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Unit 7 Notes
by NIHAL DHILLON - Saturday, November 14, 2015, 10:00 PM
 

Chapter 13 The Impending Crisis

  • Manifest Destiny(340-341)

    • John O’Sullivan

      • 1845

      • To expand is the god given right to America

        • American race was superior and so it was right to expand westward

      • Penny Press(newspaper company)

        • nationalist politicians

      • Some supported it and some did not, Henry Clay

    • Texas(341-343)

      • it was  apart of the Republic of Mexico

        • America tried to buy land twice before

        • American immigration was encouraged

        • 1824 a law was made to attract Americans

          • cheap land  and a four year exemption from taxes

        • by 1830 twice the amount of americans than Mexicans lived there

          • The land was suitable for cotton (southerns)

      • Stephen F. Austin

        • first legal settlement in 1822

        • 1826 intermediaries wanted to make texas its own independent nation

          • but the revolt was crushed

        • 1830 a law passed, no more immigration

        • 1833 mexico dropped the ban

    • Tensions

        • some people wanted to make Texas independent

        • some people wanted to legalize slavery

      • General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

        • took power into his own hands

        • a law was passed to strengthen the national government

        • Stephen was jailed because he felt that stephen was telling his followers to revolt

      • Alamo Mission

        • He led his army into texas

        • by 1836 people stopped rebelling

      • San Jacinto

        • General Sam Houston

        • April 23rd the captured Santa Anna as prisoner

          • he signed a treaty that gave Texas independence

          • Some Tejanos fought in the revolution

            • but the americans feared that they were secret agents

      • Texas wanted to become a part of the union

        • President Jackson did not want that as well as Van Buuren And William Henry Harrison due to the fact that it might cost them war with mexico.

        • Once they were rejected by America

          • they got help from European powers

            • Europeans liked this because they wanted to stop America from expanding

          • President Tyler  persuaded Texas to join but because they were a slave state the northerners said no

    • Oregon(343)

      • Joint Occupation - 1818 Treaty

        • Britain and America both had claims on Oregon and so citizens from both could access this part

        • The Americans had fur trader and fur trading companies

        • Missionaries thought that it was a good target for evangelical efforts

          • they also wanted to make sure that Catholic missionaries were not influencing the people there

        • Indians were living there

          • 1840 a lot of white settlers started coming

          • this hurt the population of the indians

            • the diseases measles spread

              • the indians blamed the white man for bring it and they killed 13 people

    • The Westward  Immigration(343-346)

      • The gold rush -1848 - California

      • A Lot of people migrated

        • those who could not afford it would join other people and families in return of being servants and working for them

        • People migrated for different reasons

          • but it was mostly was economic reasons

    • Life on the Trail

      • Most people met in one place and had a guide in the front and people following behind with wagons and livestock

      • 2,000 mile Oregon Trail

        • many hardships

        • 5-6 months

        • Had to go through mountains and terrains

        • people died on plagues and diseases

      • One tenth of one percent of immigrants died because of conflicts with the indians

        • The indians were helpful and would guide the people and trade with them

        • During the traill work was divided

          • Men drove and moved the wagon and repaired things

          • women cooked and cared for children

        • A lot of people migrated with neighbors because the trail was difficult

    • Expansion and War(346-350)

      • Clay and Buuren for the election of 1844

        • but James K Polk came in

          • Wanted to Annex Texas and Oregon

          • Represented Tennessee in the house of representative for 14 years

          • he won

      • Feb 1845 Texas became a state

      • The boundary was fixed at the 49th parallel for Oregon

      • Texas boundary dispute

        • the boundary was supposed to be at Rio Grande according to Americans but Mexicans wanted  Nueces river  to be the boundary

        • Mexican government opened up trading with Americans hoping it would help them

      • California

        • First traders started to go to California and trading there

        • Then some people started to settle there(the was a population mexicans there already)

        • Polk as well as Americans living there shared an interest of Adding California to The United States

      • The Mexican War

        • Slidell mission

          • Polk sent him there to try  to buy the land

            • that did not happen

          • The American Army waited for the Mexicans to make the first attack

          • There was opposition to the war

          • He told Taylor to capture the city and move forward

            • It did not happen as quickly as he wanted

            • Taylor could have been his rival if he succeeded

          • Bear Flag revolution

            • Fremont was there

              • there was a rebellion

                • autumn of 1846 California

          • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

            • Feb 2 1848

            • gave America California and New mexico and the boundary of Texas was now Rio Grande

              • paid 15 million

            • Antislavery leaders saw expansion as a way to get more slave states

    • Sectional Debate(351-355)

      • Wilmot Proviso

        • prohibit slavery in mexico

        • passed house and Failed senate

      • Polk’s proposal

        • extending the Mani Missouri compromise line

      • Squatter Sovereignty

        • States could decide if they wanted slavery

      • Election

        • Taylor won(Mexican War)

        • Free soil party

          • did not win but became a party

            • important

    • The California gold rush

      • San Francisco was almost empty because everyone was going there

      • The population of india increased from 14,000- 220,000

      • Fortyniners people who left everything and went to California

        • 95% were men

      • California didn't have many women and children

      • Chinese immigrants would come as merchants and free labors in hope to get money and go back

      • Indians- indentured labor

      • attracted many people from china, South America, Europe

    • Rising Sectional Tensions

      • Taylor believed that once the territories would become stated the government could decide what to do

        • California prohibited Slavery and was entered as a free state

      • The idea of free states entering the union upset the south because it would not remain balanced

    • The Compromise of 1850

      • Clay's proposal

        • Territorial governments in Mexico

        • California as a free state

        • fugitive laws

        • Abolishment of the slave trade but not slavery itself

      • Webster became secretary of state

    • Senate

        • William H Seward

        • Jefferson David

        • Stephen A Douglas

      • Taylor suddenly dies, 1850

  • The Crisis of the 1850’s(355-364)

      • Democrats

        • Franklin Pierce

      • Whigs

        • Winfield Scott

      • Free soil

        • John P Hale

      • Fugitive Slave act

        • there was oppositions

          • People from the south would come to the north

          • mobs were formed

          • there was anger

    • Democratic party → young America

    • Ostend Manifesto

      • angered the north because they thought a slave state was trying to be brought in

    • Hawai wanted to join in 1854 but the treaty died due to hawai entering as  a free state

    • Transcontinental railroad

      • Because communication is needed

      • the question was where would it be

      • Gadsden Purchase

        • 10 million was a strip of land throughout Mexico so they could build a railroad

    • Kansas-Nebraska(356)

      • Stephen A douglas

        • wanted the railroad to be there

        • wanted the north route

          • Manie MIssouri was repealed

          • In the louisiana purchase, the land above the 36-30

            • the area would be divided into two

              • one being the slave state Kansas

                • he wanted the support from the south

    • The republican Party

      • from anti-Nebraska Democrat and Whigs

    • People quickly went to Kansas

      • since there were more people who were pro-slavery

        • proslavery territorial legislature

          • president supported it

      • John Brown

        • God’s will to destroy slavery

        • wanted a free state

      • Pottawatomie Massacre

        • him and 6 people(4 were his sons)

        • killed 5 pro slavery settlers

      • Preston Brooks and Charles Sumner

        • After the speech Crime against kansas

        • preston beat sumner with a cane

      • The Free soil ideology

        • free soil and free labor

          • abolitionists and some white people were against slavery

            • Because of the threat

      • Pro Slavery Argument

        • southern apologists

          • good for the slaves because they had better conditions than the industrial workers up north

            • and that that was how two races lived together

            • southern way and southern life

      • Buchanan and depression

        • 1856

          • James buchanan

          • he was 65

          • Depression hit

            • helped the Republican party and more people moved towards antislavery

      • The Dred Scott Decision(360)

        • 1857

          • Dred Scott v. Stanford

            • Stanford took like slave Scott from missouri to mIllion and Wisconsin

            • after he died Scott said that he was free because slavery was forbidden there but eventually Tanney said that he was property

      • Kansas

        • Lecompton constitution was rejected

        • 1861 Kansas entered as  a free state

      • Lincoln

        • 1858

        • he was a lawyer

        • he lost the election and he had some followers

        • Douglas won

      • John Brown’s Raid

        • there was a raid on Harpers Ferry

          • he wanted slaves to rebel

          • him and his 18 men were caught

          • he did not surrender until 10 of his men were shot

          • he was sentenced to death

      • The election of Lincoln

        • 1860

        • Sectional divisions

          • south slavery

          • west popular sovereignty

        • Lincoln won due to his moderate stand on slavery



Crash Course 17

  • John O'Sullivan

    • Manifest destiny

      • Americans can take land between  atlantic and pacific ocean(it was their god given right)

  • 1816

    • Oregon

      • 300,000 people

  • Mexico

    • Moses Austin

      • his son sold small pieces of lang

        • Mexico banned immigration

    • March 13 1836

      • battle- alamo

      • 1837- Texas wanted to be a slave state

        • Congress annexed Texas

          • oregon treaty 1846

            • restored free state/slave state balce

            • James K Polk

              • wanted mexico

                • sent soldiers because they said no

                • Transcendentalist - Henry David

        • Feb 18 1847

          • Treaty of Guadalupe

            • Texas and California

              • Nativism

                • against immigration and Catholicism

                • Mexicans were catholic

      • 1852

        • California Indian population increased

          • men to women 3:1

      • 1850 - California constitution

        • Civil participation was limited to whites

          • Indian population decreased

        • As a free state

          • Henry Clay

            • 4  part plan

            • The Compromise of 1850

              • California is a free state

              • Slave trade outlawed in Washington DC

              • New fugitive slave law enacted

              • popular sovereignty



Crash Course 18


  • The fugitive slave law

    • any citizen could turn in a slave

      • people of color moved to Canada

    • Railroad

      • made shipping easy and efficient

        • wanted continental railroad

    • Kansas - Nebraska act

      • white resident could decide if they wanted slavery

      • Conflict due to Maine- Missouri compromise

        • republicans

      • Sectional

        • free states and north

    • Slave Power

      • North had more congressional rep

        • extending slavery

        • North was together due to economic relations

      • James Buchanan

        • 1854-1855 - Kansas wanted to become a state

        • fighting 1856

          • john brown

            • killed a family

          • Pro slavery - Stephen Douglas

          • 1861 as a free state

    • Supreme Scott

      • Roger B. Taney

      • Dred Scott

        • Slave owner could take their slaves to a free state but their slaves would not be free

      • 1859 John Brown

        • wanted to get guns and give it to slaves so they can rebel

        • he was a bad commander\

        • was sentenced to death because he was caught

      • Abraham Lincoln

        • won 40%

      • Lincoln 1861

        • 7 state conceded