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Unit 7
by MINGJIE LIAN - Sunday, November 15, 2015, 03:23 PM
 
  • Territorial growth (339)

    • Nationalism was a way of helping to keep the US together

    • Nationalism was also producing the desire for territorial expansion that would tear the nation apart

    • As expansion began to happen a question arose: what would be the status of slavery in the territories?

      • The Missouri compromise failed to provide an acceptable basis for compromise

    • 1850 and 1854 two compromise was proposed

      • Many people disagreed

        • When the election of Abraham Lincoln started in 1860 the nation started to break apart

        • Start of the civil war

  • Manifest destiny

    • Manifest destiny reflected pride that characterized nationalism and the idealistic vision of social perfection

    • Rested on the idea that America was destined by god and by history to expand its boundaries over a vast area

  • Racial justification

    • Throughout the 1840 many people supported westward expansion because they believed in the superiority of the American race

    • Believed that western regions were racially unfit to be part of an American community

    • Advocates of man. Dest. Didn’t know how far and by what by what means the nation should expand

  • Opposition to further expansion

    • Many prominent politicians feared that man. Dest. Would threaten the stability of the union

    • Until the 1830s Texas was the part of the rep. of Mexico

      • In the early 1820s Mexico launched an ill-advised experiment that would lose Mexico’s northern boundaries

        • Encourage American immigration to Texas

      • They convinced themselves that settlers in Texas would be a buffer against US expansion

        • They thought they would be loyal to the Mexican gov.

          • An 1824 colonization law designed to attract American settlers

            • Promised the settlers for cheap land

        • Thousands of Americans took to the opportunity of rich soil in Texas

  • Stephan Austin

    • Stephan Austin- established first legal American settlement in Texas in 1822

      • Created center of power that competed with the Mexican gov.

      • 1826 led a revolt for Texas to be an independent nation

      • Quickly crushed the revolt

        • 4 years later, banned American immigration

        • Americans keep on flowing into the region

      • 1833 Mexico dropped ban

  • Tensions between the US and Mexico

    • 1830: made it illegal to have slaves

    • Austin wanted a peaceful settlement that would give Texas more autonomy within the Mexican gov.

    • General Antonio Lopez seized power as dictator in the mid -1830s

      • Created new law that instilled power on the national gov. at the expense of state gov.

        • Americans thought Lopez was aiming specifically at them.

      • Austin got arrested

        • Sporadic fighting between began in 1835

          • Escalated as Mexican gov. sent more troops into the territory

        • 1836 American settlers declare independence from Mexico

      • Lopez led a large army into Texas

        • Patriots tried to defend in san Antonio but was useless

          • Among the patriots was davy crocket

  • San Jacinto

    • General Sam Houston managed to keep a small force and in 1836 at the battle of san Jacinto he defeated the Mexican army and took Lopez prisoner

    • Lopez signed a treaty giving Texas independence

    • Mexican gov. repudiated the treaty

  • Opposition of annexation

    • Sam Houston: president of Texas sent a delegate to Washington with an offer to join the union

      • Many northerners opposed acquiring a large new slave territory

      • Expansionists encouraged the idea

      • Jackson did not support it

    • Texas cast out on its own and its leaders sought money and support from Europe

      • Some wanted to create a vast south western nation that would compete with the US

    • Applied for statehood in 1844

      • The US had opposing thoughts

        • Calhoun presented an annexation treaty to congress

        • Northerners didn’t want to extend slavery

        • The Texas question became the central issue in the election of 1844

  • Disputed claims

    • Oregon country- half a million square miles

      • Included Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, parts of Montana, and Wyoming, and half of British Columbia.

      • Both Britain and the US claimed sovereignty

      • Agreed in the 1818 treaty to allow citizens of each country equal access to the territory

        • was known as the joint occupation, continued for 20 years

      • white settlement consisted largely of American and Canadian fur traders   

        • established by john Jacob Astor’s company at Astoria

    • American interest in Oregon grew substantially in the 1820s and 1830s

      • Missionaries thought the territory was an attractive target for evangelical efforts

      • Motivated to counter the catholic missionaries from Canada

  • Conflict between settlers and Indians

    • Significant number of white Americans began emigrating to Oregon in the 1840s

    • Devasted much of the Indian population

      • Measle epidemic spread

      • 1847 Indians attacked whites and killed 13 white men

  • The westward migration

    • 1840 and 1860 whites hundreds of thousands of whites and blacks migrated to Texas and Oregon

    •   Most traveled in family groups until the early 1850s

      • Great gold rush attracted many single men

    • All migrants were in search for a new life

  • Oregon trails

    • Migrants go usually to major depots in Iowa and Missouri

      • Joined a wagon train led by hired guilds

      • The major route west was the 2000 mile Oregon trail

      • Migrants moved north to Oregon or south to the northern California coast

    • Faced considerable hardships

    • Year before the civil war 400 migrants died in conflicts with the tribes

  • Life on the trail

    • Very difficult from life on a farm or in a town

    • Society of the trail recreated many of the patterns of conventional American society

    • Women generally worked more than the men

  • James k Polk

    • Represented Tennessee for 14 years in the house of representatives

    • Believed that the re-occupation of Oregon and the re-annexation of Texas at the earliest practicable period are great American measures

    • By combining the Oregon and Texas question, they hoped to satisfy everyone

    • In feb 1845 Texas became a state.

  • Compromise over Oregon

    • Polk offered the boundary to be at the 49th parallel

      • British ministers rejected it

    • People thought that they were going to fight

    • None of the countries wanted to fight

    • In the end Britain accepted the offer on June 15 1846

  • Texas boundary in dispute

    • Mexico declared war on America when Texas was admitted as a state in 1845

    • Relations between Mexico and America became worse when they had a dispute about the boundaries of Texas and Mexico

    • Mexico wanted the boundaries to be from Nueces river to the rio Grande

      • Polk agreed

      • 1845 sent troops to Mexico to protect from possible Mexico invasion

    • New Mexico was a multiracial society

      • 1820s Mexican gov. invited American traders

      • New Mexico became more American

  • American interests in California

    • California had several Indian tribes and 7000 Mexicans

    • Gradually white Americans began to arrive

      • Were traders and captains

      • They stopped barter goods or buy supplies

      • Merchants established stores, imported merchandise and developed a profitable trade with Mexicans and Indians

      • New settler began to dreaming of bringing California into the US

    • President Polk sent secret instructions to the commander of pacific naval to seize California ports if Mexico declared war

  • Failure of the Slidell mission

    • Polk sent john Slidell to try to buy off the Mexicans

      • Mexican leaders rejected Slidell’s offer to purchase the disputed territories

    • Jan 13 1846 Polk ordered Taylor’s army to move across the Nueces river

      • Mexican troops crossed the rio Grande and attacked unit of American soldiers

      • Attacked a unit of American soldiers

      • Polk told congress war exists between the Mexico

        • Congress declared war by a vote of 40 to 2

  • Opposition to the war

    • Polk deliberately maneuvered the country into conflict and staged the border incident

    • Hostilities with Mexico was draining resources

    • Opposition intensified as the war continued

      • Public became aware of casualties and expense

    • Polk ordered Taylor to cross rio Grande and seize parts of northeastern mex.

  • Bear flag revolution

    • Summer of 1846 colonel Stephen w Kearny captured santé fe with no opposition

    • US now controlled the two territories for which it had gone to war

    • In the end they seized the Mexican capital

    • The new Mexican gov. took power and announced its willingness to negotiate a peace treaty

  • Treaty of Guadalupe hidalgo

    • Polk sent a Nicholas trist to negotiate a settlement

    • On feb 2, 1848 he reached agreement with the new Mexican government on the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

      • Mexico agreed to cede California and New Mexico to the US

      • US agreed to assume any financial claims its new citizens had against Mexico

      • And to pay $15 million

    • Polk wanted to acquire Mexico itself

      • He soon realized that trist had no choice but to accept the treaty to silence

      •  

  • Wilmot proviso

    • In august 1846 Polk asked congress to give to appropriate $2 mill for purchasing peace to Mexico

    • Representative David Wilmot introduced an amendment to the appropriation bill, prohibiting slavery in the acquired land from Mexico

    • Known as the Wilmot proviso

      • Passes the house and failed in the senate

      • Would be discussed many times in the future

  • Competing plans

    • Polk supported a proposal to extend the Missouri compromise line to the new territories

      • Banning slavery north of the line and and permitting it south of the line

    • Others supported a plan known as “squatter sovereignty” or “popular sovereignty”

      • Allowed the people of each territory to decide the status of slavery there

    • These issues were still around when pol left office in 1849

    • Presidential campaign of 1848- both parties, the democrats and the whigs avoided the slavery question

      • Opponents of slavery found the choice for candidacy unsatisfying

      • Out of their discontent emerged the free soil party

        • Endorsed the wilmot proviso

  • Free-soil party

    • Taylor won the presedential election of 1848

    • Free soilers elected 10 members to congress

      • Free soil party signed the inability of the existing parties

      • Led to the collapse of the second party system in 1850

  • The California gold rush

    • James marshall founded traces of gold in sierra Nevada

    • Tried to contain the news

      • Fear of gold rush would destroy his own substantial empire

    • Word got out by late summer

    • Many people came

  • Forty niners

    • California migrants threw caution to the winds

      • Abandoned farms, jobs, homes, and families

    • Majority of the forty niners were men

    • The gold rush attracted some of the first Chinese migrants to the western US

    • News of the discoveries created great excitement in china

  • Indian slavery

    • Gold rush created a serious labor shortage in California

      • Shortage created opportunities for many people who needed work

      • Led to an overt exploitation of Indians that resembled slavery

    • Indian hunters killed Indians

    • State law permitted the arrest of loitering or orphaned Indians and their assignment to a term of indentured labor

  • Rising sectional tensions 

    • Zachery taylor believed statehood could become the solution to the issue of slavery

    • At taylor’s urging, California quickly adopted a constitution that prohibited slavery

    • 1849 taylor asked asked if California could be a free state

    • Southerners demanded a stringent law that would require northern states to return fugitive slaves

    • Biggest obstacle the presidential program was the white south’s fear was the two new free states

  • Clay’s proposed solution

    • Henry clay believed that no compromise could last unless it settled all the issues in dispute between the sections

      • Took several measures that had been proposed separately, combine them and presented it to the senate on jan. 29 1850

    • in the first phase of the debate, the dominant voices in congress was the people who argued for or against the compromise on the basis of broad ideal

    • clay appealed to share national sentiments of nationalism

    • Calhoun insisted that the north grant the south equal rights

  • New leadership

    • William h. seward

      • Opposed of the compromise

    • Jefferson davis

      • Believed that slavery issue was less one of principles and ideals than one of economic self-interest

    • Stephen a douglass  

      • open spokesmen for the economic needs of his section

    • they produced a compromise

      • disappearance of the most powerful obstacle to it- the president zachery taylor

  • temporary compromise

    • Douglas’s first step was to break up the omnibus bill that clay had envisioned as a great, comprehensive solution

    • Instead introduced a series of separate measures to be voted on

    • The compromise of 1850 was not a product of widespread agreement on common national ideals

    • For a few years the sectional conflict seemed to be forgotten

    • Conflict between north and south remained

      • Crisis continued until in 1854

  • The uneasy truth

    • Both parties chose endorsed the compromise of 1850 in 1852

    • Democrats chose franklin pierce

    • Whigs chose Winfield scott

    • Many flocked to the free-soil party

      • Candidate was john p hales

    • Repudiated the compromise of 1850

    • Division among the whigs helped produce a victory for the democrats in 1852

  • Opposition to the fugitive slave act

    • Franklin pierce attempted to maintain party and national harmony

    • Northern disagreement to the fugitive slave act intensified in 1850

      • Southerners began appearing occasionally in northern states to pursue escaped slaves

      • Mobs formed in northern cities to prevent enforcement of the law

  • Young America

    • One way franklin pierce hoped to dampen sectional controversy was through the “young America”

      • Support of a movement in the democratic party

    • Saw the expansion of American democracy as a way to divert attention from slavery

  • Ostend manifesto

    • Pierce attempted to buy cuba from spain 1848

    • 1854 a group of his envoys sent him a private document from Ostend making the case for seizing cuba by force

    • Enraged many antislavery northerners when the Ostend manifesto was leaked to the public

    • South opposed of gaining new territories if it would not support the slave system

    • Kingdom of Hawaii agreed to join the US in 1854

      • Treaty died when it contained a clause prohibiting slavery in the islands 

  • Transcontinental railroad and slavery

    • Communication between the older states and the areas west of the Mississippi river became critical

      • Broad support began to emerge for building a transcontinental railroad

    • Had many problems about the railroad

      • Where to locate the railroads eastern terminus

      • Where the line could connect with the existing railroad

  • Gadsden purchase

    • In 1853 Davis sent james gidsden to mexico

      • Persuaded Mexican gov. to accept $10 mill in exchange for a strip of land

    • Gadsden purchase accentuated the sectional rival

  • Kansas Nebraska act

    • Douglas, senator of Illinois

      • He introduced a bill in 1854 to organize a huge new territory known as Nebraska

    • He knew the south would oppose his bill

      • Was a free state

    • Douglas inserted a provision that the status of slavery would be determined by the territorial legislature

    • South wanted more

      • Douglas wanted to repeal the Missouri compromise

    • Agreed to divide the area into two new territories, Nebraska and Kansas

    • Second territory would become a slave state

    • President pierce supported the bill and became law in 1854

  • Birth of the republican party

    • The legislation divided and destroyed the whig party

      • Disappeared in 1856

    • Divided the northern democrats

      • Drove many of them from the party

    • Spurred the creating of a new party

      • People who opposed douglas’s bill

      • First called themselves anti Nebraska democrats and anti Nebraska whigs

      • They formed and called themselves republicans

  • Pottawatomie massacre

    • John brown fiercely commited zealot

    • Moved to Kansas with his sons so that they can make it a free state

    • After the event in lawrence, he gathered 6 followers and murdered 5 pro slavery settlers

    • Was known as the Pottawatomie massacre

      • Led to more civil strife in Kansas

        • Guerrilla warfare conducted by armed bands

    • In may 1856 charles sumner of mass. Rose to give a speech on “the crime against Kansas”

      • He was a opponent to slavery  

      • Gave particular attention to senator Andrew p. butler of south Carolina

        • Andrew was a defender of slavery

  • Preston brooks and Charles sumner

    • Sumner’s speech enrarged preston brooks

      • Member of the house of representatives

    • Brooks went to Sumner and beat him with a cane

    • Injuries were so severe that he couldn’t return to the senate

      • Throughout the north he was a hero

  • Free soil ideology

    • in the north assumptions about the structure of society came to center on the belief in free soil and free labor

    • most northerners came to believe that the existence of slavery was dangerous

      • threatened whites

  • slave power conspiracy

    • south was antithesis of democracy 

    • while the north was growing the south was stagnating and rejecting the idea of individualism

    • south engaged in a conspiracy to extend slavery throughout the nation

      • will destroy the openness of northern capitalism

      • replace it with closed aristocratic system of the south

    • free- labor ideology strengthened the commitment of republicans to the union

  • the pro slavery argument

    • in the south a very different ideology was emerging

      • was a result of many things

      • nat turner upring in 1831 which made them more determined to than ever to make slavery secure

      • the expansion of the cotton economy

      • growth of the garrisonian abolitionist movement

  • the pro slavery argument

    • 1832 southerners produced a new intellectual defense of slavery

    • Southern apologists argued that slavery was good because it served as the basis for the southern way of life

    • Southerners looking at the north saw a spirit of greed, and destructiveness

    • South believed they were a safe, stable, orderly society operating at a slow human pace

    • The defense of slavery also talked about the biological inferiority of African Americans

  • Election of 1856

    • Democratic party supported james Buchanan

    • Republicans denounced the Kansas Nebraska act and the expansion of slavery

    • Republicans supported the john c. Fremont

    • Know-nothing party was breaking apart but nominated millard filmore

    • Buchanan won a narrow victory over Fremont and filmore

    • At the inauguration Buchanan was at age 56

    • In the year Buchanan took office, a financial panic struck the country

  • The dred scott decision

    • On march 6, 1857 the supreme court of the US projected itself into the sectional controversy with one of the most controversial and notorious decisions in its history

    • The case of dred scott v. sandford was handed down two days after Buchanan wa inaugurated.

      • Dred scott was a Missouri slave, once owned by an army surgeon

      • Taken him to into Illinois and Wisconsin, where slavery was forbidden

    • In 1846 scott sued his master’s widow for freedom on the grounds

  • Taney’s sweeping opinion

    • The supreme court was so divided that it was unable to issue a single ruling on the case

    • The thrust of the various rulings was a stunning defeat for the antislavery movement

    • Declared that scott could not bring a suit in the federal court because he was not a citizen

    • The rulings did nothing to challenge the right of an individual state to prohibit slavery within its boundaries

  • Deadlock over Kansas

    • President Buchanan tried to resolve the controversy over Kansas by supporting its admission to the union as a slave state

      • Pro-slavery territ. Legislature called for a constitutional convention

      • Free slave residents refused to participate

        • Legislature had discriminated against them in drawing district lines

        • Pro slavery course won control of the convention

          • Met in 1857 at Lecompton

          • Framed a const. legalizing slavery

        • Antislavery group won for election for a new territorial legislature

      • New legislature promptly submitted the Lecompton constitution to the voters

        • Rejected it by more than 10000 votes

  • Lecompton constitution rejected

    • Both sides resorted to fraud and violence

    • Was clear that people of Kansas opposed slavery

    • Buchanan pressured congress to admit Kansas under the Lecompton constitution

      • Democrats refused to support Buchanan’s proposal

    • April 1858- congress approved a compromise

      • Lecompton const. would be submitted to the voters of Kansas again   

        • If it was approved Kansas would be admitted to the union

        • If it was rejected, statehood would reject the Lecompton act

        • Kansas rejected it

  • Lincoln- douglas debate

    • Lincoln was a successful lawyer who had long been involved in state politics

      • Served several terms in the Illinois legislature and one undistinguished term in congress

      • He was not a national figure like douglas

      • So he engaged douglas in a series of debates

        • Attracted enormous crowds

        • Received wide attention

        • By the time they ended Lincoln was nationally prominent

    • Heart of the debate was about the issues on slavery

      • Douglas had no moral position on the issue

      • Lincoln didn’t care

  • Lincoln’s position

    • Lincoln believed slavery was morally wrong

      • Not an abolitionist

      • Could not envision an easy alternative to slavery in the areas where it already existed

      • Shared view among northern whites

        • The black race was not prepared to live on equal terms with whites.

    • Douglas’s position satisfied his followers sufficiently to win him reelection to the senate

    • Outside Illinois the election went heavily against democrats

    • Party retained control in senate but lost majority in house

  • John brown’s raid

    • Fall of 1859 john brown an antislavery zealot

      • Actions in Kansas had inflamed the crisis there

      • Staged an even more dramatic episode this time in the south

    • October 16 he and a group of 18 followers seized control of a US arsenal in harpers ferry, Virginia

  • Divided democrats

    • Democratic party was divided by a battle by the south who demanded a strong endorsement of slavery and westerners who supported popular sovereignty

    • Democrats decided to endorse sovereignty

      • 8 states in the lower south walked out of the convention in april

    • could not decide on a presidential candidate

      • decided to adjourn the meeting until they meet in Baltimore in june

      • nominated Stephan douglas for president

      • southern democrats nominated john C. Breckinridge

  • disunion

    • in the November election Lincoln won the presidency with a majority of the electoral votes

    • election of Lincoln was the final stage to many southerners that their position in the union was hopeless

    • process of disunion began

 

Crash course 17

  • By 1860 nearly 300000 people had made the trip called Oregon trail

  • Oregon at the time was controlled by the us and Britain

  • Northern mexico included texas, Arizona, Utah, Nevada, new mexico, and California

  • When mexico beame independent, there were about 2000 Tejanos there

    • Mexican gov. granted a huge tract of land to Moses Austin

    • Ausin’s son started selling small portions of the land until there were 7000 americans there

    • Made mexico nervous so mexico annulled the land contracts

      • banned further emigration into texas

  • Although slavery was abolished in mexico they allowed americans to bring slaves

  • Austin demanded greater autonomy and the right to use slave labor

    • General Antonio lopez de santa ana decided to assert control over the restive territory with an army

  • March 13, 1836 santa ana defeated the anerucab defenders of the Alamo

    • Killing 187 americans

  • Americans defeated santa ana at the battle of san jacinto

  • Texas wanted to join the US

  • In 1837 texas’ congress called for union

    •  Texas wanted to be a slave state

    • Adding another slave state would disrupt the balance in the senate

    • Jackson and van buren ignored texas

    • Congress annexed texas in march of 1845

  • Congress forged an agreement with Britain to divide Oregon at the 49th parallel

    •  Restored the slave state, free state balance

  •  Polk wanted to aquire California from mexico

  • Tried to purchase from mexico

    • They denied it

    • Sent Zachary taylor into a disputed border region

    • Fighting broke out

    • Polk wanted to declare war

    • Majority supported the war

  • First war fought on foreign soil

  • Henry Thoreau thrown in jail for not paying taxes

  • Abraham Lincoln thought polk was gaining power

  • When American troops capture Mexico city in September the treaty of Guadalupe was signed in 1848

  • Mexico confirmed the annexation of texas and California

  • Paid mexico 15 million dollars

  • Mexicans still seemed inferior to anglo Saxons

  • Eastern part of US there was a rising tide of anti catholic anti immigrant sentiment called nativism

  • New political party called the American party

    • Dedicated entirely to such sentiment 

    • Referred to as the know nothings

    • Gold was discovered in California in 1848

      • Non indian population had skyrocketed

      • Some were Chinese people who migrated to California

  • Ratio of men to women in California in 1860 was 3 to 1

  • California constitution of 1850 limited civil participation to whites

  • New free soil party formed in 1848 calling for the limiting of slavery’s expansion in the west

    • Nominated van buren

    • California was a free state

  • Compromise of 1850

    • California as free state

    • Slave trade outlawed in Washington d.c

    • New fugitive slave law enacted

    • Popular sovereignty

Crash course 18

  • fugitive slave law

    • new law was required to turn in anyone he or she knew to be a slave

  • western states were invidual whites can become self sufficient farmers 

  • would these western territories have big slave-based plantations?

  • New republican part in 1856

    • Lost to james Buchanan

  • Kansas was trying to become a state by holding election in 1854 and 1855

  •  1856 pro slavery forces laid siege to anti slavery Lawrence, Kansas with cannons 

  • In the end Kansas passed two constitutions

    • Lecompton constitution was the first that went to the US congress and it was supported by Stephan douglas

    • Congress delayed kansas’ entry into the union until another fairer referendum took place

    • Kansas eventually did join the US as a free state n 1861

  • Dred scott was a slave whose master had taken him to live in Illinois and Wisconsin, both were free states

  • Scott sued them because if if Illinois was a free state then living in Illinois would cause him to not be a slave

  • Eventually in 1857 chief justice taney said that scott was still a slave

  • Taney ruled that technically there was no such thing as a free state

  • In 1860 the republicans chose Abraham Lincoln

  • Debates against douglas made him famous

  • Democrats was a hot mess

    • Northern wing of the party favored Stephan douglas

    • Southern democrats nominated john c. Breckinridge

  • Lincoln received 0 votes in nine American states

  • Won 40 percent of the overall popular vote

  • Thereby winning the electoral college

  • Lincoln’s election led to a number of southern states seceding from the union

  • Lincoln hated slavery, but he repeatedly said that he would leave it along

  •