren Ran

    • Taylor barely won

    • Second party system collapses in 1850

  • The California Gold Rush

    • Slavery question becoming very important to answer

    • Traces of gold found in California

      • Matter attempted to keep quiet

    • News spread to all of America

    • Mass migration to California

    • San Fran turned to ghost town

    • People dropped everything for California

    • Mostly consisted of men

    • Chinese migrants to U.S

      • Mostly impoverished communities

    • Chinese emigrant brokers

    • Pg. 352 labour shortage in California

    • Indians exploited for labour

    • Indians being killed by whites

    • law made for arresting of indians who are “loitering”

    • Gold in hills of Sierra Nevada

    • Some left after adrenaline faded

    • Pg. 353 California very diverse

    • Tensions correlated with racial and ethnic factors

    • Allowed for pressure on U.S to handle territories statuses

  • Rising Sectional Tensions

    • Taylor thought statehood would solve problem

      • state gov would solve slavery question over fed gov

    • California signed anti-slavery constitution

    • anti-slavery supporters wanting to rid slavery from District of Columbia

    • Northerners making laws forbidding officers to return runaways

    • South scared over possibility of being minority in Senate due to rising in free states

    • Southerners beginning to talk of leaving union

  • The Compromise of 1850

    • Henry clay leading compromise efforts

    • He believed all issues between the sections had to be solved in order for themto address the compromise

    • Compromise made

      • California free state

      • All new acquired land made into territorial govt

      • Ablishing of slave trade not slavery

      • new fugitive law

    • Most beginning debates fought by old men

    • Calhoun argued for nnorth to end fight on slavery

    • and for dual presidency

      • one for north

      • other for south

    • Pg.354 New younger speaker William H Seward

    • Cared more for eliminating slavery over keeping union

    • Younger speakers came to compromise

    • President had to be changed Taylor died and was succeeded by Millard Fillmore

    • He was with compromise and put whigs in line to progress

  • Pg. 355 The Uneasy truce

    • Compromise was accepted

    • Prez candidates were unlinked with sections

    • Whigs affected negatively by sectional question

      • Most hate from anti-slavery activists

    • Pierce attempted to run without taking on the national questions

    • Fugitive slave act questioned when southerners went searching for runaways

  • “Young America”

    • Pierce avoiding sectionalism by involvement in in democratic party “Young America”

    • Wanted to spread democracy to entire world

    • Europe wanting REpublican setup like America

    • Wanting to expand commerce

    • wanting to expand territory to west of globe

      • however would cause chaos

    • Pierce wanted to buy Cuba from Spain

    • Suggestion was made to seize it

    • Northerners called it conspiracy to get new slave state

    • South wanted new territory to make slave state and equalise senate ruling

    • Hawaii wanted to join U.S

    • did not because it was pronounced not slave state

    • plan to annex Canada

    • evidently did not happen

  • Slavery, Railroads and the West

    • Slavery brought back the sectional crisis

    • White settlers wanting territorial govt

    • Wanted govt to remove tribes

    • People had issue with settlers wanting expansion

    • Comms became an issue from the old states to the new states

    • Idea for railroad rose to solve issue

    • Transcontinental railroad had to have a main hub somewhere

    • North and south had conflicting ideas

    • Southern approved route required unnacquirred land

    • Land was purchased for 10 mil

    • This created tension

  • The Kansas Nebraska Controversy

    • an Illinois senator wanted to support his section

    • He made bill to recognize Nebraska

    • THis was supposed to be a free state

    • However it was adjusted for the senator realised he needed southern support

      • Status would be chosen by section

    • Missouri Compromise was repealed

    • New land suggested

      • Kansas

    • Bill supported by President

      • This caused trouble

    • It destroyed the Whig Party

    • Divided Northern Democrats

    • It made new sectional supportive party

    • Both parties were anti Nebraska

    • New Party made

      • Republican Party

    • GAined lot of fame

      • Got enough seats in congress

        • allowed for organization of House of Reps

  • Bleeding Kansas

    • Events in Kansas had negative effects on the Northern Govt

    • Settlers began pouring into region

      • territorial legislature was in process of being organized

    • Majority were pro-slavery voters

    • Free state supporters he;d convention at Topeka

    • Gained support and organized themselves

    • wanted to appeal to Nebraskan current setup

    • Prez called them traitors

    • Posse made to capture free state leaders

      • free staters had set up at Lawrence

    • Posse ransacked and vandalized

    • Pg. 357 John Brown was a strong abolitionist

      • He believes gold told him to end slavery

    • He killed and mutilated 5 pro-slavery settlers and used them as fear tactic

      • Pottawatomie Massacre

    • led to civil violence

    • Charles Sumner was another rather extreme abolitionist

    • He called out Andrew P Butler in a speech

    • Butlers nephew was angered

      • Preston Brooks

    • Brooks assaulted Sumner with a cane

      • Sumner had to leave senate for four years

  • Pg. 359 The Pro Slavery Argument

    • Nat Turner Scared southerners into securing slavery and slaves

    • white southerners under heavy attack from abolitionists

    • Southerners wanting to diplomatically defend their position

      • Prof Thomas R Dew started proceedings on that

    • Twenty years later the Pro-Slavery Argument was made

    • Calhoun said slavery was good and that southerners should stop trying to mask that with necessity

      • It was said to help the slaves

    • Southerners said it was the basis of their way of life

      • it was Superior

    • south saw North as scum of U.s

    • People bashed on the factory system, the overpopulated cities

    • They said the south was good for it was average

    • Also argument thrived on “Black” inferiority

  • Buchanan and Depression

    • Prez campaign began

    • Democrats wanted to avoid prez like pierce

    • James Buchanan was chosen

      • was minister to England

    • Repubs denounced Neb act and expansion

    • Wanted internal improvements

    • Combining anti-slavery and economic aspirations of north

    • Repubs nominated John C Fremont

      • was explorer

    • Know nothing party  falling apart

    • Fillmore was nominated

    • Buchanan won

    • Fremont getting no votes from south

    • All votes from North

    • Buchanan was oldest prez

    • Pg. 360 He was incompetent, especially for the time of history he was in

    • Financial panic hit country

    • North was getting weak

    • People believed the democrats were causing depression

  • The Dred Scott Decision

    • Supreme court got involved in Sectionalistic issues

    • Scott was a n army surgeons slave who was taken into non slavery territory

    • Surgeon died

    • Scott sued the surgeons wife for his freedom since he was in free land

    • surgeons brother appealed and fought for ownership of Scott

    • Scott lost on grounds that he was not a citizen but orivate property and that he could not make lawsuit

    • Said that blacks have no rights under constitution

    • Very controversial court case

    • Repubs promised to reverse results of decision

  • The Emergence of Lincoln

    • Lincoln was most skillful politician of Republican party

      • Lincoln was a lawyer

    • Lincoln wanted to gain name by Debating Douglas

    • Lincoln rose above in Debate

    • Lincoln held his ground in slavery

    • He argued it was ruining the nation’s lower class in ever rising up

    • Lincoln found slavery morally wrong but was not an abolitionist because he couldn’t find an easier replacement

    • Douglass’ held his ground in debate but did not shine like Lincoln

  • John Brown’s Raid

    • South was shocked by event that happened in south

    • John Brown made plans to sieze a mountain to make a slave insurrection

    • He executed it

    • It didnt work too well

    • 10 of his men killed

    • Him and six others were captured, tried for treason and hanged

    • This scared the south in wanting to leave the union

    • south thought that all of North would create slave insurrection

  • The Election of Lincoln

    • Election of 1860 very complicated

    • Democrats torn apart

    • Demo party met at Charlestown South Carolina

    • Candidate was not chosen

    • Party adjourned

    • Stephen Douglas was nominated

    • ex-Whigs formed Constitutional Union Party

    • Repubs was trying to find people who saw the south as abstructions of a good future




CC notes


  • #17 John Sullivan said Americans had right to all land in America nit mattter the current inhabitant

    • 300,000 made trip to far west

      • game named after that

    • Many people died of disease

    • U.S had Oregon under control

    • Mexico had much of southwest U.S

      • Not many mexicans were in SW territory at the time

    • Mexico sold land for profit to America

      • The American sold small portions of that land to an American

        • He sold to other Americans who began migrating to the land

    • Mexico heard of this and annulled land sale and put ban on migration

    • Slavery abolished in MX

      • MX allowed Americans to bring Mexicans

    • MX wanted to end American influence

      • Militantly defended their beliefs

        • TX rebels wanted vengence

    • Defeated Mexicans in battle

      • MX had to recognise TX as independent

    • TX was lonestar republic

      • TX wanted to join Union

        • U.S did not want that b/c texas was slave state

    • TX ignored

    • Polk barely won prez

    • US Britian agreement on oregan

    • Polk wanted California

      • Polk sent troops to disputed land

    • fighting occurred

      • Americans for war

    • Polk wanted to declare his powers

    • Mexico was losing but did not give up

      • MC city captured

    • Peace treaty made

      • U.S got land

      • Mexico got 15 mil

    • U.S had land from atlantic to pacific

    • Many Mexicans and Natives were under U.S ;and

      • seen as inferior

      • MX were catholic

        • Nativism movement going on at the time did not help with all this

    • Not enough Americans in Cali to make it state

    • `then gold rush had migration

    • Chinese people began migrating to Cali

    • Mostly male migrants

    • only whites had rights

    • immigrant population dropping

    • Cali contradictory with 36-30 line

    • Taylor became prez

    • Cali free state

    • Clay had Compromise of 1850

      • very unreasonable

    • Manifest Destiny made civil war inevitable






  • #18 What caused the civil war

    • Economic systems

      • should they involve slavery or not

  • Fugitive slave law

    • there was already one

    • new one made

      • anyone with information on a runaway would have to return them to their owner

    • Bad because any free slave could be made into slave again

      • Many moved to Canada to avoid law

  • Railroads

    • efficient

    • Stephen Douglass wanted transcontinental railroad

      • Kansas Nebraska act made to help production of railroad

    • Allowed the new states to chose if free or slave

      • Was against Missouri compromise sayings

    • Republicans made from act

      • wanted to stop extentsion of slavery

        • Sectional party

  • Slave power

    • Conspiracy in congress

    • abolitionists saw it as not democratic

    • West seen as self sufficient

      • wanted it to remain free

    • John C Fremont Republican candidate

    • did well in election

    • Buchanan won

    • Kansas trying to become state

      • election fraudulent

    • free state supporters creating rival govt to the slave state supporters

    • Pro slavery forces attacked opponents with cannonball fire

    • Anti-slavery leader John Brown killed an entire family of pro-slave supporters in retaliation

    • Kansas had 2 constitutions

      • Congress kept Kansas out of Union for while

        • Accepted Kansas

    • Supreme court dealt with Dred Scott case

      • Court said Scott was a slave

    • Taney said blacks were inferior and that they were always slave

      • contradictory to free states

    • John Brown made raid for slave insurrection

      • he failed

      • Many killed

      • he was tried

        • He was hanged

    • Lincoln was republican candidate

    • he got name from debates

      • he lost election

    • Constitutional union party made

    • Lincoln received 0 votes

      • He won electoral college

    • States left union upon his choosing

    • 7 states left by the time he took office