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Unit 7 Notes
by SOPHIE HARRINGTON - Sunday, November 15, 2015, 10:51 AM
 

Sophie Harrington

Mr. Kann

HN U.S. 1, Period 2

9 November, 2015


Unit 7 Notes, Pages 340-364


Headings/Phrases/

Vocab:


Looking Westward: Manifest Destiny (p. 340-341)





















Americans in Texas (p. 341)
























Tensions Between U.S. and Mexico (p. 341-343)







































Oregon (p. 343)
























Westward Migration (p. 343-344)













Life on the Trail (p. 344-346)

























Expansion and War: The Democrats Expansion (p. 346)















The Southwest and California (p. 346-347)


















The Mexican War (p. 347-351)




















The Sectional Debate: Slavery and the Territories (p. 351)












California Gold Rush (p. 351-353)



























Rising Sectional Tensions (p. 353)













The Compromise of 1850
















The Crises of the 1850s: The Uneasy Truce (p. 355)








“Young America” (p. 355)













Slavery, Railroads, and the West (p. 355-356)













Kansas-Nebraska Controversy (p. 356)












“Bleeding Kansas” (p. 356-357)
















Free-Soil Ideology (p. 357-359)


















Pro-Slavery Argument (p. 359)















Buchanan and Depression (p. 359-360)








The Dred Scott Decision (p. 360-361)


















Deadlock over Kansas (p. 361-362)















Emergency of Lincoln (p. 362-363)
















John Brown’s Raid (p. 363)








The Election of Lincoln (p. 363-364)

Notes:



  • 1840: U.S. acquires 1,000,000 more square miles of land

    • Westward Expansion

      • Expansion due to Americans who invested in new territory

  • Manifest Destiny:

    • Idea: America destined, by God and history, to expand boundaries (all of North America)

    • Reflected pride of American nationalists

      • represented the racial justification in the political system

      • defended “American race” superiority

        • white supremacy

        • other races “unfit” to be apart of “American” community

    • Westward Expansion = spread political system and racially defined society

      • Spread through “Penny Press” - tabloid newspapers

        • arguments about how much the nation should expand   

    • Opposition to further expansion: Henry Clay and other politicians feared the territorial expansion = reopen controversy about slavery

      • threaten stability of Union


  • 1800s: U.S. claims Texas, Louisiana purchase - but until 1830s apart of Mexico

    • U.S. has to rebuy Texas from Mexico

    • 1820s: Mexico encourages American immigration into Texas

      • goal: strengthen economy, increase tax revenue

        • Americans provide as buffer between Mexicans and Native Americans

      • hope: Americans become loyal to Mexican Government

      • result: Mexico loses Texas

        • Americans colonize Texas

        • Americans become attracted to rich soil, good for plantations

        • Mexican Gov offers land to immigrants

          • Stephen Austin: young immigrant from Missouri, established first legal American settlement in Texas, 1822

            • created center of powers in region

            • led revolt to make Texas independent nation

            • Mexicans crush revolt, pass 4 laws barring American immigration into Texas

              • too late, Americans kept going to Texas


  • Problems Grew:

    • Immigrants want ties w/ Mexico

    • Want to legalize slavery

      • Mexican Gov had made illegal, 1830

    • Americans: how do we address unhappiness about Mexican rule?

      • S. Austin: reach peaceful settlement w/ Mexico

      • Others: fight for independence

  • General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna: seized power as Mexican dictator

    • imposed more conservative regime on nation and territories

    • Mexico unstable

    • Laws passed: increase power of national gov. of Mexico, at expense of state govs -> directed at Americans in Texas

      • Stephen Austin: imprisoned by Mexicans, “encouraging revolts among Americans”

      • 1835: fighting between U.S. and Mexico breaks out

        • Santa Anna and army march into Texas

        • Americans having problems organizing a defense

        • Multiple factions claiming to be “real” gov.

      • 1836: rebellion collapses

        • Americans flee to Louisiana to escape Santa Anna’s army

        • San Jacinto, April 23, 1836: General Sam Houston’s army defeats Mexican army

          • Santa Anna held prisoner

          • Texas gains independence from Mexico

  • American Texas: hoped annexation by U.S.

    • Sam Houston:  president of Texas

      • sends delegates to Washington w/ offer to join Union

        • some states want westward expansion, others are opposed

          • Opposition: Northerners feared giant new slave territory, opposed increasing southern votes in Congress/Electoral college

            • A. Jackson: opposed annexation b/c afraid it would spark sectional controversy and war w/ Mexico

    • Texas Question: central issue in election of 1844


  • 1840s: Control over Oregon country, major political issue

    • 1/2 million square miles included present states of Oregon, Washington, Idaho, parts Montana & Wyoming, 1/2 Brit. Columbia

      • Britain and U.S. claimed sovereignty in region

        • British: exploration in 1790s

        • Americans: simultaneous claims by Robert Gray, fur trader

      • 1818, “Joint Occupation”: agreed to let citizens of both countries equal access to territory

        • neither country had established major presence in Oregon country

          • home to fur traders

        • American interest grew 1820s/30s

          • missionaries wanted area for evangelical efforts, westward expansion = good  

          • white Americans emigrating to Oregon, 1840s

            • outnumber British

            • devastated Indian population through measles epidemic

              • tribes blamed Whitman mission for plague


  • 1840-1860: hundreds of thousands of white and black Americans move into far west region of continent

    • Southerners to Texas

    • Old Northwesterns had biggest flock: men, women, children - old, young, poor, rich

      • searching for new opportunities, and riches

      • poor people had to join more established families and work for them (farm hands, domestic servants, prostitutes)

      • migrants wanted new life: more money, new public land, establish themselves in new careers, serve along new white communities in developing west

      • some on religious missions


  • 300,000 migrants between 1840-1860 traveled west on great overland trails

    • gathered in one of several major depots

      • wagon trails lead by hired guides, livestock following behind

      • Oregon Trail: 2,000 miles, from Independence across the Great Plains, through South Pass of Rocky Mountains to northern Cali coast

        • considerable hardships when traveling

          • mountain & desert terrain especially hard

          • journey’s last 5-6 months

          • not immune from plagues

          • 1,000s died on trail of cholera during epidemic of 1850

        • Native Americans were very helpful  to white migrants

          • served as guides, helped travelers w/ livestock, made trade

  • Life on the Trail

    • recreated patterns of normal American society

      • families divided tasks (gender lines)

        • women cooked/cleaned, men drove and repaired wagons

      • nearly everybody walked to lighten wagon load

      • expeditions consisted of groups of friends/families  


  • Election of 1844:

    • two leading candidates: Henry Clay, and Martin Van Buren

      • both avoided taking stance about Texas Question

      • James K. Polk: represented Tennessee in House of Reps. and served as governor

        • had been out of public office for 3 years

        • Ran for office, won!

        • Victorious b/c he combined Oregon and Texas Questions

          • Democrats hoped to appeal to both northern and southern expansionists  

        • entered office w/ goals

        • made Texas a state, and later resolved Oregon question

        • Compromise over Oregon: to establish U.S./Canada border at 49 parallel


  • Southwest tensions w/ Mexico

    • U.S. war with Mexico

      • 1845: U.S. admits Texas to Union, Mexico breaks diplomatic relationship w/ Washington

        • relationship grows worse over boundary line for Texas-Mexico border

        • Polk sends small army to Texas to protect from possible Mexican invasion

        • Dispute about New Mexico

          • New Mexico becoming more American than Mexican, like Texas had

          • Mexico wants New Mexico to stay culturally Mexican, keep heritage

      • Americans also wanted California

        • many Mexicans and Indians lived there, descendants of Spanish colonists

        • settlers in California wanted to make it a part of the Union

          • Polk agreed, Mexico declared war


  • Failure of Slidell Mission: Polk turned to John Slidell, a special minister, to try and buy of the Mexicans

    • January 13, 1846: Polk order’s Taylor’s army in Texas to move across Nueces River to the Rio Grande

      • Mexican troops cross Rio Grande and attack American soldiers

  • Declared war officially on May 13, 1846

    • Public opposed war: draining resources and attention away from more important issues (Pacific Northwest)

      • Polk settled for less regarding Oregon question b/c he was too busy w/ Mexico

      • public found out casualties and expense, angered  

    • Americans fought well

      • was not as easy as Polk had thought

      • Polk then ordered offensives against NM and CA

      • Bear Flag Revolution:

      • U.S. now controlled 2 new territories, NM and CA

  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo: Nicholas Trist’s settlement

    • Mexico agreed to cede CA & NM to U.S., Rio Grande as border

    • U.S. assumed any financial claims and pay $15 to Mexican Gov


  • Wilmot Proviso: the amendment to the appropriation bill prohibiting slavery in territories gotten from Mexico

    • passed House of Reps, failed Senate

  • Polk supported idea to extend Missouri Compromise line through new states in the west to Pacific coast

    • Slavery = South, Free = North

    • remained unsolved when Polk left office, 1849

  • Presidential Campaign of 1848:

    • Democrats and Whigs avoid slavery question

      • Polk declines to run again, Democrats and Whigs not satisfied with candidates

  • Free-Soil Party: political party, showed inability of existing parties to contain political passions slavery created  


  • 1848: Carpenter James Marshall found traces of gold in foothills of Sierra Nevadas

    • tried to contain news, gold rush would destroy his empire in region

      • failed, 100s of 1000s of people flock to California to find gold

        • everybody was greedy  

  • Forty-Niners: California migrants who abandoned farms, jobs, homes, families to find gold

    • 95% men, society they created was unusually fluid b/c of lack of women and children

  • Gold rush attracted Chinese migrants to Western U.S.

    • hard for poor chinese people to get to U.S., but adventurous young people came anyway

      • thought they could get rich easily and then go home

      • Chinese in CA became free laborers, and merchants

        • hoped to profit from economic opportunities

  • The Rush created labor shortage in CA

    • people left their jobs to go look for gold independently

      • created job opportunities for new immigrants/migrants

      • created, “Indian Slavery”

        • Native Americans forced into “indentured” labor

  • Rush was critically important to growth of CA

    • substantial gold in hills, but most people never actually found gold

      • migrants stayed in CA and increased population, making CA remarkably heterogeneous

        • mixed races, ethnicities, nationalities

  • Zachary Taylor: Statehood could solve issue of slavery in territories

    • states would be able to figure out slavery issue, by governing themselves instead of having fed gov decide

      • CA develops constitution prohibiting slavery

      • CA admitted as free state

        • Congress: personal liberty laws, antislavery forces

          • personal liberty laws: barred courts/police officers to help return runaway slaves to owners

          • Southerners: not happy, two more slave states should be added to balance slave:free ratio


  • Clay’s Proposed Solution: no compromise could last unless is settled all issues in dispute between sections

    • combined several proposed bills, and rewrote them into one piece of legislation

      • Said: California free state, formation of territorial govs from Mexico without restrictions on slavery, abolition of slave trade in D.C., a new more effective fugitive slave law

        • Congress defeat Proposal

  • Clay, Calhoun, Taylor, and Webster all too old

    • New younger group of leaders emerged

      • William Seward, Jefferson Davis, Stephen Douglas

        • produced compromise

          • first order: to break-up “omnibus bill” Clay envisioned and rewrite compromise using the key parts  


  • Democrats and Whigs both endorsed Compromise

    • Franklin Pierce: democrat candidate for presidential election, and then winner of 1849 election

      • wanted to avoid divisive issues (slavery)

        • North: opposed Fugitive Slave Act

          • southerners kept coming to northern areas to pursue people they believed were fugitives

        • South: angered that north defied FSA


  • “Young America:” Pierce’s movement to try and dampen sectional controversy about slavery

    • liberal and nationalist revolutions (1848), made U.S. want to expand commerce in Pacific, and have new territories in Western hemisphere

      • domain not expandable w/out sectional crisis

        • Ostend Manifesto: Pierce’s attempt to buy Cuba from Spain, response from group of envoys from Ostend persuading him to take Cuba forcefully - leaked to public, became OM

          • angered antislavery northerners

          • South: only wanted new state admitted that would follow slave system  


  • Crisis: Slavery in territories

    • 1850s: white western settlement grew, and “plain land” became farmable

      • Old Northwest: settlers wanted gov to open area to them, provide territorial governments, dislodge Native Americans to make room for themselves

    • Settlement raised two issues: slavery and railroads

      • Railroads: problems with communication between older states and western areas

      • Slavery: Northerners wanted railroad terminus to be in Chicago, free state capital of Northwest

        • Southerners wanted in slave state

    • Gadsden Purchase: gave Mexico $10 million in exchange for land which would be where the new terminus would go


  • Stephen Douglas: wanted transcontinental railroad for Chicago (his city and section)

    • 1854: introduces a bill to a organize new territory, Nebraska

      • Douglas knew South would oppose bill b/c NE would be a free state (35/30 line)

        • status of slavery TBD by popular sovereignty

        • Nebraska = NE + Kansas

        • NE/KS Act: if KS was admitted it would become slave state = 1 free state, 1 slave state in Union

          • Opposers of Douglas’ bill: Anti-Nebraska Democrats, and Anti-Nebraska Whigs = REPUBLICAN PARTY


  • John Brown: most fervent abolitionists in Kansas, committed zealot

    • moved to KS w/ sons to fight to make it a free state

    • Pottawatomie Massacre: Brown w/ 6 followers murdered 5 pro-slavery settlers, leaving bodies to discourage people from being pro-slavery

      • provoked more guerrilla warfare

  • Charles Sumner: MA resident, doctrinaire opponent of slavery

    • “The Crime Against Kansas,” speech given directed to Senator Andrew Butler of SC who defended slavery

      • in speech many sexual references, vicious

        • Preston Brooks (Butler’s nephew): enraged, physically attacked Sumner, made him unable to return to Senate for 4 years

          • Sumner: hero of north, “martyr to barbarism of south”

          • Brooks: hero of south


  • “Free Soil” Ideology: assumptions about proper structure of society, belief in “free soil” and “free labor”

    • Abolitionists: slavery = moral evil

    • White northerners: existence of slavery = dangerous b/c of threats to whites, not blacks

      • American Democracy: right of citizens to own property, control own labor, and have access to opportunities for advancement

        • South = antithesis of democracy (closed, static)

          • not growing, rejecting values of progress/individualism

        • North = prospering, growing

        • “Slave Power Conspiracy:” fight spread of slavery, extend nation’s democratic ideals to whole country

          • strengthened Republican commitment to Union

          • progress to free-labor vision


  • South: rapid hardening of position of southern whites on position of slavery

    • Due to: Nat Turner's uprising (1831) - terrified southerners; Garrisonian abolitionist movement - attacks on s. society; “Uncle Tom’s Cabin” - popularity

      • Pro-Slavery Argument: Thomas Dew began movement

        • arguments: good for slaves b/c they had better conditions than industrial workers (north)

        • Slavery good for society b/c it was only way two races could live together in peace

        • good for entire country b/c southern economy, due to slavery, key to prosperity of nation

        • slavery served as basis for southern way of life

          • biological inferiority of African Americans


  • Election of 1856: Democrats chose James Buchanan, and Republicans chose John C. Fremont (California explorer)

    • Buchanan won, as oldest president to take office - resulted as timid president

      • Same year: financial panic struck country -> depression

        • Depression strengthen republican party

          • manufacturers, workers, and farmers believed hard times were result of unsound democratic administrations


  • March 6, 1857, Dred Scott Case v. Sandford:

    • Dred Scott: Missouri slave, once owned by army surgeon, who taken Scott w/ him to Illinois/Wisconsin - slavery illegal

      • owner died, Scott sued master’s widow for freedom

      • free territory liberated him from slavery

    • John Sandford: Widow’s brother claimed ownership of Scott

      • appeal circuit court ruling to supreme court, reversed earlier decision

    • Supreme Court: so divided could not to issue a single ruling

      • thrust of rulings: defeat for antislavery movement

        • Chief Justice Taney declared Scott’s argument invalid b/c he was not a citizen

          • slaves property, have no rights

          • 5th amendment

    • Southern whites: elated

    • North: widespread dismay

    • Republicans: would pack the Court w/ new members and reverse decision


  • Buchanan endorsed Dred Scott decision

    • wanted Kansas to enter Union as slave state

      • Convention held 1857, to form constitution legalizing slavery - Lecompton Constitution

        • vote taken: antislavery groups voted and won majority

        • both sides resorted to fraud/violence

          • residents of Kansas didn’t want slavery

          • Buchanan forced Congress to admit Kansas under Lecompton Constitution

            • Compromise: if constitution approved by voters Kansas joined Union

            • if rejected statehood postponed

  • 1861: Kansas joins Union as free state


  • Stephen Douglas vs. Abraham Lincoln

    • Abraham Lincoln: unknown outside of Illinois, one of most skilled politicians in Republican party

      • successful lawyer, served terms in Illinois legislature, and one term in Congress

      • tried to become more known by engaging Douglas in debates

        • Lincoln’s eloquent attacks on slavery made him famous

    • Biggest difference between candidates:

      • Lincoln: believed slavery morally wrong, not abolitionist

        • Position: prevent expansion of slavery, not remove it from places already existed but wait for it to die out  

      • Douglas took no position

        • did not help him get votes, make him stand out


  • John Brown’s Raid: elaborate plan to seize a mountain fortress in Virginia

    • foment slave insurrection in south

    • October 16, 1859, Harpers Ferry Raid: he and group of followers attacked arsenal in Harpers Ferry, Virginia

      • locals and militiamen besieged him in arsenal

      • 10 men killed, Brown surrendered

      • treason against state, guilty, sentenced to death


  • Presidential Election 1860: most momentous consequences of any election in U.S. history

    • Democratic party torn between southerners

      • popular sovereignty vs. endorsement of slavery

      • party convention: met in April, endorsed PS

        • delegates left, and convention rescheduled for June in Baltimore

          • party chose Stephen Douglas

    • Republican party wanted to broaden appeal

      • interest North

      • endorsed internal improvements, high tariff, homestead bill, Pacific railroad built w/ fed financial assistance

        • party chose Abraham Lincoln

          • appealed to masses

            • reputation for eloquence, moderate position on slavery, obscurity endured he was a more prominent Republican

    • November: Lincoln won

 


Crash Course #17


  • Westward Expansion: Texas and California

    • Internal imperialism

      • Jefferson’s ideas of Empire of Liberty

        • 1860: 300,000 people made trip through Oregon Trail

          • Oregon: 1/2 U.S. 1/2 GB


  • Northern Mexico: now Texas, Arizona, New Mexico, Nevada, Utah, and California  

    • American population minority, Native Americans majority

      • Moses Austin and Stephen Austin (son): made land contract with U.S. to help Mexican economy

        • then Mexico became afraid of U.S. having power, and nullified Land Contract

          • Alamo Mission 1836: Alamo Mexicans wanted to kill Americans, and killed 188 Americans

            • Mexico forced to recognize Texas’ independence

            • U.S. ignored Texas, because it wanted to be a slave state

              • Then Oregon came into play and wanted to be a free state so Texas could come back into the Union

  • War Between U.S. and Mexico:

    • first war Americans fought on foreign soil

      • Henry David Thoreau: among transcendentalists who disliked war

        • refused to pay taxes to support the war, and thus was thrown into jail

      • Santa Anna's Army: defeated by Americans but refused to give up

        • Winfield Scott: captured Mexico City

          • result: Peace Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

            • Mexico confirmed annexation of Texas and California

            • U.S. pays Mexico $15, and agrees to “no backsies deal”

  • After Treaty is signed, 75,000-100,000 Mexicans under jurisdiction of U.S.

    • Still seen as inferior to anglo-saxons

      • Catholicism didn’t help them either

        • Know-Nothing Party


  • California: Gold is found

    • Lots of men looking for work - to find fortunes

      • Women also had a big population, 3:1 ratio w/ men

    • Not all migrants white, many chinese, many native americans

      • California State Constitution: prohibited non-whites from voting, testifying from court, their children sold as slaves

        • Native Americans specifically were kicked off of land

          • Was California a free state or a slave state?

    • 1850: California asked to be admitted into Union

      • Henry Clay: brokered 4 part plan to solve California’s problems

        • Compromise of 1850: 4 points

          • 1. California admitted as free state

          • 2. Slave Trade outlawed in Washington, D.C.

          • 3. New Fugitive Slave law enacted

          • 4. Popular Sovereignty

            • local white inhabitants would be able to decide what would happen in California  


Crash Course #18


  • What caused the Civil War?

    • SLAVERY

      • Compromise of 1850: Fugitive Slave Law

        • Under law any citizen was required to turn in any person they knew to be a slave

          • turned everyone into Sheriffs

            • even if born free, you could be sent back into system

              • convinced Northerns than government was in hands of cynical slave power

                • theory about pro-slavery congressmen


  • Railroads: made shipping more efficient and cheaper

    • Steven Douglas

      • Transcontinental Railroad: 1. would bind union together, and 2. would pass through Illinois (his hometown)

        • Problem: territory which through it ran would need to be organized states

          • Kansas - Nebraska Act: popularized idea of Popular Sovereignty

            • Popular Sovereignty: let people be in favor of slavery

              • Missouri Compromise: allowed Kansas and Nebraska to chose whether they wanted to be free states or slave states

                • LEAD TO CREATION OF REPUBLICAN PARTY

          • Douglas’ law helped create new political party

            • completely sectional


  • Conspiracy Theory: Northerners believed Congress controlled by sinister slave powered group who did the bidding of rich plantation owners

    • 1854: North more populist than South

      • double South’s congressional representation

        • Congress made government more pro slavery

          • Having Kansas and Nebraska become slave states was problematic for northern economy

            • New western territories to be like southern plantations?  

  • Kansas Problem: Kansas wants to become State

    • holds elections, but people (from free states) who didn’t live in Kansas flock in to cast votes

      • Kansas passes two constitutions

        • Pro-Slavery Lecompton Constitution

          • Congress delayed Kansas’ entrance into Union

            • 1861: Kansas joins union as free state


  • Dred Scott: slave, who moved to Illinois with owner but because Illinois was a free state argued he was technically a free man

    • Supreme Court, Roger B. Taney: ruled Scott was still a slave

      • argued that black people everywhere were inferior to white people

        • all black people should be slaves and considered property

          • should be no such thing as free states

            • Reconfirmed Northerners that ENTIRE Government were in hands of  “dreaded slave power”


  • 1859, John Brown: lead disastrous raid at Harper’s ferry to give guns to slaves who would use them against their masters

    • became martyr to abolitionist cause


  • 1860: Most important Presidential Election

    • Republican Party chooses Abraham Lincoln

      • appealed to widespread audience, including immigrants

        • won electoral college

          • Lincoln hated slavery, but said he would leave it alone it states it already existed in

            • 7 states conceded and formed Confederate Union


  • Idea that Black men had no rights false

    • they had taken part in elections

    • gone to court on their own terms

    • spoken publically about their beliefs

      • Civil War inevitable due to failure of United States to understand the rights of black americans were equally inalienable as those of white americans