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Unit 7 Notes
by FREDERICK GOULD - Sunday, November 15, 2015, 03:39 PM
Unit 7 Notes- The Impending Crisis Looking Westward (p. 340-346) US is acquiring huge amounts of land, extending to almost present size in 1840s Expansion is driven by the philosophy of Manifest Destiny- Nationalistic sentiment believing that America is destined to bring liberty to the western hemisphere Manifest Destiny driven by racial motivations- Americans are superior to other races and have the right to civilize Native Americans, Mexicans, etc. Nationalist propaganda spread throughout the US on newspapers Some disagree over the specifics of Manifest Destiny- how and where to expand Others outright disagree with the idea on basis that it would disunify the country and refresh the controversy over slavery Critics supported by Henry Clay, but largely ignored by nationalist fervor Texas belongs to Mexico, but US had long had eyes on it, made attempts to purchase Americans settle in Texas, largely welcomed by Mexico at first Mexico sees them as new tax revenue, buffer between Native Americans and American expansion Hoping to gain settlers’ loyalty, Mexico gives them land, tax exemption Americans, especially Southerners, flood into Texas for cheap land, bring slaves Mexico isn’t the prime seller of land in Texas, US intermediaries, notably Stephen F. Austin, buy and sell large amounts of land to US settlers Intermediaries gain power in the region, rival Mexican power Despite crushing revolt in 1826, Mexican gov. powerless to stop American immigration Mexico attempt to ban immigration after intermediaries revolt, ban unsuccessful and eventually repealed, 30k settlers in Texas Tensions between settlers and Mexico mounts over slavery, ties to US Texans want more autonomy, call for independence, instability increases Mexican government seized by Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna, establishes conservative dictatorship with aim to control territories Santa Anna increases federal power, settlers enraged, Austin jailed Some small fighting breaks out, Texans declare independence from Mexico No unified gov. in Texas, when Santa Anna attacks, settlers are unprepared Americans get demolished at The Alamo, Goliad, disunified army retreats towards Louisiana Sam Houston organizes small army, fights back and captures Santa Anna at the Battle of San Jacinto- Santa Anna unofficially gives Texas independence Texas turns to establishing independence, has many challenges about how to proceed Tejanos are distrusted, driven from TX or forced to accept inferior status Texas hopes to be annexed by the US- sends delegation to Washington Met with support and some opposition- based on MO-ME compromise and not wanting a new slave state Due to lack of support from Jackson, Texas isn’t given statehood promptly Texas begins pursuing alliances with Europe, but main goal is still independence, becomes a prime issue in election of 1844 Oregon is also a significant issue, previously was “jointly occupied” by US and Britain White settlement is very limited, almost all fur traders working with Natives Oregon suddenly becomes a location for religious efforts after a strange, “divine” event involving natives magically appearing in St. Louis Missionaries establish colonies, are mostly unsuccessful however Main immigration begins later, in 1840s, they take out natives with disease Natives resist, but their efforts are futile, talk of annexation by US begins Migrations into Oregon are part of larger Westward Migration, mostly from Old Northwest First migrants are middle class families, later come young men w/ gold rush The trip is long, dangerous, destinations differ in nature, all manual labor Migrants make trip for various reasons- primarily pursuing economic opportunity Others pursue cheap land, gold, trading opportunity, or religious missions Migrants tend to take overland trails in wagons, notably along the Oregon Trail Despite relatively low death rates, the journey is grueling and long 5-6 month journey has to be made past mountains before snow starts Disease, especially cholera, plagues the trail Natives mostly help the migrants, guiding, helping, and trading with them Despite this, widespread fear over attacks from natives Attacks are few, and more natives are killed than whites Life on the trail is still segregated by gender roles, men hunt, drive, repair, women tend the children, cook, etc. Migrants often travel in groups of friends, neighbors, etc., internal conflict often Expansion and War (p. 346-351) Presidential election of 1844- Clay vs. Van Buren- both try to avoid issue of Texas Clay’s whigs don’t take a huge stance on issue, but Democrats want annexation, select James K. Polk as nominee over Van Buren Polk isn’t a prominent figure at the time, but his support for annexation is popular Polk beats Clay in election, Texas becomes a state before he takes office Polk turns to Oregon, says that US has the right to all of it Britain disagrees, but eventually succumbs, border drawn along 49th parallel The Oregon issue is resolved quickly because of new issue in the Southwest Mexican-US relations break down after annexation of TX, Mexico cuts ties Border dispute over area including New Mexico sparks tensions, Polk sends army to secure it New Mexico is like TX, w/ US settlers and trade ties to US US also has eyes on California- previously settled by natives and 7k Mexicans American traders, merchants, and later farmers begin settling in CA Along with troops to New Mexico, Polk sends orders to prepare for war in CA, preparing revolts against Mexico and preparations for taking ports Polk sends out diplomat to try to buy territory, Mexican refuse, war is ordered Polk order troops in New Mexico to cross into Mexico, but Mexicans won’t fight Disputed accounts say Mexicans attack, congress declares war in 1846 Opposition to the war comes mostly from Whigs, calling the war unnecessary Say Polk had purposely set up the war, and was wasting funds that would be better used on the newly annexed Northwest Opposition grows as war’s human and economic cost increases In actual fighting Americans have success, but fail to meet expectations Forces led by Zachary Taylor take Monterrey but fail to capture Mexican forces Polk fears Taylor will lose him the war or use success in war to become his political rival (which ends up happening) Small US army in New Mexico captures Santa Fe, moves on to California Army meets Bear Claw Rebellion- group of US settlers, navy men, and explorers resisting Mexican rule Forces unify and take control of California by fall 1846 US controls all territory it wishes to take, but Mexico doesn’t surrender Gen. Winfield Scott and Polk order troops down highway directly to Mexico City, city is seized without losing many troops New government takes power in Mexico, is willing to sign peace treaty Polk has unclear intentions- wants most possible territory, but an end to the war The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo is eventually signed in 1848, for $15 million, US gains land in New Mexico, CA, border established along Rio Grande Polk and expansionists want more territory, but Polk is forced to sign treaty to keep hopes of re-election alive New land riles up antislavery groups, saying that Polk is allowing slavery to spread, sets precedent for next major issue The Sectional Debate (p. 351-355) Despite efforts to remain above sectionalism, Polk comes under fire from northerners, northwesterners for supporting the south through annexation efforts During bill to appropriate money for peace treaty, Rep. David Wilmot proposes that slavery be illegal in territories acquired from Mexico- Wilmot Proviso Bill fails to get through senate, but would be voted on many times Southerners say that settlers should be allowed to move slaves with them Polk and others draft plants to deal with issue of slavery in the west Polk wants extension of 38/30 line, others want “popular sovereignty”- giving states the opportunity to decide whether or not they want slavery The election of 1848 comes, Polk won’t run again for health reasons, Whigs nominate Lewis Class, Democrats nominate Zachary Taylor Candidates tend to avoid slavery question, antislavery groups begin the Free-Soil Party Drew member from both parties, Van Buren chosen to run Taylor wins election, Free-Soilers see surprising success, which eventually leads to the emergence of slavery as a key issue, the collapse of the two party system Slavery question’s importance in west grows with the discovery of gold in CA California’s population grows x15 in 4 years, people flock to the gold Gold mania inspires crazy reactions, some migrants flock come with no possessions- mostly men known as Forty-niners They imbalance social dynamics, lack of women and children Gold rush also attracts Chinese immigrants- mostly poor and hoping to get rich off gold and return Unlike other migrants, they’re free, looking to trade and build businesses Because of underemployment, Californians turn to enslaving/exploiting natives Vigilante groups form and kill thousands of natives White few get rich or even find gold, gold rush leads to growth of California Those who didn’t find gold often stayed, growing the economy and urban areas- notably San Francisco California is remarkably diverse because of growth, leads to racial tension, calls for a centralized government, US to control territories Taylor believes he can settle issue of slavery by making territories states and letting popular sovereignty decide California, and later New Mexico, draft constitutions, CA wants to be free state, Congress doesn’t admit states into the union because of controversy Southern reps are angry over possible imbalance of free and slave states, new personal liberty law in the North Tempers flare in congress, South talks of seceding, North of abolishing slavery Facing a potentially huge crisis, Henry Clay (who else?) starts effort to compromise Clay’s bill- The Compromise of 1850 includes compromises on territories other than CA (slavery allowed), slave trade in DC, and a new fugitive slave law Bill starts a long lasting debate, beginning in congress, involves Clay, Calhoun Calhoun speaks of letting south keep slavery and dividing union, radical Daniel Webster speaks against slavery, trying to rally presidential votes Congress defeats bill after 6 months of debate, Clay, Calhoun, and Webster out of the picture, new leaders rise in their place William Seward (antislavery), Stephen Douglas (sectional, pro-railroad) and Jefferson Davis (Represent Cotton South) Zachary Taylor dies suddenly, with main opposition to compromise replaced by flexible Millard Fillmore, compromise is now possible Important part of compromise is Douglas’ breaking up of the massive bill Clay proposed, making parts easier to pass Thanks to political deals by Douglas, all parts of the compromise are passed Success is likely thanks to self-interest, not ideological compromise, USA! The Crises of the 1850s (p. 355-364) In presidential election of 1852, slavery is a key issue, after the Whigs lose massive support, the democrats nominee Franklin Pierce becomes president Pierce tries to no avail to maintain above sectionalism, begins with the Fugitive Slave Act Northern resentment of the law is huge, some states pass laws stopping deportation, mobs try to prevent enforcement Pierce tries to stop sectionalism with “Young America” movement Nationalist movement trying to spread American influence in the world Pierce hopes supporting it will distract people from slavery issue Pierce had been trying to buy Cuba from Spain, after documents known as the Ostend Manifesto are leaked, tempers flare over possible new slave state Slavery question, sectional tension revitalized with expansion in midwest, MO, IO, MI Settlers find that area, previously given to natives, is fertile enough to farm Settling in area is a blatant violation of agreement with natives, yet there is no resistance to settlers demands to move natives More divisive issues rise instead- mainly slavery and railroads as US expands In order to facilitate communication and trade, support for possible Transcontinental Railroad grows Biggest struggle is how to place railroad and where the eastern main terminal (terminus) should be Huge debate over whether to place terminus in north or south Gadsden Purchase- Jefferson Davis, through Pierce, purchases strip of land in Mexico to clear path for terminus to be in south Stephen Douglas, wants terminus in North, but route would go thru largely native territory- makes bill that would organize Nebraska to solve problem South heavily opposes bill- Nebraska would be a free state Douglas modifies bill to appease south- slave status of Nebraska decided by popular sovereignty Later modifies the bill more to create Kansas- more likely to be slave state The Kansas-Nebraska Act is passed in 1854 after much debate Notably, the bill repeals the MO-ME compromise (see crash course #18) Bill has huge political consequences- Whigs and democrats dissolve, eventually re-form as a new party opposed to the bill- the Republicans Upon holding first elections, Kansas falls into turmoil, known as “Bleeding Kansas” Because of lax voting laws, voters from MO massively skew vote towards slavery Legislature they elect immediately legalizes slavery Antislavery/free-state groups are outraged- they form another government and declare slavery illegal in Kansas, but Pierce won’t support them Proslavery groups burn free-state government down, conflict begins Pottawatomie Massacre- John Brown, an abolitionist and his posse, murder five proslavery settlers, increasing civil unrest Events spark violence in the US senate, after giving a speech calling out SC on slavery, Charles Summer is viciously beaten by Preston Brooks Summer almost dies, but is seen as a hero in the North, Brooks becomes a hero in South Enormous tension is due to increased sectionalism, and the high stakes of the situation Northern argument centers around “Free-soil”, belief that slavery is dangerous to white and that everyone deserves the right to own property and do own labor According to North, South is stuck in the past and trying to destroy the northern economy- disunion of the country is unthinkable Southern argument is that they need slavery economically, they need it to be strict for their safety, and that the rest of the US is attacking them unfairly Feel antagonized by the Garrisonian abolitionists, Uncle Tom’s Cabin Southern intellectuals, ie Calhoun, begin defending slavery not as “necessary evil”, but a good thing Argue that slaves enjoy harmony and better working conditions than North, and that it is the only way to unite both races peacefully Biggest argument is that slavery is essential to Southern superior lifestyle- not factory or city based, slow, culturally refined, and healthy Paternalism also used to defend slavery, social hierarchy In election of 1856 democrats nominate James Buchanan, divided republicans nominate John Fremont, fading Know-Nothings nominate Fillmore Buchanan, not involved previously in slave debate, win election narrowly Buchanan, maybe because of age, is terrible, afraid of making decisions His lack of leadership leads to a financial panic and depression Depression hurts north, drawing their allegiance to antislavery republicans In 1857, Supreme court becomes involved in Sectionalism with Dred Scott v Sandford Case of a slave who sued master after being moved into a state banning slavery After Scott wins initial case, John Sanford sues and appeals to Supreme Court Court is so divided on case that no single ruling is made, but overall direction of rulings is pro-slavery- led by Chief Justice Taney Taney’s ruling has very strong language, denouncing the MO-ME compromise, and calling slaves property with no rights Ruling does little in effect, but creates national controversy South happy that court supports them, North dismayed, threatened Buchanan endorses Dred Scott decision, also tries to admit Kansas as slave state Proslavery calls for constitutional convention, anti slavery refuse to partake Proslavery constitution- The Lecompton Constitution is made, but quickly rejected when voters elect antislavery legislature Buchanan still wants Kansas as a slave state however, and presents Lecompton to congress- quickly rejects it A compromise is reached- Kansas will only be a state if voters ratify Lecompton Voters reject bill, Kansas’ statehood delayed until 1861 Congressional elections of 1858 are important, especially in IL, Lincoln vs. Douglas Lincoln is not widely known, but quickly emerges as a prominent republican He gains attention for skillful debating and forceful antislavery views in the Lincoln-Douglas Debates Douglas, democrats as a whole, don’t take a moral stance on slavery Lincoln attacks this on basis of free-labor, slavery as morally wrong Lincoln is not an abolitionist, opposes expansion of slavery, skeptical of effects of immediate abolition, wants it to die slowly Lincoln loses, but gains following, democrats lose majority in house, deadlock One of the most prominent and violent acts leading to disunion is John Brown’s Raid Brown gains financial backing, leads a raid against Harpers Ferry with intent of seizing weapons and leading a violent slave uprising The uprising is a failure, majority of his followers are killed or hanged, like him Southerners feel ever more threatened, increased push to leave the union Election of 1860 is among the most important is US history, very complex also Democrats in turmoil, divided between popular sovereignty (west) and slavery After convention, sides split off, south nominates John Breckinridge, remaining original democrats nominate Douglas, west nominate John Bell Republicans are united, focus on demonizing south and gaining north’s support Focuses mainly on economics, but also on stopping expansion of slavery Lincoln nominated for electability and moderate view on slavery Lincoln wins the presidency fairly easily in divided election, South views its position as hopeless, and the country moves towards Civil War Crash Course #17- War and Expansion Manifest Destiny- That Americans have the god given right to expand in North America Mostly driven by economics 300,000 people trek west, many die from disease, malnutrition, etc. US settlers expand towards the areas controlled by Mexico and joint US-UK territories Very few white settlers in northern Mexico Miles and Steven Austin get land in TX, sell out land to 7k US settlers Settlers in TX demand to be able to use slaves- outlawed in Mexico Mexico refuses, when settlers do it anyways, they send an army, full scale rebellion begins Settlers defeated at the Alamo, but eventually defeat Mexico and win independence for Texas Texas wants to join the Union, but wants to be slave state, upsets balance Martin Van Buren ignores Texas until James Polk wins presidency Polk annexes Texas in 1845- divides Oregon w/ Britain to gain a free state Polk wants to purchase California too- Mexico says no, troops sent into Texas border region Mexico responds, Polk wants war declaration, people support it There are fierce critics of the war- Henry David Thoreau- refuses to pay taxes- civil disobedience philosophy... and Abraham Lincoln US wins war, captures Mexico City- Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo grants CA and more of TX to US along with other territories (not yet settled) More land brings more trouble- hundreds of thousands of Mexican settlers and native americans now under US control US being swept by anti-catholic immigrant wave- Nativism (Unit 6 Notes) California swept by Gold Rush in late 1840s, gains enormous amounts of people California establishes strict laws against natives, women, immigrants Interested in statehood but can’t upset MO-ME compromise CA enters as free state, but Henry Clay proposes compromise to appease southern states (strict fugitive slave laws, popular sovereignty) Popular Sovereignty- new states get to decide to be slave or free state Compromise of 1850 passes despite resistance, keeps peace... until the Civil War Crash Course #18- The Election of 1860 and the Road to Disunion First implication of the Compromise of 1850 is the new fugitive slave law Requires everyone to turn in fugitive slaves- everyone has to be a sheriff and forces northerners to indirectly help slavery, which they hate Free people of color in North face being forced into slavery (even if just one family member was a slave)- many move to Canada Stephen Douglas, congressman from IL wants a Transcontinental Railroad to unite US Needs to run through states, Douglas backs Kansas Nebraska Act- first example of Popular Sovereignty Act in effect repeals MO-ME compromise, Kansas becomes violent over decision The Republicans are born in Kansas- want to stop slavery’s spread Gain support from northerners, very sectional Death of MO-ME compromise leads to Slave Power conspiracy- belief that congress is doing the bidding of rich plantation owners Having KA, NE become slave states upsets northern ideals and economy Don’t want western expansion to become plantation centered- brings down the ideas of poor men seeking personal independence out west Republicans do well in 1856 election, but lose presidential race to clueless democrat James Buchanan Wannabe State Kansas tries to hold elections- but enormously fraudulent due to “border ruffians”- people from other states casting pro-slavery votes Fighting over voting breaks out, over 200 killed After two constitutions and much delay, Kansas joins as free states Dred Scott v. Stanford- fight over whether a slave can be freed if brought into a free state from a slave state Taney rules that Scott remains a slave, and says that blacks are property and the shall remain so no matter where they go Ruling fuels the Slave Power movement/conspiracy- mocks the North’s slave laws and adds to the belief that gov. is held by the pro-slavery plantation owners John Brown and Harpers Ferry raid in 1858- aims to capture guns and give them to slaves to start a large scale slave rebellion He’s an awful commander, raid fails, many killed, he’s sentenced to death 1860 Election- Abraham Lincoln runs for Republicans, Democrats are divided, but nominate John Breckinridge and third party nominates John Bell Lincoln wins close vote- southern states start seceding from the union Government has shifted from Slave Power to anti-slavery, south doesn’t like it The fighting begins in 1861 at Fort Sumter The stage for the Civil War had been set long in advance by the US totally ignoring the rights it owed blacks, free and slaves alike