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Unit 7 Notes
by LAURA GILL - Monday, November 16, 2015, 10:00 PM
 

Laura Gill
AP US History Mr. Kann November 2, 2015

Manifest Destiny (p. 340)

● America was “destined” to expand across the North American continent

○ extending “American liberty”
● Named by democratic editor
John L. O’Sullivan

Racial Justification (p. 340)

● Westward expansion was justified by “superiority” of white Americans

○ other races were unfit for American society ● Publicized by the “penny press”

Opposition to Further Expansion
(p. 341)

● New enthusiasm for expansion in 1840s ○ raised slavery question again

Americans in Texas (p. 341)

  • ●  Texas was a part of Mexico until the 1830s

  • ●  Mexico encouraged American migration into Texas to

    bring prosperity there

    • ○  a law in 1824 promised settlers cheap land and a

      four­year exemption from taxes

    • ○  American settlers brought slaves and established

      new cotton plantations

    • ○  the number of Americans living in Texas in 1830

      was more than twice the number of Mexicans

Stephen Austin (p. 341)

● Stephen F. Austinestablished the first legal American settlement in Texas in 1822

  • ○  competed with Mexican government

  • ○  proposed to start a new nation called Fredonia

Tensions Between the United States and Mexico (p. 341)

  • ●  Slavery was illegal in Mexico

  • ●  General Antonio Lopez de Santa Annatook control of

    Mexico in the 1830s

○ imprisoned Stephen Austin

● The Mexican forces defeated the Americans at the Alamo

San Jacinto (p. 342)

● Sam Houstontook Santa Anna prisoner in present day Houston

○ Santa Anna signed a treaty giving Texas independence from Mexico

Opposition to Annexation (p. 342)

● Sam Houston sent an offer to join the Union to Washington

○ Jackson feared annexation of Texas could cause a war with Mexico and increased sectionalism

● England and France made treaties with Texas to help it become a rival nation to the US

President Tylerpersuaded Texas to apply for statehood again

Disputed Claims (p. 343)

  • ●  Oregon contained the land of modern day Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, and British Columbia

  • ●  1818 treaty allowed “joint occupation”

  • ●  Area targeted by missionaries

Conflict between the Settlers and Indians (p. 343)

● Natives blamed settlers for epidemics of new diseases ○ provoked attacks

The Westward Migration (p. 343)

  • ●  Hundreds of thousands migrated westward from 1840 to 1860

    • ○  mostly families

    • ○  gold rush attracted more single men

  • ●  Poor men joined other families as farm or ranch hands to

    be brought westward

  • ●  Poor women were able to migrate by working as domestic

    servants, teachers, or prostitutes for migrating families

Oregon Trail (p. 344)

● MigrantsusuallygatheredindepotsinIndependence,St. Joseph, and Council Bluffsto join a wagon led by guides

  • ●  The Oregon Trailwas 2,000 miles long

  • ●  An epidemic of cholera killed thousands of travellers in

    the 1850s

The Democrats and Expansion
(p. 346)

  • ●  Both Henry Clay and Martin Van Buren avoided discussing the topic of the annexation of Texas in the election of 1844

  • ●  ClaywasnominatedbutJamesK.Polkwasnominated instead of Van Buren

○ Polk strongly supported annexation

James K. Polk (p. 346)

● Supported the occupation of the Oregon area and annexation of Texas

○ predecessor Tyler annexed Texas in 1845
● Won the electoral vote despite his popularity being low

Compromise over Oregon (p. 246)

● The British minister originally rejected Polk’s proposal of what would be the US­Canada border

○ eventually approved in 1846

Texas Boundary in Dispute
(p. 346)

● Mexican­American relations worsened after the annexation of Texas

○ Polk sent a small army led by General Zachary Taylorin 1845 to defend the border of Texas as the Rio Granderather than a river further north (Nueces River)

● American culture overtook what would become New Mexico

American Interests in California
(p. 347)

  • ●  Most of the Mexicans in California were descendants from Spanish settlers

  • ●  California was valuable for merchants

Failure of the Slidell Mission
(p. 347)

  • ●  Pacific naval prepared to seize California is Mexico declared war

  • ●  John Slidellattempted to buy the Mexicans out of the land

○ Polk sent American troops to the Rio Grande

Opposition to the War (p. 347)

● Many opposed the cost and motivations of the war

  • ○  Polk considered preoccupied with Mexico

  • ○  Polk feared Taylor would become political rival

Bear Flag Revolution

● Colonel Stephen W. Kearny captured Santa Fe in 1846

(p. 348)

● John C. Frémontled the Bear Flag Revolution to seize California

○ succeeded in 1846
● General
Winfield Scott,commanding general of the

army travelled along the Mexican National Highway to Mexico City

  • ○  never lost a battle along the way

  • ○  a new government took over in Mexico City and

    agreed to negotiate a peace treaty with Scott

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
(p. 348)

  • ●  Polk both supported movements to acquire more Mexican territory and hoped to the end the war by the approaching presidential elections

  • ●  Presidential envoy Nicholas Tristnegotiated the Treaty of Hidalgo with the Mexican government

    • ○  all of New Mexico and California were ceded to the United States

    • ○  the US agreed to pay $15 million along with requiring the new settlers to assume the financial claims Mexico held against them

  • ●  Trist’s treaty was approved by Senate 38 to 14

Wilmot Proviso (p. 351)

● David Wilmotof PA amended the appropriation bill to prevent slavery from being practiced in any formerly Mexican territory

Completing Plans (p. 351)

  • ●  Polk wanted to extend the line of the Missouri Compromise across the country, only allowing slavery south of it

  • ●  Others wanted “popular sovereignty” which would allow individual states to decided slavery laws within their boundaries

  • ●  After Polk’s term ended, the Democrats nominated Lewis Cassof MI and the Whigs elected the general of the Mexican war, Zachary Taylor

Free­Soil Party (p. 351)

  • ●  Martin Van Buren represented the new anti­slavery party, the Free­Soil Party

  • ●  Taylor defeated Van Buren but ten Free­Soilers were

 

elected to Congress
○ led to collapse of the second party system in the

1850s

The California Gold Rush (p. 351)

● Gold was discovered onJohn Sutters sawmill in California

  • ○  news spread quickly to the east coast

  • ○  non­Indian population increased from 1,400 to

    220,000

Forty­niners (p. 351)

● The majority of California migrants (forty­niners) were men

○ Emigration brokers loaned migrants money to be paid back from their labor

● Chinese peasants believed that they could be become rich in California then return to China

Indian Slavery (p. 352)

  • ●  Gold rush left labor shortage in California

    • ○  opportunity for Chinese immigrants

    • ○  also lead to Indian slavery

  • ●  “Loitering” indians could be arrested and be sentenced to indentured labor

  • ●  California cities grew after many seeking gold failed

○ diversity put pressure on US to answer slavery

question

Rising Sectional Tensions (p. 353)

  • ●  California adopted a constitution prohibiting slavery

  • ●  Taylor urged Congress to allow both California and New

    Mexico to become states so that the matters of slavery

    could be handled within them instead of by the fed gov

  • ●  Southern states feared the new states would join the north

    without slavery

Clay’s Proposed Solution (p. 353)

  • ●  Clay combined several proposals and submitted them to the Senate

    • ○  governments in California and New Mexico

    • ○  abolition of the slave trade

    • ○  more effective fugitive slave laws

  • ●  John Calhounargued that the North should allow the South rights in the territories

 

● Congress voted against Clay’s proposal

New Leadership (p. 354)

  • ●  William H. Sewardof NY took up the debate on the opposition of the compromise

  • ●  Jefferson Davisof MI argued that the economic value of slavery was more important than moral ideals

  • ●  Stephen A. Douglasof IL argued for the economic needs of western states

  • ●  After Tyler’s death, a compromise was reached

○ successor Millard Fillmorehelped the

compromise go through

Temporary Compromise (p. 354)

  • ●  Douglas broke up the “omnibus bill” that Clay had developed to combine all of the issues

  • ●  The Compromise of 1850was celebrated by members of Congress and Fillmore

The Uneasy Truce (p. 355)

  • ●  D e m o c r a t s n o m i n a t e d F r a n k l i n P i e r c e of N H a n d t h e Whigs nominated General Winfield Scott

  • ●  John P. Hale,the Free Soil candidate, attracted new support

Opposition to the Fugitive Slave Act
(p. 355)

● Franklin Pierce attempted to avoid major issues like slavery

○ pressured increased as Northerners became more unhappy with fugitive laws

Ostend Manifesto (p. 355)

● Franklin Pierce supported the “Young America” movement

○ expanding American commerce and territory further westward

  • ●  Pierce intended to buy Cuba from Spain

    • ○  the Ostend Manifesto leaked his intentions to the

      public

    • ○  Southerners feared it would be another

      anti­slavery state

  • ●  Attempts to seize both Hawaii and Canada failed due to

    policies not allowing slavery in the regions

Transcontinental Railroad

● A transcontinental railroad was necessary to link both

and Slavery (p. 356)

sides of the country
○ the South and the North were divided on where

the eastern end of the railroad should be

Gadsen Purchase (p. 356)

● A s o u t h e r n r a i l r o a d b u i l d e r n a m e d Ja m e s G a d s e n w a s sent into Mexico to purchase a strip of land through which the transcontinental railroad could pass if it ended in the South

Kansas­Nebraska Act (p. 356)

● Douglas introduced a territory known as Nebraska through which the railroad could travel if it ended in Chicago, the Northern choice

  • ○  he allowed for popular sovereignty about slavery in the new territory and repealed the Missouri Act

  • ○  the territory split into Nebraska and Kansas

  • ○  received support from both the North and the

    South

Birth of the Republican Party
(p. 356)

  • ●  The Whig Party divided and collapsed after the decision

  • ●  Those that opposed the Nebraska­Kansas Act from both

    parties formed the Republican Party

“Bleeding Kansas” (p. 356)

● Elections were held in 1855 for a territorial legislature

  • ○  Missourians joined the vote

  • ○  the majority of the elected were pro­slavery

­ slavery was thus legalized
● A convention held in Topeka adopted a constitution

outlawing slavery
○ the Free Staters were arrested

Pottawatomie Massacre (p. 357)

● John Brownmoved to Kansas to fight to make it a free state

  • ○  led 6 followers to mutilate and murder 5 pro­slavery residents whose bodies were left to discourage others who were pro­slavery from entering Kansas

  • ○  “bleeding Kansas” became a sectional controversy

Preston Brooks and Charles Sumner

● Andrew P. Butlerenraged his nephew Preston Brooks with his crude and vicious speech against those who were

(p. 357)

pro­slavery
○ caused him to attack the target of the speech,

Charles Sumner

Free Soil Ideology (p. 357)

● The North believed in “free soil” and “free labor”
○ abolitionists believed that American democracy

centered on citizens being able to do their own work

“Slave Power Conspiracy” (p. 358)

● The South engaged in a conspiracy to extend slavery ○ Republicans spread democracy

The Pro­Slavery Argument
(p. 359)

● Apologists represented their views in The Pro­Slavery Argument

○ argued that slavery was positive
­ slaves received better care than they would

as wage workers in the North
­ Southern society depended on slavery
­ African Americans were unfit to care for

themselves

Election of 1856 (p. 359)

  • ●  Democrats nominated James Buchanan for the election

  • ●  Republicans nominated James C. Frémont

  • ●  Millard Fillmorewas nominated again by the

    Know­Nothing Party

  • ●  Buchanan won

The Dred ScottDecision (p. 360)

● Dred Scott was a slave who travelled with his master to a free state, where the master died

  • ○  he sued his master’s widow for his freedom in

    Dred Scott v. Sandford

  • ○  the court declared him free until the widow’s brother claimed ownership

­ Scott attempted to sue again but the court determined that he could not because he was private property

Taney’s Sweeping Opinion
(p. 360)

● Chief Justice Roger Taneyargued that Scott could not appeal because he was not a citizen

Deadlock over Kansas (p. 361)

● Buchanan endorsed the Dred Scott decision
○ also supported Kansas’ right to be established as a

slave state

Lecompton Constitution Rejected
(p. 362)

● The majority of people in Kansas opposed slavery

  • ○  the combatting sides, however, were equal

  • ○  Kansas would be admitted into the union if the

    Lecompton constitution was accepted, legalizing

    slavery

  • ○  Kansas rejected the Lecompton constitution and

    Kansas entered the union as a free state in 1861

Lincoln­Douglas Debates (p. 362)

  • ●  The Senate election in Illinois pit Douglas against

    Abraham Lincoln

  • ●  Lincoln was not a national figure like Douglas

    • ○  challenged Douglas to public debates

    • ○  eloquent and passion attacks on slavery made him

      nationally prominent

Lincoln’s Position (p. 363)

● Lincoln was not an abolitionist
○ planned to challenge the growth of slavery and

hope that it would die out on its own ● Lincoln lost the election but gained support

John Brown’s Raid (p. 363)

● Brown led followers to attack a US arsenal in Harper’s Ferry, Virginia aiming to incite a slave rebellion

  • ○  Robert E. Leeintercepted the men and they were hanged for treason

  • ○  Southerners believed that Brown was supported by the North

Divided Democrats (p. 363)

  • ●  Southern Democrats wanted a strong endorsement of slavery while Western Democrats more mildly, called for popular sovereignty

  • ●  A convention in Baltimore nominated Douglas as president

  • ●  Southerners met in Richmond to nominate John C. Breckinridge

  • ●  The Constitutional Union Party formed and nominated John Bell

Disunion (p. 364)

● Lincoln won the presidency but not the popular vote

  • ○  Republicans also failed to dominate Congress

  • ○  the South moved towards the process of disunion

Crash Course 17

  • ●  John O’Sullivan coined the phrase “Manifest Destiny”

  • ●  Only New Mexico and California had significant

    Mexican settlements

  • ●  Mexico sold land in Texas to Moses Austin

○ his son Stephen Austin sold off pieces of the land to other Americans

  • ●  Santa Ana defeated the American troops in the Alamo

  • ●  Texas would unbalance the free:slave state ratio

○ Oregon was split in two instead

  • ●  Henry David Thoreau was imprisoned for refusing to pay

    taxes

  • ●  Winfield Scott was called “Old Fuss and Feathers”

  • ●  Nativism caused more prejudice against Mexicans

  • ●  Missouri Compromise didn’t help determine if California

    would be a slave state or a free state

  • ●  Henry Clay proposed the Compromise of 1850

Crash Course 18

  • ●  Slave power was a conspiracy

  • ●  Kansas­Nebraska Act repealed the Missouri Compromise

  • ●  James Buchanan won the election because he had no

    position on slavery

  • ●  Congress delayed Kansas’s joining the union

  • ●  John Brown hoped to capture guns in Harper’s Ferry and

    give them to slaves

○ he was captured and sentenced to death

  • ●  Lincoln became famous for his debates

  • ●  The South was angered by Lincoln’s election

  • ●  The Civil War was inevitable due to the failure of the US

    to acknowledge the inalienable rights of African Americans