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APUSH Unit 7
by MIKI CHIYODA - Tuesday, November 17, 2015, 08:15 PM

Miki Chiyoda


Mr. Kann

November 14, 2015

  1. Manifest Destiny pgs. 340-341

    1. idea that America was destined by God and history to expand boundaries all over North America

    2. Racial Justification

      1. throughout 1840s: “American Race” is superior race

        1. Indians and Mexican and other western regions labeled unfit to be part of American community

    3. Penny Press

      1. inexpensive newspapers aimed at mass audience

    4. Opposition to Further Expansion

      1. Henry clay and others feared territorial expansion would reopen controversy over slavery and threaten stability of Union

  2. Americans in Texas pg.  341

    1. US v Mexico

      1. 1830s: texas went from US→ Mexico

      2. 1824: colonisation law: designed to attract American settlers with promised land

        1. many were southerners because land supported cotton

    2. Stephen Austin

      1. immigrant from Missouri who established first legal settlement in Texas in 1822

        1. created centres of power in region that competed with mexican gov’t

          1. 1826: Intermediaries led revolt to establish Texas as an independent nation

  3. Tensions Between US and Mexico pgs. 341-343

    1. Mexico /X/ slavery in 1830

    2. General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna

      1. seized power as a dictator and imposed a more conservative and autocratic regime

        1. increased power of national govt of Mexico

      2. lead large army→ Texas

        1. American settlers very unorganised

          1. Annihilated.

    3. San Jacinto

      1. General Sam Houston

        1. managed to keep a small force together

        2. April 23, 1836: Battle of San Jacinto

          1. defeated Mex troops

          2. took Santa Anna captive

            1. then signed treaty giving Texas indep

    4. Opposition to Annexation

      1. Sam Houston: first President of TX

      2. More Northerners opposed gaining a big new slave territory

        1. Jackson opposed and delayed recognising new republic until 1837

  4. Oregon pg. 343

    1. Disputed Claims

      1. Britain and the US claimed sovereignty over Oregon, Washington, and Idaho, parts of Montana and Wyoming and ½ of british columbia

        1. Agreed on treaty to allow citizens of each country equal access to territory

          1. 1818: “joint occupation”

            1. both people could live there

      2. American interest in Oregon ↑

        1. territory was seen as attractive target for evangelical efforts

          1. whities → Oregon to outnumber brits

    2. Conflict between Settlers and Indians

      1. early 1840s: bunch of white americans → oregon

        1. outnumbered Brits

        2. devastated Indian pop

          1. disease (measles epidemic)

            1. Indians blamed whites and attacked some settlers

  5. The Westward Migration pgs. 343-344

    1. Many Americans migrated to Texas and Oregon

      1. usually traveled in families

      2. Southerners→ Texas

        1. wanted new opportunities and more stability

      3. some missionaries

  6. Life on the Trail pgs. 344-346

    1. 300,000 migrants in 1840 and 1860

    2. Oregon Trail

      1. major route: 2,000 miles

    3. Life on the Trail

      1. society of the trail recreated the patterns of conventional American society

        1. fams divided tasks by genders

      2. walked most of the time

    4. Indians good relations w/ whities, worked as guides and stuff

  7. Democrats and Expansion pg. 236

    1. James K. Polk

      1. South nominated Polk to office in 1844 cos support of annexation

      2. entered office with goals and John Tyler accomplished the first of them

    2. Compromise over Oregon

      1. Polk resolved the question

        1. Canada and Oregon where start and end

      2. loose talk of war on both sides of the atlantic

      3. June 15, 1846: senate approved a treaty that fixed the boundary at the 48th parallel

  1. Southwest and California pgs. 346-347

    1. 1845:

      1. Mexican govt broke diplomatic relations with washington and US admitted texas to statehood

    2. Texas Boundary in Dispute

      1. Polk sent small army to Texas to protect against possible Mexican attacks

    3. American Interests in Cali

      1. home of many indian tribes and Mexican people

      2. soon white guys showed up, mainly for trade

        1. then farmers came and settled in Sacramento Valley

  2. The Mexican War pgs. 247-351

    1. Failure of Sidell Mission

      1. John Sidell

        1. offered to purchase disputed territories but was /X/

          1. Jan. 12, 1846: Polk ordered army in Texas→ Rio Grande

            1. Mexico attacks troops

              1. May 13, 1846: Congress declared war

    2. Opposition to the War

      1. Whigs were /X/

        1. they said Polk staged the border attack and that the war would drain resources and attention from more important things

    3. The Mexican War

      1. Taylor captured Monterrey in September of 1846

    4. Bear Flag Revolution

      1. Summer 1846: capture of Santa Fe by Stephen Kearny

      2. Conflict staged by American Settlers and exploring party lead by John C. Fremont and the American Navy

        1. Bear Flag Revolution

    5. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

      1. Feb. 2, 1848: Nicholas Trist reached agreement w/ new Mex govt.

        1. Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

          1. mexico agreed to cede Cali and New Mexico→ US

          2. Acknowledge Rio Grande as boundary of Texas

          3. In return, US assume any financial claims and payments

  3. Sectional Debate Slavery and the Territories pg. 351

    1. Wilmot Proviso

      1. August 1846: Polk asks Congress to appropriate 2 mil for purchasing peace with mex

        1. David Wilmot introduced amendment to appropriation bill

          1. /X/ slaver in any territory taken from Mex

          2. passed the House but failed in Senate

    2. Competing Plans

      1. Polk supported proposal to extend Missouri Comp line → Pacific coast

    3. Free-Soil Party

      1. elected 10 members to congress

      2. the emergence of the FSP signaled the inability of existing parties to contain political passions slavery created

  4. California Gold Rushpgs. 351-353

    1. 1848-1852:

      1. Population ↑ ↑

    2. Forty-Niners

      1. cali migrants

      2. abandoned homes, jobs, farms, families

    3. Migrants from Asia

      1. First Chinese migrants

    4. Indian Slavery

      1. gold rush caused major labour shortages in Cali

        1. led to exploitation of indians that was equal to slavery minus the name

      2. white vigilantes: Indian Hunters: hunted indians and killed them

  5. Rising Sectional Tensions pg. 353

    1. December 1849:

      1. Zachary Taylor (general in Mex Amer war→ prez) asked congress to admit Cali as a free state

        1. Congress was eh

        2. 15 free and 15 slave

    2. Sectional Conflict over Slavery in the Territories

      1. southern leaders were beginning to talk about secession from union.

      2. North: every state leg one adopted resolution demanding prohibition of slavery in territories

  6. The Compromise of 1850 pgs. 353-355

    1. Clay’s Proposed Solution

      1. Henry Clay combined many measures that had been proposed separately and presented it to senate on jan 29, 1850

        1. Bill’s provisions:

          1. Admission of Cali as a free state

          2. the formation of territorial govts in lands acquired from mexico

          3. the abolition of slave trade in the District of Columbia, though not slavery itself

          4. new and more effective fugitive slave law

    2. New Leadership of Senate

      1. Bunch of forty year old white guys.

        1. William Seward, Jefferson Davis, Stephen Douglas

      2. they were able to produce a compromise

      3. July 9, 1850: Taylor suddenly died and succeeded by Millard Fillmore

        1. supported compromise

    3. Temporary Compromise

      1. Douglas wanted to break up the “omnibus bill” and introduce separate measures to be voted on

    4. The Compromise of 1850

      1. /x/ the Missouri Comp

        1. the comp of ‘50 was not a product of widespread agreement on common national ideals but a victory of self interest

  7. The Uneasy Truce pg. 355

    1. Pierce is elected and /x/ want to get involved w/ slavery

    2. Opposition to the Fugitive Slave Act

      1. Northern opposition to the FSA ↑ after 1850 cos southies pursued those they claimed were fugitives in the northern states

        1. Mobs were formed in the N cities

  8. “Young America” pg. 355

    1. Ostend Manifesto

      1. Pierce unsuccessfully tried to buy Cuba from Spain

        1. a grp of his envoys sent him a private doc from Ostend, Belgium: take Cuba by force

          1. enraged anti slavery northerners cos conspiracy to bring another slave state

  9. Slavery, Railroads and the West pgs. 355-356

    1. Transcontinental Railroad and Slavery

      1. as nation ← → communication needed between older states and west of MS river.

      2. support for railroad ↑

      3. push out indians

    2. Gadsden Purchase

      1. 1835: Jefferson Davis (sec of war for Pierce) sent James Gadsden→ mex

        1. Gadsden persuaded Mex gov’t→ accept $10 mil in exchange for parts of Arizona and N Mexico

  10. The Kansas-Nebraska Controversy pg. 356

    1. Kansas-Nebraska Act

      1. Stephen A Douglas

        1. wanted new free state

        2. threw out indians

          1. set in the area of Louisiana purchase

          2. would upset southerners

            1. Douglas inserted provision: region would choose to open itself to slavery

            2. Douglas agreed to repealing Missouri Comp

            3. Douglas agreed to split the area into Nebraska and Kansas instead of just one

              1. Nebraska- free, Kansas- slave

      2. It became law in May 1854

    2. Birth of the Republican Party

      1. N-K Act broke apart whigs and northern democrats

      2. N-K Act created the Republican party

        1. Anti-Nebraska Whigs + Anti-Nebraska Democrats

  11. “Bleeding Kansas” pgs. 356-357

    1. Pottawatomie Massacre

      1. John Brown

        1. committed zealot

        2. moved to Kansas w/ sons to fight to make it a free-state

          1. gathered six followers and killed five pro-slavery settlers

            1. ^ this was the Pottawatomie Massacre

              1. it lead to guerilla warfare

                1. “Bleeding Kansas”

    2. Preston Brooks and Charles Sumner

      1. Charles Sumner

        1. opponent of slavery

        2. gave a speech, “The Crime Against Kansas”

          1. Directly attacked Andrew Butler, uncle of Preston Brooks

            1. Brooks found Sumner in his office and beat him senseless

  12. Free-Soil Ideology pgs. 357-359

    1. Free Soil Ideology

      1. Most white northerners believed that the existence of slavery was dangerous because of what it threatened to do to whities

    2. Slave Power Conspiracy

      1. the South was the antithesis of democracy

      2. slavery preserved an entrenched aristocracy and that while north was ↑ the south was rejecting progress

  13. The Pro-Slavery Argument pg. 359

    1. The Pro-Slavery Argument

      1. John Calhoun started in 1837:

        1. southerners should stop apologising for slavery as a necessary evil and defend it as a good for the slaves

          1. bcuz they enjoyed good conditions and it was the only way the two races could live in peace

      2. served as a  basis for southern life

      3. black people were biologically inferior

  14. Buchanan and Depression pgs. 359-360

    1. Election of 1856

      1. James Buchanan: Democrat

      2. John Fremont: Republican

      3. Millard Fillmore: Know Nothing

    2. Buchanan won and shortly after elected, depression came and lasted many years

      1. Republicans grew stronger

  15. The Dred Scott Decision pgs. 360-361

    1. Dred Scott v. Sanford

      1. Dred Scott sued for freedom cos his og master died but Sanford, brother of his ex-master claimed Scott now belonged to him

    2. Taney’s Sweeping Opinion

      1. S Court misspelled Sanford’s name in its decision

      2. Taney claimed that Scott could not bring a suit in fed courts cos he was not a citizen

        1. goes under fifth amendment

  16. Deadlock over Kansas pgs. 361-362

    1. Lecompton Constitution Rejected

      1. 1857: Lecompton framed a constitution legalising slavery

        1. voters rejected it by more than 10,000 votes

      2. Buchanan pressured congress→ admit Kansas under the lecompton constitution

        1. Western democrats /X/ support President’s proposal

  17. The Emergence of Lincoln pgs.382-363

    1. Lincoln-Douglas Debates

      1. to gain fame Lincoln engaged in several debates w/ Douglass

        1. about slavery

        2. L beat D many times

    2. Lincoln’s Position

      1. believed slavery was morally wrong but he was not an abolitionist

        1. believed the black race was not prepared to live equally

  18. John Brown’s Raid pg. 363

    1. John Brown’s Raid

      1. 1859: J Brown (Antislavery zealot) made plans to seize a mountain fortress in Virginia

        1. he thought he could form a slave insurrection in the South

      2. October 16:  he + 18 attacked and seized control of US Arsenal in Harpers Ferry, VA

        1. slave uprising did not occur

          1. he and his followers who were not killed by militia were found guilty of treason and were hanged

        2. convinced south that they couldn’t be part of the union

  19. The Election of Lincoln pgs. 363-364

    1. Divided Democrats

      1. democratic party torn apart by battle between southerners and westerners

      2. party con met in april

        1. endorsed popular sovereignty

          1. eight states in lower south /X/

        2. southern democrats and northern democrats very different

    2. Disunion

      1. Lincoln won presidency

      2. Process of disunion began: leading to prolonged war between 2 groups of americans

  20. Crash Course 17

    1. When mexico became independent: Mexico’s govt encouraged economic development by granting a huge piece of land→ Moses Austin

      1. sold off that land until thousands of American Americans there

        1. scared gov’t and they /x/ further emigration there

        2. 1837: Texas congress→ called for union and annexation

          1. /x/ cos they slave state

    2. Gold thingies:

      1. women came as restaurant owners as well as prostitutes but not often

    3. Cali constitution of 1850:

      1. no asians, no blacks no native americans

        1. orphaned children sold as slaves

  1. Crash Course 18

    1. Compromise of 1850

      1. fugitive slave law

        1. any citizen required to turn in anyone they knew to be a slave

    2. K-N Act happened bcuz need of trains

    3. west was seen as a place where people would become self sufficient

    4. 1856: pro-slavery forced /x/ anti-slavery Lawrence, Kansas w/ cannons

    5. technically no such thing as a free state because a slave was forever a possession and you could bring it from a slave state→ free state and that would be o.k

    6. constitutional union party

      1. preserving the constitution as it is

        1. including slavery

    7. Civil War physically began: on April 12, 1861

      1. it became inevitable earlier: 1857, 1850, maybe in 1776