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Unit 7 notes
by Beminet Desalegn - Tuesday, November 17, 2015, 09:35 AM

Unit 7

Chapter 13

The Impending Crisis

Manifest Destiny (pg. 340)

  • nationalism in mid-nineteenth century

  • social perfection

  • America destined, by God and history, to expand

Racial Justification

  • “American Race”

    • white people of northern European origins

      • people destined to spread

      • Advocates of Manifest Destiny

      • Indians, Mexican and others unfit

  • “Empire of Liberty”

    • Canada, Mexico, Caribbean, and Pacific Islands

  • not everyone supported Manifest Destiny

    • Henry Clay

      • believed territorial expansion would lead to conflicts over slavery and threaten stability of the Union

Americans in Texas (pg. 341)

  • 1820s

    • Mexican gov. encouraged American immigration into Texas

    • hoped to strengthen economy

  • 1824

    • colonization law designed to attract American settlers

    • cheap land for settlers

    • 4 year exemption from taxes

    • Americans attracted because of rich soil

Stephen Austin

  • young immigrant from Missouri

  • 1822

    • established the first legal American settlement

    • created center powers for the region

Tensions Between the US and Mexico

  • conflict between Mexico gov. and American settlers

    • settlers wanted to legalize slavery

  • General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

    • dictator

    • imposed a regime on the territories

    • increase in power of national gov.

    • large army in Texas

Battle of San Jacinto (pg. 342)

  • April 23, 1836

    • defeated the Mexican army and took Santa Anna prisoner

    • US troops killed mexican soldiers

    • Tejanos fought with the Mexican residents in Texas

Opposition to Annexation

  • Americans wanted annexation

  • northerners opposed acquiring new large slave territory

  • President jackson didn’t want Annexation

    • could lead to war

Oregon (pg. 343)

  • Both US and Britain claim the Pacific Northwest is theirs

    • Oregon

    • Washington

    • Idaho

    • parts of Montana and Wyoming

    • half of British Columbia

  • 1818 treaty

    • both countries have equal access to the territory

  • largely American and Canadian settlers

  • Missionaries found Oregon attractive target for evangelical efforts

    • attempted to convert Indians

    • began white immigration

The Westward Immigration

  • southerners mainly went to Texas

  • large immigrants from the Old Northwest

    • white men and women, and some blacks

  • 1850s

    • great gold rush attracted single men

    • wealthy people mostly immigrated

    • womens as domestic servants, teachers, or prostitutes

    • Mormons

      • communities for religious missions

    • immigrants looking for economic opportunities

Life on the Trail (pg. 344)

  • most immigrants traveled along the great overland trails

  • traveled in wagons

  • Oregon Trail

    • 2000mile

      • major route

  • hardships for travelers

    • death

      • conflicts with tribes

    • journeys lasted 5 to 6 months

    • diseases

    • mainly walked

    • expensive journey

Expansion and War (pg. 346)

  • The democrats and Expansion

    • election of 1844

      • Henry Clay vs. Martin Van Buren

    • southern Democrats supported annexation

  • James K. Polk elected

    • Whigs

    • represented Tennessee

    • December 1845

      • Texas became a state

    • resolved the Texas question

    • all claim to Oregon

The Southwest and California

  • 1845

    • Texas became a state and Mexican gov. broke diplomatic relations with Washington

    • conflict over border

      • New Mexico

        • more American than Mexican

        • commerce

  • Americans interested in California

    • white American started to immigrate

  • Polk wanted to get both New Mexico and California

The Mexican War

  • Mexican leaders refuse to take John Slidell’s offer to purchase the disputed territories

  • Mexican troops crossed Rio Grande and attacked Us soldiers

  • ward opponents in US

  • critics over Polk’s decisions

  • Bear Flag revolution

    • well armed exploring party led by John C. Fremont

    • conquest of California

    • Scottish help in annexation

    • peace treaty with Mexican gov

  • Polk concerned about the upcoming election

  • Treaty of Guadalupe

    • Mexico agreed to cede California and New Mexico to the US

    • acknowledge Rio Grande as the boundary of Texas

    • US promised to assume any financial claims its new citizens had against Mexico and to pay the Mexicans $15 million

  • anti-slavery against expansion

The Sectional Debate (pg. 351)

  • Polk hated by northerners and westerners

Slavery and the Territories

  • Wilmot Proviso

    • an amendment to the appropriation bill prohibiting slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico

    • passed the House, but failed the Senate

  • Popular Sovereignty

    • people in territories choose the status of slavery there

  • Free Soil Party

    • elected 10 members in Congress

The California Gold Rush

  • word of gold discovery in California gets out

  • many people from around the world go searching for gold

  • excitement and greed for gold

  • Forty Niners

    • California migrants

    • attracted Chinese people

    • gold rush created labor shortage in California

  • Indian Slavery

    • “Indians hunters” hunted down Indians and killed them

    • Indian population in California decreased

Rising Sectional Tensions (pg. 353)

  • California prohibited slavery

  • anti-slavery forced in District of Columbia

  • personal liberty laws in northern states

  • conflicts over the potential of slave states and free states

The Compromise of 1850

  • Clay’s proposed solution

    • January 29, 1850

      • Admit California as a free state

      • formation of territorial gov in new territories

      • abolition of slave trade, but not slavery itself

    • congress defeated Clay’s proposal

  • new leaders of Senate were able to produce a compromise

The Crisis of the 1850s (pg. 355)

  • The Uneasy Truce

    • Whigs received defections from anti-slavery members

      • went to Free-Soil party

“Young America”

  • expansion of American democracy throughout the world to divert attention from slavery

  • Ostend Manifesto

    • Pierce wanted to buy Cuba from Spain

    • many anti-slavery northerners angered

Slavery, Railroads, and the West

  • settlers want more land from the Indians

  • support for building transcontinental railroad

  • Northerners favored Chicago

The Kansas-Nebraska Controversy

  • Kansas-Nebraska Act

    • Douglas agreed to divide the area (Nebraska) into 2 territories: Nebraska and Kansas

    • Kansas as slave state

  • Republican Party emerge

“Bleeding Kansas”

  • white settlers move into Kansas

  • conflict between anti-slavery and slavery supporters

  • Pottawatomie Massacre

    • John Brown murdered 5 pro-slavery settlers for a message for other slavery supporters to not to come to Kansas

The Free-Soil Ideology (pg. 357)

  • most whites afraid of slavery because of what it might do to them

  • The Pro-Slavery Argument

  • new intellectual defense of slavery

  • apologists for slavery

    • slavery good for south because it was the only way the two races could live together

    • a way of life superior to any other in the US

Buchanan and Depression (pg. 359)

  • Election of 1856

    • Democrats chose James Buchanan

    • Republicans denounced the Kansas-Nebraska Act

      • nominated John C. Fremont

    • Buchanan won

The Dred Scott Decision

  • March 6, 1857

    • Dred Scott vs. Sandford

    • Dred Scott was Missouri slave

      • sued his master's widow for freedom

        • ruled that he could not bring a suit because he was not a citizen

Deadlock Over Kansas

  • free state and slave state legislations refuse to agree and meet

  • resorted to violence

The Emergence of Lincoln (pg. 362)

  • Lincoln was a successful lawyer

  • served in Illinois legislature

  • debate over issue of slavery

  • Lincoln opposed slavery

    • believed slavery was morally wrong, but he was not an abolitionist

John Brown’s Raid (pg. 363)

  • Brown believed he could foment a slave insurrection in the South

  • slave uprising did not occur

The Election of Lincoln

  • Democratic party torn apart by a battle between southerners and westerners

  • republican convention chose Lincoln

    • Lincoln won presidency

    • war between northerners and southerners began



Crash Course #17

  • expansion was based on economy

  • Oregon controlled by Us and Britain

  • New Mexico and california had big settlements

    • Mexico gov. annulled contracts and banned the emigration to Texas

    • Slavery already abolished in Mexico

    • but Americans can bring slaves

  • March 13, 1836

    • Santa Ana

    • defeated American defenders

    • Americans come and defeat Santa Ana

    • America takes Texas

  • Texas wanted to be slave state

    • Texas ignored

    • 1845

      • Texas annexed

  • James K. Polk

    • wanted California

    • declared war on Mexico

    • critics arise about Polk’s increase of power

  • US takes California

  • many migrated were whites

    • some of them were Chinese

    • more men migrated than women

  • Indians were kicked out of their lands

    • population decrease

  • Compromise of 1850



Crash Course #18

  • Fugitive Slave Law

    • any citizen is required to turn in any slave

      • even free slaves can become enslaved

      • slaves move to Canada

  • Railroad

    • Douglass

    • Kansas-Nebraska Act

      • white could decide themselves about slavery

      • repealed the Missouri Compromise

      • violence Kansas

      • created Republicans

  • Slave Power

    • North more populous than South

    • congress passed law to extend slave states

    • slave states viewed as northerner’s economic threat

    • Democrat James Buchanan won election

  • Kansas tried to become state

    • people from free states came and established their own governments

    • violence broke out

    • Kansas passed two constitution

    • congress delayed Kansas exception

    • free state

  • Dred Scott

    • court said he was a slave

    • blacks are inferior

    • unfit with the white race

    • have no rights

    • blacks have to be slaves for their own benefit

  • Lincoln appealed to immigrants

  • Lincoln won election

    • hated slavery

    • southerners didn’t like him