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Malcolm's Unit 7 Notes
by Malcolm Scannell - Sunday, November 15, 2015, 09:38 PM
 

Malcolm Scannell

Mr. Kann

HN U.S. History 1, Period 1

2 November 2015

Unit 7 Notes

American History Textbook:

  • Western Expansion + Development

    • By end of 1840’s, Amer. had control over continental U.S.

    • During this time, the ideology of “Manifest Destiny” (M.D.) emerged

    • The idea that Amer. was destined by God + Hist. to expand borders over North Amer. + possibly beyond

      • Essentially a form of Nationalism

      • Justified in a racial context:

        • Amer. were superior due to Euro. roots, and they saw Native Amer., Mexicans, + other peoples of the W region as “unfit” to join Amer. society

          • It was the spread of a pol. sys. + a “racially defined society”

      • Diff. degrees of vision between advocates of M.D., moderates envisioning W expansion, extremists looking even farther into the inclusion of Canada, Caribbean + Mex. into Amer.

    • Mid-19 cent. expansion began w/ territorial issues in TX + OR

      • For a long time, AMer. tried to buy TX from Mex.

        • However, in 1820’s, Mex. encouraged Amer. settlement into TX w/ hopes of financial + pol. benefits

          • 1830, 2 Amer. per Mex., mostly S immigrants who planted cotton + brought slaves

          • Stephen Austin, 1st official Amer. settler, major recruiter + popularizer of TX lands, “created centers of power”

            • Following attempted revolt, Mex. Gov. bans white immigration 1833, too late, 1835 lift ban, 30, 000 Amer. in TX

      • Amer. settlers + Mex. had deteriorating relations

        • Amer. wanted to legalize slavery (even though slaves were already there) which was illegal in Mex.

        • Settlers split over how to deal w/ cult. diff., some wanted to reach peaceful agreement, others fight for ind.

        • Mex. have pol. changes on homefront resulting in a new, dictatorial leader, Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

          • Imprisoned Steph. Aust. w/ claims of conspiracy, but fighting began in 1835 + quickly grew

            • 1836, Amer. in TX declare ind.

              • Backlash from Santa Anna’s forces weakens Amer. claims to land + sent fleeing

                • Somehow, Amer. Gen. Sam Houston defeated Santa Anna + forced to sign treaty giving TX ind.

      • Texans hoped to be annexed by US + attain statehood

        • Although TX delegates sent to DC were met w/support from expansionists, many people in NE opposed

          • Feared intro. of large slave territory + the fact that the South would now get more votes in Cong.

            • Pres. Andrew Jackson among opposers + Van Buren + WIll. Henry Harrison did not address issue during respective presidencies

              • W/ potentially lethal alliance forming between TX + Euro. countries, Pres. Tyler suggested TX apply for statehood

                • Calhoun presented a rejected treaty to Cong., fired up advocates of  M.D. + became imp. issue of 1844

        • Oregon, jointly occupied + controlled by Brit. + US

          • Great urge + fight to take more possession of Oregon territory, especially from M.D. supporters

        • Migrating pop.

          • Mostly young + prosperous people, many moved W in search of more $, success, + ‘new life’

            • Many migrated W along Oregon trail

              • Natives helped guide many settlers across the 2,000 + mile route

                • Journeys could last around 5-6 months, goal to cross Rocky Mt. range before snowfalls

                  • Generally held good relations w/ natives

              • Although society was diff. from that of a farm or city b/c of the situation, quite similar in terms of gender roles + tasks

    • Controversial issue over the annexations of TX

      • James Polk wins wins imp. election of 1844 over Clay revolving around issue of TX, ultimately becomes a state

        • Border issues w/ Mex. ensue, Amer. wants border to be Rio Grande, Mex. wants other riv, N of Rio G. to be border

        • Oregon issues also resolved “Fight for 54!”, raising border, settle on 49th parallel

        • Polk  also wanted to acquire Cali. from Mex., refused

        • Border dispute w/ Mex. ultimately leads to the Mexican-American War

          • Amer troops crossed Nueces Riv. + engage in combat w/ Mex.

            • Although AMer. was successful while fighting Mex., victory did come as easily as Polk had predicted

            • Polk greatly exercises military power, uses it to take control over CA + fight in NM as well

              • Following these conflicts, Amer. army fought its way through Mex., seized capital while new gov. took power there

                • New gov. was willing to sign peace treaties w/ Amer.

          • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Mex. cedes CA + NM to Amer. + recognize Rio Grande border

            • In return, Amer. payed $ 15 mill., treaty negotiated the Amer. Nicholas Trist

              • War was over but new problems regarding land + expansion would later emerge

    • Sectionalism, territorial debate

      • David Wilmot, Democrat from NY, proposed that slavery would not exist in newly gained land from Mex.

        • Passed in House but rejected by S-dominated senate

          • Free Soil Party

            • Against expansion of slavery, “free labor, free soil, free men”

      • Gold Rush, beginning in late-1840’s

        • John sutter’s mills, group of people called 49ers, hence the name of the San Francisco football team

          • During time, immense pop. growth, mostly young men seeking fortune, 14,000-220,000 in 4yrs.

      • Question over what would be the fate of slavery in new land; decision ultimately would be made by the Fed. Gov.

        • Personal lib. laws passed in response to 1850-comp., passed by N of ceasing involvement in returning of escaped slaves

          • 1850 Compromise

            • CA to be a free state

            • Slave trade outlawed in D.C.

            • New fugitive slave law

            • Popular sovereignty

            • End of “Great Triumvirate”, Clay, Calhoun + Daniel Webster

        • During this time, a general deterioration of the N-S relationship is apparent, vivid roots of the coming Amer. Civil War

          • N against proposed fugitive slave act, creates the Personal Lib. Laws, tensions between N-S increase

          • Later, Franklin Pierce becomes pres., wanted to expand US democracy, power + influence

            • Planned to buy Cuba from Spain to make a slave state, if refused, take w/ military, “Ostend Manifesto”

            • Gadsden Purchase, area in deep S of AZ + NM, the last border we gained w/in continental US to build a railroad

            • KS + NE Act, created by Steph. Doug.

              • Proposed in response to Gadsden Purch., wanted to build a railroad + create pop. sovereignty

                • Went against MO + ME Comp.

                • Leads to unjust voting in KS, “Bleeding KS” + fighting

                  • More deteriorating situations in US

        • Strength of Free-Soil party leads to formation of Republican Party

          • Slave Power conspiracy, S sought to extend slavery + that Gov. run by pro-slavery persons

            • Justification in religion, racial superiority + paternalism for slavery

            • Later, James Buchanan, Democrat, elected pres.

              • “Panic of 1857”, econ. crisis

              • Dred Scott case, sued for freedom b/c lived in IL

                • Lost, immense disaster, “was not citizen so could not sue”

                • Outlined evils of slavery + sustained prejudice towards slaves

          • John Brown, radical Rep. stole guns in hopes of starting significant slave rebellion, ultimately fails

          • 1860, following Lincoln’s election, many S-states who gave no votes to Lincoln ceced, felt voices were not heard + wanted to cling to dependence on slave based econ.

Crash Course Notes:

1.) Video 17: War and Expansion

  • Journalist John L. O'Sullivan coined phrase “Manifest Destiny”

    • Amer. right by God to expand across continent, essentially “Internal Imperialism”

    • 1860, 300,000 + Amer. made trip west

      • At time, Brit. + Amer. controlled OR, Mex. had modern  SW U.S. states (TX, AZ, NV, NM, UT + CA).

        • CA + NM only major places of importance due to settlement

        • Steph. Austin given land contract to control vast TX areas + sold to Amer. settlers, 7,000 total, Mex. feel threatened + nullify contract

          • Slavery abolished in Mex., allowed Amer. to bring slaves

          • Leads to ultimate war, key battle + Amer. defeat at Alamo

            • Amer. win + get control of TX + apply for admission into union, ignored due to resulting senate imbalance of slave vs. free states

              • Annexed by U.S. March, 1845

              • Restored balance by dividing OR w/ Brit.

        • Gained TX under Polk-administration, had goal to acquire CA

          • Amer.. goes to war w/ Mex., same time as reformist movements, Transcendentalist Henry David Thoreau jailed for refusing to pay taxes in protest

            • Amer. win, Mex. gives TX to Amer.

              • Along w/ CA + other SW states

      • However, this caused Native peoples to now be on Amer. soil

        • Mex., like many others, viewed as inferior to whites + resented due to their practicing of Catholicism

          • Spurs a rise of Nativism in East + formation of pol. group the “Amer. Party”

            • Referred to as “Know Nothings”

      • Following discovery of gold in CA, pop. spikes due to massive emigration, “Gold Rush”

        • Whites sought out fortune, Chinese immigrants sought railroads

          • 1861, 3:1 ratio of men-women in CA

          • Very strict voting guidelines, essentially just whites

          • 1850, CA request admission to union, created controversy due to state imbalance

            • Henry Clay creates compromise w/ 4 parts

              • “CA to be a free state”

              • “Slave trade outlawed in D.C.”

              • “New fugitive slave law”

              • “Popular sovereignty”

                • Compromise did pass w/ tension from both sides

    • “Problem w/ Man. Dest. is US didn’t govern according to ideals”

2.) Video 18: The Election of 1860 & the Road to Disunion

  • Slavery was primary + sole cause of Amer. Civil War

    • New fugitive slave law enacted

      • Essentially mad civilians sheriffs, NE courts could send free blacks back into slavery

        • Convinced N Amer. that Gov. was run by Cong. in support of slavery, “slave power conspiracy”

  • Railroads

    • Most efficient + cheap form of trans., developed companies + markets, sped travel

      • Desires from Steph. Doug. to make transcontinental railroad, “bind” the Union together

        • For this to happen, Midwest needed “organization”, proposed the Kansas + Nebraska Act

          • “Formalized popular sovereignty”: states could decide to be slave or free states

            • Essentially repealed MO + ME Comp., above 36-30

              • Violence in KS emerged, seen by some as place of origin of Amer. Civil War

              • Led to creation of the Republican Party

      • KS + NE act used to support slave power-conspiracy claim

        • Many MO went to vote in KS to give leverage + votes to their ideals + chosen reps.

          • Fighting would later break out between Pro- Slavery MO + KS pop.

            • Congress delayed admission into the Union

      • Dred Scott Decision

        • Slave in S, taken to IL w/ master but IL had banned slavery

          • Scott sued claiming he was no longer a slave due to state

            • Supreme Court (Chief Justice Roger B. Taney) ruled against, he was still a slave

              • Went further however, essentially ruled that all blacks w/in US could be property

                • Raised question over what is a free state if slavery could exist anywhere

        • Also added to slave power conspiracy

          • John Brown led mission to acquire guns + distribute to slaves to rise against masters, ultimately failed

            • Sentenced to death but became martyr to cause

    • Set stage for election of 1860

      • Abraham Lincoln chosen as Rep. candidate

        • Previously lost 1858 senate race to Steph. Doug.

        • Divisions w/in Dem. party created unclear candidate

        • 3rd Party, “Const. Union Party” nominated John Bell

          • Abe won 40%, 0 votes from 9 states, ultimately wins

            • Showed slave power was over

            • As result, many Southern states seceded

              • 7 by time he took office

          • Stage set for fighting, began w/  S troops firing on Fort Sumter,  April 12, 1861

            • Although fighting started, the emerging conflict had become inevitable earlier