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Unit 7 notes
by XOLOTL ALFONSO CRUZ-DEJESUS - Sunday, November 15, 2015, 03:37 PM

Pilli Cruz-De Jesus

November 14, 2015

Unit 7 Notes:Looking Westward

Manifest Destiny/Racial Justification pg. 340-341

American Nationalism and vision of social perfection drove westward and reforms

America destined by god and history to expand (not selfish but spreading liberty)

Indians Mexicans and others racially unfit for the American community

Many different views on how far to expand and if should be violent

Opposition to further expansion pg. 341

Henry Clay and others who opposed Manifest Destiny(threaten stable union) overlooked

Americans in Texas pg. 341

1820’s Mexico encouraged American immigration Texas stop expansion, buffer between indians

1824 Colonization Law attract Americans settlers with cheap land and four years no tax

Stephen Austin pg. 341

Stephen Austin immigrant from Missouri established first American settlement Texas

American Intermediaries brought many immigrants to texas 1835 30,00 Americans

Tensions Between US and Mexico pg. 341-342

Some Americans in Texas wanted legalize slavery some wanted independence from Mexico

Others wanted autonomy from Mexican gov

Tensions rose when dictator in mexico took over and Texans declared independ.

Santa Anna (dictator) led army into Texas crushing ill organized group

San Jacinto pg. 342

General Sam Houston kept a small force together Battle of San Jacinto defeated Santa Anna and took him prisoner forced him to sign Texas independence

Many Mexican residents in Texas helped fight but were not trusted and most driven out

Opposition to Annexation pg. 342-343

Support for welcoming Texas into Union

Many northerners opposed having large new slave territory, others opposed increasing southern votes in Congress and electoral college

Jackson, Van Buren, and Harrison didnt do much with Texas

Texas rallied European support (Europeans wanted competition with US)

Oregon/Disputed Claims pg. 343

Britain and US had claims to Oregon Country 1818 treaty allowed equal access (20 years)

Neither had established large presence in the land, 1820s & 1830s US presence

Missionaries targeted this land but had few results and encouraged expansion

Many whites emigrated Oregon devastated Indian population and outnumbered British
The Westward Migration 343-344

Southern's mainly went to Texas, most migrants came from Old Northwest

Poor did not most westward unless with other families, mainly rich or well off

Many searched for ways to get rich quick, others wanted the vast lands sold

Life on the Trail/Oregon Trail pg. 344

Major route westward Oregon Trail, most journeys 5-6 months

thousands died from Cholera epidemic 1850s

Stories of occasional conflict with indians created fear among travelers

Life on the Trai pg. 355

Tasks still divided among gender lines, generally moved with families relatives and neighbors

The Democrats and Expansion/James K. Polk pg. 346

Clay and Van Buren tried to avoid taking a side on annexation of Texas

Polk combined Texas and Oregon question to please north and south expansion

Polk annexed Texas and got approval of 49th parallel for Oregon

The Southwest and California/Texas Boundary in Dispute pg. 346-347

When US accepted texas Mexico broke diplomatic relations

conflict over Texas Mexico border Polk sent small army to protect Texas

New Mexico began creating more American community same way as Texas

American Interests in California pg. 347

Gradually white Americans began to populate California (Mexican Land)

First came traders then merchants and then pioneering farmers

Began dream of Cali in US Polk helped urge this to get Cali and New Mex

The Mexican War/ Failure of the Slidell Mission pg. 347

Mexican leaders rejected proposal to buy the territories and Polk pushed troops to Rio Grande

Opposition to War pg. 347-348

Whig critics said Polk set US up for war, draining resources from issue of northwest

US settled on decision with Britain over Oregon said he settled for less distracted by Mexico

Polk feared Taylor did not have tactical skill for advance on Mexico City and if he did this he would become powerful political rival

Bear Flag Revolution pg. 348

Small army under Colonel Stephen W. Kearny captured Santa Fe then joined in California fight and got Cali

After storming to Mexico City new Mexican gov. took over and negotiated peace treaty

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo pg. 348-389

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo Mexico agreed to cede Cali and NM to US Rio Grande border

Payed Mexicans 15mil and assume financial claims citizens had against Mexico

Polk mad at Trist who made treaty said he did not get more Mexican land

Accepted treaty to avoid battle between those who wanted all of Mexico and those who thought expansion was conspiracy to extend slavery

Slavery and the Territories/ Wilmot Proviso pg. 351

Polk asked Congress for 2mil for peace with mexico,

Wilmot Proviso called for prohibition of slavery in territory acquired from Mexico

Southerners argued for equal rights and right to move their property(slaves)

Competing PLans pg. 351

Polk supported proposal to extend Missouri Compromise line banning slavery north of line

Popular Sovereignty, allow people of each territory to decide status of slavery

Discontent with the runners for Presidency support for Free-Soil party emerged

Candidate was Van Buren

Free Soil Party pg. 351

Taylor(Whig) won narrowly, free soil party became important elected ten members in Congress

Know nothing and Liberty Parties demonstrated inability of existing parties to providing right solutions to slavery

The California Gold Rush/ Forty Niners pg. 351

Hundreds of thousands of people around world flocked to California searching for gold

California Migrants (49ers) abandoned their lives and went to find gold

Mainly men lacking of women and children fluid and volatile environment

Attracted Chinese to west for same prospects of getting rich

Indian Slavery pg. 352

Gold rush shortage of jobs led to an xploitation of Indians

Indian hunters hunted and killed thousands of Indians decline from 150k to 30k Indians between 1850s-70s

State law permitted arrest of Indians and assigned to indentured labor

Population of Cali grew from 1k to 50k

Rising Sectional Tensions pg. 353

Taylor believe statehood would be solution to slavery and States would decide

California quickly adopted Constitution prohibiting slavery wanted same for NM

Southern's mainly scared of addition of two free states

The Compromise of 1850/ Clay’s Proposal Solution pg. 353

Clay proposed a solution which declared California a free state, the formation of government in the land acquired from Mexico, without restrictions on slavery abolition of slave trade but not slavery in District of Columbia and more effective fugitive slave law

John C Calhoun argued North grant South equal rights in territories agree to observe laws regarding fugitive slaves, cease attacking slavery and 2 president one of north and south

New Leadership pg. 354

William H Seward 49 years old from NY opposed compromise Union less important than issue of eliminating slavery

Jefferson Davis 42 MISS reps. new cotton South slavery was less principles and more economic self interest

Stephen A. Douglas 37 Democrat from Illinois railroads and economic needs of his section

Temporary Compromise pg. 354-355

Douglas wanted to break up Clay’s bill into a set of different bills

The Uneasy Truce pg. 355

Democrats chose  Franklin Pierce, Whigs chose General Winfield Scott many people flocked to the Free-Soil party antislavery candidate John P. Hale

Opposition to the Fugitive Slave Act pg. 355

Franklin Pierce tried to keep harmony and avoided divisive issues especially slavery

Northern defiance of the fugitive slave act angered southerners

Young America/ Ostend Manifesto pg. 355

Expansion of American democracy throughout the world to divert attention from slavery

Belgium proposed to take Cuba by force (Pierce wanted to buy it)

Antislavery northerners enraged bringing in another slave state into Union

Movements to annex Canada and Hawaii rejected because of banned slavery in them

Slavery Railroads and the West pg. 355

Settlers urged for the relocation of Indians from reservations for cultivation

Transcontinental Railroad and Slavery pg. 356

Problem of communication support for transcont. railroad

Issue was where to put it and became issue between North and South

Gadsden Purchase bought strip of land accentuated rivalry

The Kansas Nebraska Controversy pg. 356

Douglas wanted to pass a bill which introduced a huge territory called Nebraska to have railroad run through there

To get law passed Douglas repealed Missouri compromised and broke up Nebraska into Kansas and Nebraska  (Kansas Nebraska Act) where Kansas would be more likely to become a slave state

Divided northern Democrats who strongly supported Missouri Compromise

Creation of the Republican Party which were the Anti Nebraska democrats and whigs

Bleeding Kansas pg. 356-357

only 1500 voters in Kansas but Missourians flooded in and voted pro slavery outraged free staters elected their own delegates and were arrested

Pottawatomie Massacre pg. 357

John Brown his sons and some others who were abolitionists killed 5 pro slavery settlers and started guerilla warfare that was more often less ideological and more looting

Preston Brooks and Charles Sumner pg. 357

Preston Brooks member of House of Reps beat Charles Sumner with a cane both became heros Sumner for standing up to slavery and Preston for defending it

The Free Soil Ideology pg. 357-358

Northern Ideology centered around free soil and free labor, most white northerners believed slavery was bad because it threatened whites. Right of all citizens to have property, labor and opportunities

Slave Power Conspiracy pg. 358-359

North viewed South as stagnant and rejecting individualism and progress

The Pro Slavery Argument pg. 359

Southerners should not apologize for slavery as a necessary evil and defend it as the good it is

Slavery was good for the slaves better conditions than southern workers and only way both raised could live in harmony (Slaves couldn't take care of themselves)

Southerners saw northerns as corrupt, and self interested and were horrified by factory system compared to their orderly human pace south

Buchanan and Depression/ Election of 1856 pg. 359-360

Buchanan(Democratic Party) won narrow victory very timid in a critical moment in history

Financial panic hit the country northerners rallied to republican party blamed it on South

The Dred Scott Decision pg. 360

Dred Scott vs. Sandford supreme Court after Scott was given freedom took it away

Taney’’s Sweeping Opinion pg. 360-361

Taney argued  Congress possessed no right to pass a law depriving a person of their property

Missouri Compromise had always been unconstitutional

Deadlock over Kansas pg. 361

Buchanan endorsed Dred Scott decision. Tried to resolve Kansas issue by supporting it

Buchanan pressed Congress to admit Kansas under Lecompton Constitution

After several southern states had withdrawn from the Union Kansas accepted free

Lincoln Douglas Debates pg. 362

Stephen A. Douglas most prominent northern Democrat vs Abraham Lincoln republican Party

Douglas showed no perspective towards Slavery, Lincoln opposed slavery being able to negatively affect whites and immigrants by taking away their rights

Lincoln opposed slavery but believed blacks couldn't live on same level as whites

John Brown’s Raid pg. 363

Brown attempted to incite a massive slave revolt but it did not work, him and his followers hanged for treason

Southerners believed this was funded by Republican Party and they wanted a slave uprise

Crash Course #17


  • Manifest Destiny god given right to go west no matter who is living there

  • Expansion was economic

  • 300k people moved westward many people died of diseases

  • Oregon controlled by US and Britain


  • When Mexico gained independence only 2000 tejanos gave huge land which dispersed to Americans over 6k americans

  • Mexico tried to backtrack and stop immigration slavery illegal but allowed for Americans

  • Mexican General defeated the Americans who wanted autonomy of Texas

  • Battle of San Jacinto won and Texas got its independence recognized

  • 1837 Texas wanted to join Union but denied because they wanted to be slave state

  • POLK

  • Congress annexed Texas before Polk took office over Clay

  • Congress agreement with Britain 49th parallel to get a free state and balance it out

  • Polk wanted to get California Mexico wouldn't let him purchase it

  • Polk setup soldiers in Mexican land Fighting broke out declared war and was mostly supported

  • Increase in executive power Lincoln opposed it but went on to have and expand presidential executive power


  • Mexico refused to give up, Mexico City was captured treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo 1848 Mexico annexed Texas and CA to US US paid Mexico 15 mil

  • 75k-100k mexicans and 100k Indians from these lands in the US and legally they had citizenship but were seen as inferior especially of manifest destiny


  • Anti Catholic, Anti immigrant groups led to nativism

  • The American Party dedicated to that, Know Nothings Party

  • 1848 Gold Rush non indian pop went from 15k-200k

  • Chinese, and mainly men but some women came along 3 to 1 men to women


  • Whites were granted all rights and non whites were moved off of lands, sold as slaves

  • Indian pop went from 150k-30k

  • Free Soil Party wanted to limit slavery expansion

  • CA admitted as a free State

  • Compromise of 1850

    • CA admitted free state

    • slave trade outlawed in Washington but not slavery

    • New hard fugitive slave law

    • popular sovereignty local inhabitants chose if free or slave state

  • US did not expand its ideals to anybody but whites

Crash Course #18


    • Compromise of 1850 Fugitive slave law

    • any citizen required to turn in anyone they knew as a slave

    • courts could send you into slavery if anyone swore you into slavery

    • convinced some northerners that power was in slave power

  • Kansas Nebraska

    • Wanted a transcontinental railroad to go through Illinois

    • Kansas and Nebraska territory needed to become territory pushed for Kansas Nebraska Act

    • A state could decide if they wanted to be free or a slave state

    • repealed missouri compromise (36 30 parallel ignored)

    • Congress controlled by Pro slavery individuals

    • seen as threat to northerners economic self interests

  • Republicans

    • New party against expansion of slavery with Whigs, Know Nothings and others

    • Drew supporters from free states in the northwest

  • WestWard

    • West seen as white individuals becoming self sufficient farmers

    • homes of free white peoples can not be so with slavery

  • Buchanan

    • People came to Kansas to vote pro slavery

    • intense conflict 200 died

    • Kansas passed 2 constitution the pro slavery one support by Douglas

    • Kansas after being postponed joined as a free state

  • Dred Scott

    • Scott sued and said since he was in Maryland was no longer a slave

    • went deeper to say that blacks had no rights and were reduced to property for their well being

  • Republicans response to Dred

    • Republicans all believed that the conspiracy of pro slavery was more real than ever

  • John Brown

    • Led a raid to capture guns and give them to slaves so they could revolt

    • failed and he was captured and was hanged

    • Martyr for the abolitionist cause

  • 1860 Lincoln Election

    • Stephen Douglas debates that made him famous

    • Lincoln's election led to many southern states acceding the union

    • Lincoln hated slavery but would leave it alone in the states it existed

    • 7 states had succeeded confederate states of America


    • Had begun inevitable long before and was at the root slavery

    • failure of US to understand the rights of blacks is what made the civil war inevitable