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Unit 7
by THOMAS MCNULTY - Saturday, November 14, 2015, 10:04 PM


Unit 7


Crash Course:


  1. Manifest Destiny

    1. John O'Sullivan coined Manifest Destiny

      1. Idea that Americans had a god given right to claim all the land in North America to the Pacific Ocean

    2. 1860, more than 300,000 people had made the trip on the Oregon Trail

    3. Oregon was controlled by US and Britain, California, Nevada, Texas, New Mexico, Arizona, and Utah were owned by Mexico

      1. The only real populated areas where New Mexico and California, where the Mexicans were still outnumbered by the Native Americans

  2. Thought Bubble

    1. Mexico gained a lot of land, but had little people

      1. To encourage economic development, they gave some land to Moses Austin

      2. Steven Austin sold it off in small amounts to Americans, totaling at 7,000

    2. Mexico was nervous so they cancelled the contract and banned further immigration

    3. Austin wanted slave labor to be allowed

    4. Santa Ana wanted to assert more control and sent an army into the region

      1. This turned it into a full scale revolt

    5. The American Defenders of the Alamo were defeated

      1. Americans Remember the Alamo and came back in the battle of San Jacinto

      2. Texas became the Lone Star Republic, but wanted to join the US

    6. When Texas asked for acceptance, they were declined because it would add 1 more slave state, throwing off the balance

    7. South rallied behind James K. Polk

    8. Congress annexe Texas in response to Polk's coming to presidency

    9. Congress agreed to divide Oregon along the 49th parallel

      1. This restored the balance of slave to non-slave state

  3. Polk’s Goals

    1. Polk also wanted to obtain California

      1. He first tried to buy it, but he was declined

    2. Polk in response sent troops into the disputed Texas region, hoping for war under Zachary Taylor

    3. One of the war opponents was Henry David Thoreau

      1. He was thrown in jail for refusing to pay taxes consequence of the war

    4. When Santa Anna's army was defeated, they refused to give up

      1. America consequently took all Mexico City

      2. Final treaty, Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo  gave Texas and California in exchange for 15 million

  4. In the land that was gained

    1. Mexicans and Native Americans were now under the US

      1. While they were granted rights, they were still seen as inferior

    2. In California, there wasn’t enough people, until gold was found

      1. Population increased exponentially

    3. Early constitution of California limited civil participation to only whites

      1. Many Indians were kicked off the land

  5. Free Soil

    1. California was at a standstill about its slave stance

      1. Free soilers advocated for limiting slavery in the West so that whites could thrive there

    2. Zachary Taylor won the election

  6. California Admittance

    1. California was finally admitted as a free state

      1. South freaked out over possible slavery end

    2. Henry Clay had an idea for a compromise

      1. California would be a free state

      2. Slave trade would be allowed in DC

      3. New fugitive slave law would be enacted harshly

      4. Popular Sovereignty

    3. The compromise was debated, but eventually passed


  1. What the Compromise Did Wrong

    1. New slave law made all US citizens required to turn in slaves

      1. Northerners had to enforce a law they didn’t like

    2. In response, many slaves moved to Canada

    3. Convinced many northerners that the government was in the hands of a slave power

  2. Thought Bubble

    1. Railroads made shipping cheaper, more efficient, and travel easier

    2. Stephen Douglas wanted a transcontinental railroad

      1. Liked it because it would hopefully bind the nation together, and it would go through his home state Illinois

    3. Problem was that it would go through unorganized land if it went through Illinois

    4. Douglas then pushed forward the Kansas-Nebraska act to organize the region

      1. Used the idea of popular sovereignty to keep him impartial on the topic

    5. The contrast between the Missouri compromise and the Kansas Nebraska act led to a lot of violence between pro and anti slavery people

      1. Called Bleeding Kansas

    6. This created the Republican Party

  3. Kansas’ Problem

    1. People from Missouri would go to Kansas and vote pro slavery

      1. In response, free state people would come in and do the same

      2. Fighting broke out

      3. John Brown was a famous fighter

    2. Kansas ultimately passed 2 constitutions

      1. Lecompton Constitution was for slavery but it was forced and not Kansas’ actual stance

      2. There was another vote that was passed and they agreed to be a free state

  4. The Supreme Court

    1. Dred Scott went to Illinois with his master, and he sued his master for he was living in Illinois which was a free state

      1. The court said that he was a slave and that since he was black, he had no rights in courts

    2. Technically, there was then no free state

      1. People really convinced that entire government was controlled by slave power

  5. John Brown

    1. 1859, John Brown led a raid on an entire arsenal at Harpers Ferry

      1. Wanted to give the guns to the slaves and they would fight their masters

    2. The raid was a bust and he was sentenced to death, but he was thought as a martyr to the Abolitionists

  6. The Election of 1860

    1. Republicans choose Abraham Lincoln

    2. Proved his stance by debating Stephen Douglas

    3. The Democrats were a mess

      1. North was Douglas but he couldn’t appeal to the south

      2. South was John C. Breckenridge but he couldn’t appeal to the North

    4. The Constitutional Union party was wanted to keep the constitution as it was

      1. Nominated John Bell

    5. Lincoln won 0 votes in 9 states and so when he won, those 9 states were upset

      1. A number of Southern states consequently succeeded from the Union


  1. Looking Westward (340)

    1. US got more than 1 million square miles in the 1840’s

      1. US had all modern US except Alaska, Hawaii, and small regions

      2. Many thousands of Americans looking to “Manifest Destiny”

  2. Manifest Destiny (340)

    1. Manifest Destiny reflected American Nationalism and the vision of social perfection

      1. Said that Americans should obtain all North America and other places which was destined by God and History

      2. It was thought as good because it would expand liberty

  3. Racial Justification (340)

    1. The idea was also part of spreading the white population

      1. The areas that they were spreading were homes to Indians and Mexicans who were thought as racially inferior

    2. The Americans disagreed about how far Manifest Destiny meant

      1. Some thought the world, others thought smaller, some thought forcefully, others peacefully

  4. Opposition to Further Expansion (341)

    1. Some people opposed Manifest Destiny

      1. Henry Clay feared that it would reopen the controversy of slavery

      2. Was not heard by many and ignored

    2. 1840’s, America wanting to obtain Texas and Oregon

      1. 1820, Mexico allowed Americans into Texas to hopefully strengthen the economy

      2. Liked the idea of Americans in between Mexico and Northern Indians

      3. Wanted to build trust with the US and stop possible encroachments into Mexico

    3. Since the land in Mexico was cotton soil, most immigrants were Southerners

  5. Stephen Austin (341)

    1. Most immigrants were through American intermediaries

      1. These were Americans who got large plots of land and were told to bring immigrants with them

    2. Stephen Austin was one who established the first settlement in 1822 and was very successful

      1. These people were effective but also created centers of power

      2. They tried to have a revolt, but it was crushed

    3. In 1833, Mexico made an immigration ban in result to the revolt

      1. More than 30,000 Americans were inside of Texas in 1835

    4. Immigrants want stronger bonds with the US and are still sharing cultural and economic ties

      1. They also want slavery to be legalized, all this caused friction with the Mexican government

    5. The solutions ranged from a peaceful settlement to a fight for independence

    6. In the mid 1830’s, General Antonio Lopez de Santa was the new dictator

      1. He imposed a more conservative regime on the territory's

    7. A new law passed in Mexico gave the National government more power and the State govs less

      1. Texans saw this as aimed at them

      2. They imprisoned Austin for encouraging revolts

    8. Fighting between the Mexicans and Americans began in 1835 and the Mexican government sent more troops into Texas

      1. In 1836, the settlers declared independence

    9. The settlers were having trouble organizing a defense

      1. Americans brutally defeated in Alamo Mission involving Davy Crockett

      2. End 1836, rebellion mostly collapsed, fleeing to Louisiana

  6. San Jacinto (342)

    1. General Sam Houston kept a small force together

      1. April 24, 1836 at the Battle of San Jacinto defeated the army and took Santa Anna prisoner

      2. Santa Anna signed a treaty giving Texas independence

    2. The remaining Mexican residents were feared by the Americans and many were drove off or had to live with a lower status

  7. Opposition to Annexation (342)

    1. Texans hoped for an American annexation

    2. Sam Houston who was president of Texas sent a delegation asking to join the Union

      1. Expansionists very happy over this idea

      2. Northerners opposed this idea of acquiring such a large slave territory

      3. Others didn’t like increasing Souths votes in Congress

      4. Jackson opposed to idea because of possible sectional controversy and possible war with Mexico

      5. Van Buren and Harrison also pushed it off

    3. Texas turned to Europe for support

      1. Dreamed of competitive nation with the US that goes to the Pacific

      2. This was appealing to the Europeans

    4. President Tyler persuaded Texas to ask to be a state in 1844

      1. Calhoun presented it as if it was only to extend slavery

      2. The North rebelled accordingly and it was revoked

  8. Disputed Claims (343)

    1. Control of Oregon is also a major 1840s political issue

      1. America and Britain proposed claims to that region

      2. 1818, treaty allowed Joint Occupation of American and British residents

    2. Originally, occupation of Oregon was home to fur traders

    3. 1820s and 30s, America becomes more interested

      1. Good for Evangelical reasons

    4. Indians went from Oregon to Missouri and died and people saw this as an invitation for westward expansion

      1. They also wanted to combat the Catholic Canadian missionaries that were in the region

    5. When the missionaries came from America, they had little success converting Indians, and the missionaries told settlers to come over since they were salty

  9. Conflict Between Settlers and Indians (343)

    1. A large amount of settlers went to Oregon in 1840

      1. They soon outnumbered the British

    2. Measles spread to the Indians and decimated the Indian population in Oregon

    3. Americans spread down the Pacific coast

    4. These migrations were part of a larger movement during the 1840s to 1860s

      1. Mostly Old Northwesterners who were searching for new opportunities

    5. 1850s gold rush in California attracted a lot of people

      1. Most of the people that went on these voyagers were not poor but had some money

    6. If they were heading off to be lumberjacks, it would normally be men but if it was say farming it would be in families

      1. Some of the migrants were looking for quick gold in 1848

      2. Others looking for property

  10. Oregon Trail (344)

    1. 300,000 migrants between 1840 and 1860

      1. They went to major depots in Missouri and Iowa

      2. They were then led in a pack by hired guides

    2. The major route West was the 2,000 mile long Oregon Trail

      1. When they got past the Rocky Mountains, they either went South along the California Trail or North to Oregon

    3. While the death rate was only slightly higher than the death rate in America, the deserts and mountains were very difficult

      1. Trips lasted 6 months from May to November

    4. Many people died from plagues ironically sometimes escaping the city diseases

    5. Before the civil war, only 400 migrants died from Indians which was very small

      1. They often helped out with guiding and tough sections and traded

      2. They actually died more when they came into contact, but it was still small

  11. Life on the Trial (345)

    1. Trial life different from farm life and city life

    2. Interactions and roles were very similar though

      1. Men drived, fixed the wagon, and hunted

      2. Women cooked, washed clothes, cared for the children

    3. Most people walked the way to lighten the horses loads

    4. The trips were usually collective experiences

      1. Normally they were in groups of friends and family

    5. This was because the trips were very isolated with little human interaction

    6. The growing number of Americans in Oregon, Texas, and other territories made the US government feel pressured to annex

      1. Pushed America into a war in 1840s

    7. Preparations for the election of 1844 occurring

      1. Henry Clay and Van Buren staying away from the annexation of Texas

      2. Clay won the nomination for the Whigs despite his noncommittal position, but Southern Democrats liked annexation so Van Buren was substituted for James K. Polk

  12. James K. Polk (346)

    1. He had represented Tennessee in the House of Representatives as the speaker of the House for 14 years

      1. By 1844, he had been out of public office for 3 years

    2. He offered the idea of annexation of both Texas and Oregon and won because of the appeal to the expansionists

    3. John Tyler on his way out of office annexed Texas in December 1845

  13. Compromise over Oregon (346)

    1. Polk first tried to establish the US border at the 49th parallel proposed to Britain

      1. In response, he claimed all of Oregon

    2. War was talked about on both sides and the slogan “Fifty-Four Forty or Fight” arose (This was the ideal US boundary)

    3. Eventually since both sides didn’t want war, the line was drawn at the 49th parallel in 1846

  14. Texas Boundary in Dispute (346)

    1. One of the reasons the boundary was so quickly settled was because of tensions in the Southwest

      1. Ultimately led to a war with Mexico

      2. As soon as the State was annexed, the Mexicans broke diplomatic relations with the US government

    2. The Texans claimed Rio Grande as their Western and Southern border

      1. Mexico, still salty, argued that the border was the Nueces River

    3. Polk agreed with Texas and sent a small army under General Zachary Taylor to protect against attacks

    4. New Mexico like Texas had the same fate where Mexico let Americans in, hoping to speed up development in the 1820s

  15. American Interests in California (347)

    1. California was a Mexican province

    2. Originally, it was home to some Indian tribes and about 7,000 Mexicans

      1. Then, slowly came the Americans who started off with sporadic trading, then Merchants, then the Farmer

    3. Polk wanted California, New Mexico, and safety in Texas from the Mexicans

      1. Polk secretly when he sent Taylor to Texas said to seize the Californian ports if war was declared

  16. Failure of the Slidell Mission (347)

    1. Polk sent John Slidell to try to buy off the Mexicans land he wanted

      1. When it was declined, he ordered Taylor to cross the Nueces River on January 13, 1846

      2. When they moved forward, some Mexican troops crossed the Rio Grande and attacked

      3. On May 13, 1846, War was declared on Mexico

  17. Opposition to the War (347)

    1. The Whigs were in total opposition to the war

      1. Said that Polk tried to make the war happen

      2. Said that he staged the attack on the soldiers

    2. People were upset about the focus on Mexico and not the Pacific Northwest

      1. The agreement with Britain was thought to be less than desirable

    3. Opposition intensified as the war progressed and the expense/casualties appeared

    4. Taylor was ordered to take parts of Northeast Mexico and then take Mexico City

      1. He captured Monterrey on Sept. 16 1846 but let the Garrison evacuate

      2. He feared that he couldn’t take Mexico City and that if he did, he would be a powerful political rival

  18. Bear Flag Revolution (348)

    1. Polk ordered other attacks on New Mexico and California

      1. Summer 1846, Stephen W. Kearny captured Santa Fe

      2. He then went to California to join in the fight fought by American settlers, an exploring party led by John C. Fremont, and the American Navy

      3. Called the Bear Flag Revolution

    2. By Autumn 1846, California had been captured

    3. Polk and General Winfield Scott, the commanding general, launched an attack that started at Tampico, where they went to Veracruz along the coast

      1. They advanced with an army of 14,000, 260 miles along the Mexican National Highway towards Mexico City

      2. They lost few people and seized the capital

  19. Treaty of Guadaloupe Hidalgo (348)

    1. A new Mexican government was willing to make a peace treaty

    2. Polk was pro annexation of Mexico but was worried about the upcoming election

      1. He sent Nicholas Trist to negotiate a treaty

    3. February 2, 1848, Treaty of Guadaloupe Hidalgo established

      1. Gave US California, New Mexico, and the boundary of Texas at the Rio Grande

      2. US paid Mexico 15 million

      3. He met most demands, but didn’t obtain any Mexican land itself

    4. He could only accept the treaty to silence the radical expansionists and the antislavery leaders

  20. Wilmot Proviso (351)

    1. In August 1846, Polk tried buy peace with Mexico

    2. David Wilmot proposed that no slavery should be allowed in the states obtained

      1. Called the Wilmot Proviso

    3. It was tossed around for years

      1. Southerners said that they should be allowed to move their property i.e. slaves

  21. Competing Plans (351)

    1. Polk proposed the idea that the Missouri line should be extended to the Pacific

    2. Another plan was called the Squatter Sovereignty or Popular Sovereignty

      1. This was people of each state could say if they wanted it to be slave or no slave

    3. It was never agreed upon and was that way even after Polk left office

    4. Debate of 1848 happening and Polk is not running

      1. Both the Democrats and the Whigs avoided the Slavery Question

      2. Polk was not going to run

      3. Democrats chose Lewis Cass

      4. Whigs chose General Zachary Taylor

    5. Opponents of Slavery formed the Free-Soil Party

      1. Stood for anti-slavery

      2. Candidate was Martin Van-Buren

  22. Free-Soil Party (351)

    1. Zachary barely won but the Soldiers got 10 members into Congress

    2. These new parties being formed showed that the Whig/Democrat system wasn’t in depth with the passions slavery was creating

    3. Taylor needed to solve the Slavery Question fast because of the California Gold Rush

      1. January 1848, James Marshall found traces of Gold in California and word spread causing thousands of Americans to voyage to California

  23. Forty-Niners (351)

    1. The people who migrated to California were mostly men and they went as fast as they could

      1. They abandoned farms, jobs, houses, families and traveled

    2. Gold Rush also attracted some of the first Chinese

      1. Mostly the poor Chinese that heard about it and thought could get rich

  24. Indian Slavery (352)

    1. Since most people were going to the gold fields in California, there were many job opportunities in California

    2. Indians were being killed by Indian Hunters and were being enslaved for being orphaned or loitering

    3. Many people got rich from the gold rush but not many found gold

      1. Some went back home, others stayed in California and swelled the population

      2. California very diverse now from all the places that sent immigrants

    4. Since it was such a diverse area, racial tensions occurred over who owned the gold

    5. Taylor believed that statehood could solve the issue of slavery in the territories

      1. Made California decide what kind of state it wanted, they chose non-slave, and then admitted them

    6. Congress disagreed with this for a number of reasons

      1. The Antislavery movements trying to abolish slavery in DC

      2. Personal Liberty Laws which made runaways from the South in the North unable to be returned

      3. White South's fear of adding two more non-slave states to the union

  25. Sectional Conflict over Slavery in the Territories (352)

    1. Tempers rising over slavery

      1. Talking of Southern secession

      2. North, all but 1 state legislature demanded prohibition of slavery in the territories

  26. Clay’s Proposed Solution (352)

    1. 1849-1850 winter spent on thinking of a compromise

      1. Henry Clay believed that the compromise had to end it all at once

    2. January 29, 1850, compromise proposed

      1. California free state

      2. No restrictions on slavery in all other regions acquired from Mexico

      3. Abolition of slave trade in DC but not slavery

    3. Debate launched and it happened in two phases

      1. First phase was led by older voices on how to save the nation

    4. In July, congress dismissed Clay's proposal

      1. The leaders had either left or died and it was time for a younger group

  27. New Leadership

    1. William H. Seward was a political operator who hated the proposed compromise

      1. Ideals of the Union less important than the emancipation of slavery

    2. Stephen A. Douglass was from Illinois and advocated for the economic needs of the sections

    3. These leaders were able to come to a compromise

      1. This was partially due to Zachary Taylor out of office

      2. Taylor was adamant about admitting California and other states and then compromise

      3. Taylor was replaced by Millard Fillmore

  28. Temporary Compromise (354)

    1. When Clay was gone, Douglass broke the way of passing all at once and switched it to separate measures to be voted on one by one

    2. By mid September, 1850, the compromise was enacted

    3. The compromise held strong for 4 years but then broke again

    4. 1852 election happening , Democrats choose Franklin Pierce Whigs choose a war hero

    5. The Whigs were hurting in the election after losing a lot of supporters to the Free-Soil Party for being too impartial

    6. Franklin Pierce was elected

  29. Opposition to the Fugitive Slave Act (355)

    1. Pierce tried to stay peaceful and out of the issue of slavery

      1. Tensions arose after 1850 about the Fugitive Slave Act

      2. Southerners appeared in Northern cities looking for slaves

      3. Mobs formed in the North to keep them out and laws were passed to stop deportations

    2. South was upset because their one victory in the compromise of 1850 was being defied

    3. Pierce tried to prevent sectional controversy by  promoting the Young America movement

      1. Tried to get their minds of territories and into spreading democracy through the world

  30. Ostend Manifesto (355)

    1. Pierce was trying to buy Cuba from Spain

      1. In 1854, Pierces Envoys sent him a private document from Ostend, Belgium talking about seizing Cuba by force

      2. Called the Ostend Manifesto

    2. When the public found out, the Antislavery activists were enraged for them trying to introduce another slave state

    3. The South was in total opposition to any new territories that didn’t include slavery

      1. Hawaii proposed itself, but it prohibited slavery, then was disapproved because of this

      2. Canada was similar

  31. Transcontinental Railroad and Slavery (356)

    1. As the nation expanded, the need for better transportation arose

      1. Didn’t know where to put it and where to put the Eastern terminus

      2. North wanted Chicago, South wanted New Orleans a few others

  32. Gadsden Purchase (356)

    1. Jefferson Davis removed the difficulty in a Southern terminus

      1. He sent in 1853, James Gadsden to Mexico and paid 10 million for a strip of land for the railway

    2. Douglass wanted the terminus in his home of Illinois but there was an argument against it being that it went through a lot of Indian territory

      1. He organized a bill for the opening of the area of Nebraska in 1854

  33. Kansas-Nebraska Act (356)

    1. He knew the South would be opposed because it would be a free state

      1. He then said that it would be up to Nebraska's state legislature to determine its stance

      2. When they demanded more, he repealed the Missouri compromise and divided it into Nebraska and Kansas which was more likely to be a slave state

      3. Pierce supported it and it was passed May 1854

  34. Birth of the Republican Party (6)

    1. The Act destroyed the Whig party, divided the Northern democrats, and created the Republican Party

      1. People who opposed the bill called themselves Anti-Nebraska Whigs/Democrats , 1854 they combined to be the Republicans

    2. The Republicans were very successful and managed to in the year gain enough seats in Congress to organize the House of Representatives

    3. Events in Kansas increased political turmoil in the North

      1. When Kansas was created, Americans immediately went to settle there

    4. Kansas was asked to vote on its stance on slavery

      1. There were little voters but some armed bands came from Missouri swelled the voting

      2. Thus, Kansas was created Pro slavery

      3. The free staters met in Topeka and adopted a constitution excluding slavery

    5. Pierce disregarded them and declared it a slave state

      1. A few months later, a federal marshall and a posse of Missourians arrested the free state leaders and burned the governor's house

  35. Pottawatomie Massacre (357)

    1. John Brown was one of the more enthusiastic abolitionists

      1. Moved to Kansas to fight for Kansas freedom from slavery

    2. In one night he murdered 5 pro slavery settlers in Kansas with his sons after the events

      1. He left their bodies mutilated for others to be afraid of, called the Pottawatomie Massacre

    3. Civil warfare broke out inside of Kansas

      1. Called Bleeding Kansas

    4. May 1846, Charles Sumner was an opponent of slavery that gave a speech

      1. Called The Crime Against Kansas

      2. Called out the senator of South Carolina for being the ring leader

  36. Preston Brooks and Charles Sumner (357)

    1. This speech enraged his nephew Preston Brooks

      1. He went as far as to beat him at his desk

    2. He was beat so badly that he couldn’t return to senate for 4 years

    3. Both were considered heroes, Sumner for the barbarism of the South, and Brooks for his attack

  37. Free Soil” Ideology (357)

    1. The reason for the hostility increasing was largely because each region wanted its vision of America

    2. Northerners believed in Free Soil and Free Labor

      1. They believed this not because slavery was immoral, but because it threatened whites

  38. Slave Power Conspiracy” (358)

    1. South was seen as opposite of Democracy

      1. Slavery held people to their economic positions (No up or down)

    2. Northern idea that the South was trying to spread their system

      1. Only way to prevent it was to fight it and extend Democracy

  39. The Pro-Slavery Argument (359)

    1. Southerners have opposite opinion

      1. Nat Turner's uprising made slave owners want to make slavery secure

      2. More cotton made slavery an essential need

      3. Abolitionists targeting southern society

    2. In response, they created a defense of slavery

      1. Thomas R. Dew started the argument

      2. 20 years later it was compiled into The Pro-Slavery Argument

    3. It argued that slavery was good and that it gave slaves better conditions than Northern Workers

      1. Said that this was the only way that two races could live together

      2. Helped entire nation because slavery was a lucrative industry

    4. Most importantly, they saw it as a superior way of life

      1. Saw North associated with greed and evil

    5. There was also some racial inferiority in the argument

  40. Election of 1856 (359)

    1. James Buchanan was chosen in the election for the Democrats

      1. He was not involved in the recent controversies so he was good

    2. Republicans choose John C. Fremont

    3. Buchanan won the election

    4. Because he was so old, he was very passive

    5. When Buchanan was in office, later on there was a panic and a depression

      1. Many manufacturers moved towards the Republicans because they believed it was because of Southern Democrats

    6. March 6, 1857, supreme court had the Dred Scott v. Sandford case

      1. Dred Scott was a Missouri slave and he went to Missouri

      2. When his master died, he said that he was free because he was at one point in Wisconsin

      3. He was declared free in the Missouri courts

      4. It was then reversed in the State Supreme court and it was taken to Federal Courts

  41. Taney’s Sweeping Opinion (360)

    1. Taney said that he could not bring the case into federal courts because he was not a citizen

      1. South was very happy, North was not happy

    2. Buchanan wanted to admit Kansas to the Union as a slave state

  42. Lecompton Constitution Rejected (362)

    1. The Lecompton Constitution was drafted by pro-slavery people which supported slavery

      1. It was rejected by Kansas multiple times

    2. Western Democrats also hated the document

    3. Compromise was reached that if Kansas accepted it they would be accepted, and if they didn’t they would be postponed

      1. They denied it again

    4. In 1861, Kansas finally entered the Union

  43. Lincoln-Douglas Debate (362)

    1. Senate election between Douglas (Democrat) and Lincoln (Republican)

      1. Lincoln was less known, but the debate was his way of getting known

    2. Lincoln claimed that immigrants were given rights and they were fine, so they how come blacks can’t have rights

      1. Also argued that if slavery extended than poor whites would lose job opportunities

  44. Lincoln’s Position (363)

    1. Lincoln didn’t like slavery but knew it had to exist

    2. He also viewed blacks as inferior

    3. Wanted to stop the spread and have it die out in the south on its own

    4. Douglas was put into senate, but it was an ok term while Lincoln grew in power

  45. John Brown’s Raid (363)

    1. Fall 1859, John Brown enraged the South

      1. Financed by some Abolitionists, he planned to seize a mountain fortress in Virginia, hoping to cause a slave insurrection

    2. He attacked an arsenal in Harpers Ferry Virginia, but there was no insurrection and so they were defeated, then he was hanged after trial

    3. The South saw this as an attack from the Northern Republicans (this was false)

  46. Divided Democrats (363)

    1. Democrats torn between south who are pro slavery, and North who hated slavery

      1. No consensus was met and so they agreed to meet again

    2. The Democrats in the South nominated John C. Breckinridge

    3. Northern Democrats nominated Douglas

      1. Ex Whigs formed the Constitutional Union Party and nominated John Bell

    4. Republicans chose Abraham Lincoln

    5. Lincoln won

  47. Disunion (346)

    1. Soon after Lincoln was in, the South started the de-unionizing process

      1. Felt as though they had no say in the political system