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Unit 7 Notes
by Pascal Beckert-McGirr - Sunday, November 15, 2015, 05:32 PM


Pascal Beckert

US History 1, Period 1

Mr. Kann

November 3, 2015











Manifest Destiny(P.340-341)


















Americans in Texas(P.341)



























Tensions Between the United States and Mexico(P.341-343)













































Westward Migration












Life on the Trail(P.344-346)














Life on the Trail(P.344-346)











The Democrats and Expansion(P.346)















The Southwest and California















The Mexican War(P.347-350)











































Slavery and the Territories(P.351)




















California Gold Rush(P.351-353)

































Rising Sectional Tensions(P.353)



















The Compromise of 1850(P.353-355)











The Compromise of 1850(P.353-355)









The Uneasy Truce(P.355)









“Young America”(P.355)








Slavery, Railroads, and the West(P.355-356)













The Kansas-Nebraska Controversy(P.356)



























“Bleeding Kansas”(P.356-357)














Free Soil Ideology(P.357-359)



















The Pro-Slavery Argument(P.359)










Buchanan and Depression












The Dred Scott Decision(P.360-361)
























Deadlock over Kansas(P.361-362)









The Emergence of Lincoln(P.362-363)





















John Brown’s Raid(P.363)












The Election of Lincoln(P.363-364)

















Crash Course # 17



























































Crash Course #18

❖      Manifest Destiny

➢      Reflected both burgeoning pride and idealistic vision of social perfection

■     Idea that America was destined by God to expand across the Continent of North America

  • Altruistic attempt to extend American liberty

◆      John L. O’Sullivan gave movement name

❖      Racial Justification

➢      Manifest Destiny represented more than pride in nation’s political system

■     Many arguments for expansion was racial justification

  • Defended expansion by citing American superiority over other peoples

◆      Indians, Mexicans and others were racially unfit to be part of “American community”

❖      Opposition to further expansion

➢      Henry clay feared that territorial expansion would reopen slavery controversy

➢      Ended up being correct

■     Voices barely heard over clamor of enthusiasm in 1840’s

  • Began with issues of Texas and Oregon





❖      Americans in Texas

➢      Texas was part of Mexico until 1830;s

■     Renounced claim in 1819

  • Twice after the US offered to buy Texas

➢      In early 1820’s Mexican gov. ran experiment that would cause it to lose its northern province

■     Supposed to strengthen economy of territory and increase tax revenue

  • Thought US settlers in Texas would become loyal to mexican gov.




❖      Stephen Austin

➢      Stephen F. Austin was a young immigrant from Missouri who had established first legal American settlement in Texas in 1822

■     Effective in recruiting american immigrants to Texas

  • Created centers of power in region that competed with Mexican gov.

■     1826 one American intermediaries led a revolt to establish Texas as its own nation

  • Mexicans quickly crushed revolts

➢      Four years later created laws that barred further American immigration into the region

■     Were too late

  • By 1835 over 30,000 Americans had settled in Texas





❖      San Jacinto

➢      General Sam Houston kept a small army force together

■     On April 23, 1836 at the Battle in San Jacinto he defeated the Mexican army and took Santa Anna prisoner

  • Santa Anna=General of mexican army

◆      Killed many mexican soldiers

■     General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna signed treaty giving Texas independence while in captivity

  • No military efforts to win Texas back

❖      Opposition to Annexation

➢      American Texans hoped for annexation by the US

■     Sam Houston as president of Texas sent a delegation to Washington with an offer to join the Union

  • Some supporters of expansion favored this idea

➢      Northerners opposed acquiring large new slave territory

■     One of opponents was President Jackson

  • Feared annexation might cause war with Mexico

◆      Van Buren and William Harrison also refrained from pressing issue when in office

■     Texas question became central issue in the election of 1844






❖      Disputed Claims

➢      Control of Pacific Northwest also major issue in 1840’s

■     Half-million square miles included Oregon, Washington, and Idaho

  • Both Britain and US claimed sovereignty of region

➢      American interest in Oregon grew in 1820’s and 1830’s

■     Missionaries considered territory attractive target for evangelical efforts

❖      Conflict between Settlers and Indians

➢      Significant numbers of white Americans began emigrating to Oregon in early 1840’s and soon outnumbered british settlers there

■     Devastated much of indian population

  • Brought measles epidemic

◆      Killed many indians in this region




❖      Migration

➢      Southerners flocked to Texas

➢      Largest number of Migrants from Old Northwest

■     Mostly white men and women, a few blacks

  • Searching for new opportunities

■     Most traveled in Family groups

  • Until gold rush in early 1850’s

➢      Many migrants were prosperous but not wealthy

■     Poor people couldn't afford the journey





❖      Oregon Trail

➢      About 300,000 migrants traveled the overland trails from 1840-1860

■     Gathered in Iowa and Missouri and joined a wagon led by guides

➢      Major Route west was the 2,000 Mile Oregon Trail

■     From there migrants moved north into Oregon or south into California

➢      Death rate of travelers only slightly higher than that of regular population 

■     Most journeys lasted five to six months

  • Few deaths in conflicts with Indians








❖      Life on the Trail

➢      Different from life on farm or in town

■     Some things stayed the same

  • on Families divided tasks along gender lines

➢      Men were driving and repaired wagons or hunted

■     Women cooked, washed, and cared for children





❖      James K. Polk

➢      Strong supporter of Texan annexation

■     Polk won presidency of the United States in 1844

➢      Democrats hoped by combining the Oregon and Texas question they could appeal to both northern and southern expansionists

■     Interpreted election as mandate for annexation of Texas

  • Won approval for it in 1845

❖      Compromise over Oregon

➢      Polk himself resolved the Oregon question

■     Asserted american claim to all of Oregon

  • On June 15, 1846, Senate approved treaty that fixed the boundary at the 49th parallel




❖      Texas Boundary in Dispute

➢      One reason the senate and president had agreed to British offer over Oregon was tensions in southwest

■     Tensions ultimately led to war with mexico

  • In 1845 Mexico broke diplomatic relations with US

◆      Dispute developed over Texas, Mexico border

■     Texans claimed it was Rio Grande

  • This would have added much of Mexico to Texas

➢      Polk accepted the Texas claim and sent a small army to protect against Mexican invasion

❖      American Interests in California

➢      Americans also increasing interests in California

■     Several western Indian tribes and around 7,000 Mexicans lived there prior to US Settlement

  • US settlers developed trade with Mexicans and Indians
  • Eventually US settlers from the East came

❖      Failure of the Slidell Mission

➢      Polk appeared to prepare for war

■     John Slidell was a special minister sent to buy off Mexicans

➢      Polk ordered Taylor's army to move across Nueces river to the Rio Grande

■     For months mexicans were opposed to fighting

  • Finally some Mexican troops crossed the Rio Grande and attacked a unit of American soldiers

◆      Polk told Congress it was Mexico who initiated war

❖      Opposition to the War

➢      War had much opposition within the United States

■     Many argued that it was a drain of resources

  • Pulled attention away from issue of Pacific Northwest

■     Opposition increased as the casualties and expenses became public

❖      Bear Flag Revolution

➢      In 1846 a small army under Colonel Stephen W. Kearny captured Santa Fe without opposition

■     This offensive proceed to california

  • Brought together american forces

■     Under his command and by the autumn of 1846 he had completed the conquest of California

❖      Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

➢      Polk continued to encourage those who wanted the US to annex much of Mexico

■     Growing anxious to get the war finished quickly

  • Sent Nicholas Trist to negotiate a settlement

◆      Reached an agreement with the New Mexican gov.

➢      Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

■     Mexico agreed to cede California and New Mexico to the US and acknowledge Rio Grande as the boundary of Texas

  • In return the US promised it would assume any financial claims its citizens had against mexico

◆      Paid the Mexicans $15 Million

➢      Trist had obtained most of Polk's demands

■     Polk claimed Trist violated his instructions

  • Submitted trist treaty and passed with a 38 to 14 vote


❖      Wilmot Proviso

➢      Polk asked Congress to appropriate $2 Million for purchasing peace with Mexico

■     David Wilmot of PA introduced an amendment prohibiting slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico

  • Passed House but failed Senate

◆      Would be debated for years following

❖      Competing Plans

➢      Polk supported proposal to extend Missouri Compromise line through new territories to Pacific Coast

■     This would ban slavery north of the line and permit it south of it

  • Known as “squatter sovereignty”

❖      Free-Soil Party

➢      Taylor elected president in 1848

➢      Political party which drew from Liberty Party and Whig and Democratic Parties

■     Free-Soilers elected ten members to congress

  • Emergence as an important political force




❖      Gold Rush

➢      Atmosphere in California at peak of Gold Rush was full of greed and excitement

■     San Francisco was almost completely depopulated when its inhabitants began rushing to mountains

  • The cities newspaper had to stop publishing

◆      Could not find writers or readers

❖      Forty-Niners

➢      California migrants

■     Threw caution to the winds

  • Abandoned farms, jobs, homes, families in search for gold

◆      95% of forty-niners were men

■     Society they created on arrival was fluid and volatile because of absence of women, children, or families

➢      Gold rush attracted some first Chinese migrants to western US

■     Extremely difficult for chinese migrants to get to America

  • Believed they could become rich and then return





❖      Indian Slavery

➢      Gold rush created labor shortages in california

■     Created opportunities for people who needed work

  • Including Chinese immigrants

➢      Led to exploitation of Indians that resembled slavery

■     “Indian Hunters” were hunting and killing thousands of Indians

  • State law permitted arrest of “loitering” or orphaned Indians and their assignment to a term of “indentured” labor.

❖      Statehood

➢      Could become solution to issue of slavery in territories

■     Once they were states their own governments could decide fate of slavery

  • California adopted a constitution that prohibited slavery

◆      In 1849 Taylor asked Congress to admit California as a free state

➢      New Mexico should also decide own fate

❖      Sectional Conflict over Slavery in Territories

➢      Even moderate southern leaders began speaking of secession

■     In North every state legislature but one demanded prohibition of slavery in territories




❖      Clay’s Proposed Solution

➢      Henry clay spearheaded effort to frame a great compromise

■     Believed no compromise could last unless it settled all disputes

  • Took several measures that had been proposed separately and combined them

◆      Presented this to the senate in 1850

➢      Among the provisions were:

■     California as a free state

■     Formation of territorial govts. in lands acquired from mexico

  • Without restrictions on slavery

◆      Abolition of slave trade

■     New Fugitive slave law

➢      In July, after six months of debating Congress defeated Clay’s proposal


❖      New Leadership

➢      Younger group of leaders emerged

■     William H. Seward was one spokesman

  • Forty nine years old, of NY

◆      Opposed proposed compromise

➢      Ideals of Union less important to him than eliminating slavery

■     Slavery issue less of principal and more of economic self interest


❖      Opposition to Fugitive Slave Act

➢      Franklin Pierce attempted to maintain national harmony

■     Tried to avoid issue of slavery

  • Northern opposition to Fugitive Slave act intensified after 1850

■     Several Northern states passed laws to protect fugitive slaves

  • White Southerners watched with anger and alarm

❖      Ostend Manifesto

➢      In 1854 a group of Pierce’s envoys sent him a private document from Ostend, Belgium

■     Made argument for seizing Cuba by force

  • Leaked to public

◆      Enraged many antislavery northerners

➢      Charged the administration with conspiring to bring a new slave state into the Union

■     South opposed all efforts to acquire new territory that would support a slave system

❖      Transcontinental Railroad and Slavery

➢      Communications between new and old states became critical

■     Broad support began for building transcontinental Railroad

  • Where to place it was problem

❖      Gadsden Purchase

➢      Surveys indicated that railroad with southern terminus would have to pass through Mexican territory

■     Persuaded mexican government to accept $10 Million in exchange for a strip of land

  • Parts of now Arizona and New Mexico

◆      Accentuated sectional rivalry






❖      Kansas-Nebraska Act

➢      Stephen A. Douglas wanted transcontinental Railroad for his own city

■     Introduced bill to organize a huge new territo known as Nebraska

  • Knew South would oppose his bill

◆      Prepared for it to be a free state

■     Inserted a provision that the status of slavery would be determined by territorial legislature

  • According to popular sovereignty

➢      President pierce supported legislation

■     No piece of legislation in American history produces so many immediate consequences

❖      Birth of the Republican Party

➢      Divided and destroyed the Whig Party         

■     Disappeared almost entirely by 1856

➢      Divided Northern democrats

■     Spurred creation of a new party

  • Sectional in composition and creed

◆      People began to call themselves Anti-Nebraska Democrats and Anti-Democrats Whigs

  • In 1854 formed new organization and named it the Republican Party

◆      became a major force in American politics immediately

❖      Pottawatomie Massacre

➢      John Brown=Abolitionist in Kansas

■     Considered himself an instrument of God's will to destroy slavery

  • Moved to Kansas so he could fight to make it a free state

■     After events in Lawrence, he gathered six followers and murdered five pro-slavery settlers

  • Led to more civil strife in Kansas

◆      Guerrilla warfare led by armed bands

❖      Preston Brooks and Charles Sumner

➢      Preston Brooks=Member of House of Reps from SC

■     Brooks approached sumner at his desk and began beating on the head and shoulders

  • Sumner Collapsed unconscious

◆      Injuries so serious he was unable to return to senate for four years

■     Preston Brooks became hero of South

❖      “Free Soil” Ideology

➢      In North assumptions about the proper structure of society came to center on the belief in “Free soil” and “Free Labor”

■     White northerners came to believe slavery was dangerous because of what it threatened to do to whites

  • Argued that it was right of all citizens to own property, control own labor

❖      “Slave Power Conspiracy”

➢      South was the antithesis of democracy

■     Closed, static society, in which slavery preserved an aristocracy which common whites had no opportunity to improve self

➢      While North was growing and prospering, south was stagnating

■     Rejected values of individualism and progress

  • Engaged in conspiracy to extend slavery throughout the nation

◆      Only solution to conspiracy

➢      Fight spread of slavery

❖      The Pro-Slavery Argument

➢      White southerners produced intellectual defense of slavery

■     Professor Thomas R. Dew helped begin this effort

  • Summarized views 20 years later in an anthology The Pro-Slavery Argument

◆      Argued it was good for the slaves

➢      Better conditions than in north

■     Good for southern society

  • Only way the two races could live together in peace

◆      Good for entire country

➢      Southern economy was key to prosperity of nation

❖      Election of 1856

➢      Democratic Party chose James Buchanan of PA

■     Out of country during recent controversies

➢      Republicans nominated John C. Frémont

■     Made national reputation as explorer

  • No Political record

➢      Buchanan narrowly won over Frémont and Fillmore

■     A financial panic struck the country in the year he took office





❖      Dred Scott v. Sandford

➢      Dred Scott was a missouri slave

■     Scott was brought to Illinois and Wisconsin where slavery was illegal

  • Scott sued his master's widow for freedom

◆      Claims were justified

➢      Was declared free by circuit court

■     John Sanford claimed ownership of Scott

  • Appealed circuit court ruling to the state supreme court

◆      Reserved the earlier decision

➢      Scott appeared to federal courts

■     Sanfords attorneys claimed scott was not a citizen but private property

  • No right to sue

❖      Taney’s Sweeping Opinion

➢      Supreme court misspelled Sanford's name in its decision

➢      Unable to issue a single ruling on the case

■     The various rulings was a defeat for the antislavery movement

  • Chief Justice Roger Taney wrote one of the majority opinions

◆      Declared Scott couldn't bring suit to federal courts as he wasn't citizen

❖      Lecompton Constitution Rejected

➢      Majority of people of Kansas opposed slavery

■     Buchanan pressured congress to admit Kansas under the Lecompton constitution

  • Stephen A. Douglas refused to support president's proposal

◆      Proposal died in House of Reps.

  • In 1861 Kansas entered the Union as a free state

❖      Lincoln-Douglas Debates

➢      Successful lawyer who had been involved in state politics

■     Had served several terms in Illinois legislature

  • Tried to increase visibility by engaging Douglas in series of debates

◆      Lincoln-Douglas debates attracted enourmous crowds

■     At the heart of debates was slavery

  • Lincoln's opposition to slvaery was more fundamental

◆      Argued if US could deny such basic rights to blacks they could deny them to anyone

❖      Lincoln's Position

➢      Believed slavery was morally wrong

■     Was not an abolitionist

  • Could not envision an easy alternative to slavery where it already existed

■     Agreed that black race was not prepared to live on equal terms with whites

  • He trusted the institution would gradually die out there of its own accord

❖      John Brown’s Raid

➢      Battles in congress were overshadowed by John Brown's raid of 1859        

■     Made elaborate plans to seize a mountain fortress in Virginia

  • He believed he could foment a slave insurrection from there

◆      He and 18 followers attacked and seized control of a US arsenal in Harpers Ferry, VA

➢      He quickly found himself besieged in the arsenal by citizens, local militia companies, and US troops under command of Robert E. Lee

■     After ten of his men were killed Brown surrendered

  • Was sentenced to death

◆      He and six followers were hanged

❖      Divided Democrats

➢      Presidential election of 1860 had the most momentous consequences of any in US history

■     Democratic Party torn apart by a battle between southerners

  • Demanded strong endorsement of slavery

➢      Republican convention chose Lincoln as the party’s nominee

■     Was appealing because of his growing reputation for eloquence, because of his firm but moderate position on slavery

  •  In november he won presidency with majority of electoral votes

❖      Disunion

➢      Republicans failed to win majority in congress

■     Election of Lincoln became signal to many white southerners that their position in the Union was hopeless




❖      Manifest Destiny

➢      God given right to take over all lands between Pacific and atlantic regardless of who was living there

■     Disregarded Native Americans, Mexicans, French Fur traders

  • By 1860 nearly 300,000 people had gone on the Oregon Trail

■     Oregon jointly controlled between US and Britain

❖      Alamo

➢      March 13 1836 Santa Ana defeated american defenders of the Alamo

■     Killed 187 Americans including Davy Crockett

  • “remember the Alamo”

◆      Texas became Lone star Republic

➢      Wanted to join Union

■     Wanted to be slave state

❖      James K. Polk

➢      Congress annexed Texas in 1845

■     Divided Oregon with britain at the 49th Parallel

  • Renewed Slave/Free State balance

■     Sent troops into disputed border region

  • Called for declaration of war

◆      Majority of Americans supported war

❖      Henry David Thoreau

➢      Thrown in jail for not paying taxes

■     “On Civil disobedience”

❖      Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

➢      Ceded California and Texas

■     In return US Paid $15 Million

  • 75,000 spanish speaking mexicans were under jurisdiction of US

◆      Mexicans were Catholic

❖      American Party

➢      Know-Nothings

■     Won many local parties

❖      Gold Rush

➢      25,000 chinese people migrated to California

■     Ratio of Men to women in CA was 3:1

  • Thousands of people migrated from east to west

❖      California Constitution

➢      Limited civil participations to whites

■     Indian pop of indian dropped from 150,000 to about 30,000 between 1848 and 1860

  • Didn't know whether free or slave state

❖      Free soil Party

➢      Called for limitation of slaves in west

■     Could be open for white people to live and work

  • Nominated Martin Van Buren

❖      Henry Clay

➢      Brokered four part plan

■     Compromise of 1850

  • California admitted as free state
  • Slave trade but not slavery illegal in DC
  • A new fugitive slave law
  • Popular Sovereignty








❖      Compromise of 1850

➢      Fugitive slave law

■     Controversial

  • Any citizen was required to turn in anyone they knew to be slaves

➢      Even if born free courts could send you into slavery

■     Many blacks moved to canada to avoid this


❖      Railroads

➢      Made shipping cheaper and more efficient

■     Wanted transcontinental railroad

  • Thought it would bring together the Union

➢      Douglas pushed the Kansas-Nebraska act

■     Citizens Could decide whether states should have slavery

❖      Republican Party

➢      New coalition party

■     Wanted to stop expansion of slavery

  • Drew supporters from Northwest

❖      John C. Fremont

➢      39% of the vote

■     Lost to James Buchanan

  • Did not have position on slavery

❖      Kansas trying to become state

➢      Held elections

■     People came in from free and slave states to vote


❖      Kansas

➢      Passed two constitutions

■     Lecompton Constitution

  • Supported by Douglas

➢      Congress delayed Kansas’ admission into the Union

■     joined as free state in 1861

❖      Dred Scott decision

➢      Convinced even more people that Congress, the president and the Supreme court were in the hands of the “Slave Power”

❖      John Brown

➢      Led disastrous raid hoping to capture guns and give them to slaves

■     Awful military commander

  • Many of party were killed

◆      Became martyr to Abolitionist cause

❖      1860 elections

➢      Republican party nominated Abraham Lincoln

■     Debates made him famous                 

  • Not associated with Know-Nothings

➢      Abraham Lincoln received 0 votes in 9 states but won 40% of overall popular vote

■     Thereby won electoral college

  • Led to a number of Southern States leaving the Union

■     By March 1, 1861 7 states had seceded and formed the confederate states of america