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APUSH Unit 7
by Jamia Yard - Tuesday, November 17, 2015, 07:19 PM

Jamia Yard


US History

15 November 2015


Looking Westward


Manifest Destiny

  • America is destined by God and history to expand its boundaries over a vast area
  • Non white people racially unfit to be a part of manifest destiny
  • Many feared Manifest Destiny would cause problems, these people widely ignored


Americans in Texas

  • Texas claimed as part of Louisiana purchase, renounced in 1819
  • Mexico encourages American immigration to Texas
  • By 1830 7000 Americans in Texas, most Southerners looking for cotton farming land
  • Stephen F. Austin est. first legal American settlement in TX 1822
  • Mexico passes new laws banning American immigration after a revolt to make TX independent nation
  • 1835 30,000+ Americans in TX


Tensions Between the United States and Mexico

  • Cultural and econ. ties w/ US immigrants and US and desire to legalize slavery cause immigrants and Mexican gov. disagreement
  • Fighting between immigrants and Mexicans escalates, Mexico sends troops in TX
  • Sam Houston defeats Mexican army at San Jacinto April 23 1836
  • American Texans hopes TX to be annexed by US
  • Some Americans oppose annexation due to slavery debate



  • Both US and Britain claim the region
  • populated by American and Canadian fur trappers
  • White settlers devastate many native lives


The Westward Migration

  • Most settlers of Oregon come from Old Northwest - most prosperous but not wealthy
  • Some settlers wanted riches, wanted cheap land, were on religious missions, were escaping disease


Life on the Trail

  • Oregon Trail the most traveled route for settlers, others travelled on the Santa Fe Trail
  • Travellers faced disease and harsh terrain while travelling
  • natives traded and helped whites on trails
  • Jobs traditional to gender roles - men driving, women cooking washing clothes etc - women gen. worked harder than men


Expansion and War


The Democrats and Expansion

  • James K. Polk elected due to his position that the reoccupation of Oregon and the reannexation of Texas at the earliest practicable period are great American measures
  • TX becomes a state December 1845
  • June 15, 1846 Senate approves treaty with England that fixed boundary or 49th parallel


The Southwest and California

  • Mexico claims Nueces River as their border, Polk accepts
  • Mexico invites Americans into New Mexico
  • Many maritime traders settle in CA, imagine it as part of US


The Mexican War

  • John Slidell tries to buy disputed territories, Mexico declines
  • Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo - Mexico cedes CA and NM to US, acknowledges the Rio Grande as the boundary of TX - US pays Mexico 15 million to assume financial claims its new citizens had against Mexico


The Sectional Debate


Slavery and the Territories

  • David Wilmot proposes amendment to not have slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico
  • Polk proposes extending Missouri comp. line through new territories
  • Free- Soilers become their own political party


The California Gold Rush

  • Traces of gold found in CA, many migrate to become rich there - migrants known as Forty-niners
  • Chinese immigrants move to CA to find gold
  • Whites called “Indian Hunters” hunting Natives


Rising Sectional Tensions

  • CA prohibits slavery
  • Conflict with North and South over slavery in territories


The Compromise of 1850

  • Clay proposes bill that has CA as free state, territorial governments in the lands from Mexico (no restriction on slavery), abolition of slave trade in DC, and fugitive slave laws
  • Clay proposal defeated by Congress
  • William H. Seward and Stephen A. Douglas lead the Senate
  • Millard Fillmore becomes president after Zachary Taylor dies


The Crises of the 1850s


The Uneasy Truce

  • Fugitive Slave Act causes problems when southerners claim many free blacks as runaways


Young America

  • Ostend Manifesto - attempts to buy Cuba from Spain


Slavery, Railroads, and the West

  • Transcontinental Railroad becomes part of North/South conflict
  • Gadsden Purchase - James Gadsden purchases strip of land from Mexico


The Kansas-Nebraska Controversy

  • Kansas and Nebraska two new territories
  • People who oppose Douglas’ bill called Republicans 1854


“Bleeding Kansas”

  • Pottawatomie Massacre - John Brown murders five pro-slavery settlers and leaves their mutilated bodies to discourage supporters of slavery from entering Kansas


The Free-Soil Ideology

  • Citizens have right to own property, control their own labor, and have access to opportunities for advancement


The Pro-Slavery Argument

  • The Pro-Slavery Argument - anthology that gives apologists their name and argument - John C. Calhoun said Southerners should not apologize for slavery as a necessary evil and defend it as a positive good
  • Slavery good in South because only way races could live peacefully together and helped Southern econ., basis of American econ.
  • Southerners saw northerners as greedy and destructive
  • Defense of slavery based on Black inability to take care of themselves


Buchanan and Depression

  • James Buchanan wins presidency over John C. Frémont and Millard Fillmore
  • Financial depression takes place after Buchanan takes office


The Dred Scott Decision

  • Dred Scott an enslaved man sued his master's widow after his master dies while they're in a free state, wins and is declared a free man
  • Roger Taney claims Scott cannot bring a suit to court because he is not a citizen, decision overturned


Deadlock over Kansas

  • Lecompton constitution rejected - president urges congress to admit Kansas under Lecompton constitution
  • Kansas enters union as free state 1861


The Emergence of Lincoln

  • Lincoln believes slavery is morally wrong - could not envision an easy alternative, not an abolitionist


John Brown’s Raid

  • John Brown seizes US arsenal in Harpers Ferry, VA Oct. 16 1859
  • John Brown and six of his men found guilty of treason and hanged
  • John Brown made white southerners believe they couldn't live in the union safely


The Election of Lincoln

  • Democrats divided by southerners who wanted slavery and westerners who wanted popular sovereignty
  • Stephen Douglas, John C. Breckinridge and John Bell nominated by their party for president
  • Republicans choose Abraham Lincoln as their nomination
  • Lincoln elected as president, showed white southerners they had no place in Union



Crash Course 17

  • Mexico grants land to America, eventually bans immigration to Mexico after too many come
  • Texas becomes lone star republic, tries to join union
  • Texas annexed in 1845
  • Polk sends troops into Texas, Mexican forces respond (Mexican War)
  • Gold found in California, many migrate to find riches
  • Natives hunted and used as slaves
  • California admitted to union as free state
  • Compromise of 1850 – CA admitted as a free state, slave trade outlawed in DC, new fugitive slaw law, popular sovereignty


Crash Course 18

  • Every citizen required to report any known slave
  • Many free blacks moved to Canada to escape persecution
  • Stephen Douglas wanted transcontinental rail road, needed to make Kansas-Nebraska territory state like
  • Pro-Slavery Lecompton first bill sent to congress
  • Dred Scott sues, claiming he cannot live in a free state as an enslaved men
  • No such thing as free state because owners could bring their slaves to free states and they still couldn’t be freed
  • John Brown raids arsenal to supply blacks with guns to rebel against their master
  • Lincoln lost first election, wins second one
  • Lincoln’s election causes southern states to cede from the union
  • Racism made Civil War inevitable