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Unit 7
by JULIETTE LOW FLEURY - Tuesday, November 17, 2015, 10:09 PM

Juliette Low Fleury

Chapter 13, Unit 7.



      • The growth of the US up until the civil war caused further turmoil between the north and the south because it was unclear whether or not the new territory would be free states or slave states.
  • Looking Westward (p. 340-51)
      • The US gained over 1 million miles of land during the 1840s.  
    • Manifest Destiny (p. 340-341)
      • Manifest Destiny was the idea that it was the will of God for the US to expand over the entire continent.
      • MD was used as a justification to annex new lands and its supporters claimed that annexing this land was beneficial to the people being conquered, and was completely altruistic.
  • These people were to be introduced to American values and were supposed to have the liberty that American men were so proud to have.

                  MD was sort of hypocritical because they claimed to be spreading liberty but they were racist and ultimately thought that the mexicans and the native americans were not really “developed” enough to be integrated into American society.  

                  some Americans were against Manifest Destiny

  • Men like Henry Clay and some other politicians were scared that this new territory would reopen disputes about slavery.


    • Americans in Texas (p.341)
      • Americans had originally claimed exas in 1803 along with the Louisiana purchase, but in 1819, they gave it back to the Spanish.  
      • The Mexican government made the mistake of encouraging Americans to immigrate in the 1820s, they offered large chunks of land and four years of tax exemption.
  • This caused over 7000 Americans to immigrate and bring their slaves with them in order to farm the texas soil.
  • Americans built small settlements, the most notable being Austin, started by Stephen Austin, a young man from Missouri.  

                  By 1830, over 35,000 Americans were living in texas, which was much more than the Mexican population.

                  Tensions between the US and Mexico (p. 341-343)

                  Texas and Mexico had a big conflict over the legality of slavery. In Mexico, slavery was formally abolished in 1830, but the American settlers relied heavily on slave labor.  

                  Santa Anna he imprisoned Austin, and settlers from Texas thought that he was personally out to get all of them.  

                  In 1835, fights happened periodically, but in 1836 Texas declares independence from Mexico

                  The new nation was not very good at defending itself and suffered attacks from Mexico. They were defeated at the Alamo, and Goliad, but they made a comeback at the battle of San Jacinto under General Sam Houston.  

                  Santa Anna, who had been captured, signed a treaty granting texas their freedom, and texas pretty much immediately sent a delegation to Washington.

                  Washington was very conflicted on whether or not to allow texas into the union, because then there would be an imbalance in power from north to south. They would also have to be incorporated into the electoral college, which many people were not okay with.

                  President Jackson was afraid of what would happen if Texas entered the union so he ignored them. So did Van Buren and Harrison.  

  • In 1844, one of the main questions for the candidates was how to deal with Texas. In 1844, president Tyler got Texas to re apply for statehood after their rejection years before.


    • Oregon (p. 343)
      • The 500k miles of territory that is now Oregon, Washington, Idaho, parts of Montana and parts of Wyoming, became a political issue in the 1840s.
  • Both the US and GB claimed rights to it due to exploration by their own men. Vancouver for Britain and Robert Gray for the US.
  • They agreed to joint occupation, meaning that people from both GB and the US could settle there.  Join occupation lasted from 1818-1838.

                  In the 20s and 30s, interest grew in the Oregon country because evangelical missionaries saw it as a place where they could try to convert people.

  • They also wanted to convert people before the catholics could convert them from canada.
  • This effort did not really work, so they decided that encouraging settlers to move there would work better.

                  Conflict with the Indians:

  • The settlers faced some difficulties with the tribes in the early 40s,
    • Many natives died of mumps and smallpox, which they blamed on the Settlers.

                  The US was getting pressure from settlers along the coast to fully take possession of the Oregon lands.

                  The Westward Migration (p. 343-344

                  Although there was movement into Oregon and Texas, the greatest migration came from the Northwest. Men and Women, some even blacks traveled to where the gold was.  

                  Most people who chose to migrate were either young and poor, and they had to basically do the whole indentured servant thing again, and others who were more well off came with their families.

                  Many people traveled to California to try to get rich quick, but others went as teachers, merchants, farmers and even prostitutes.


    • Life on the Trail (344-346)
      • Around 300,000 people migrated between 1840-1860, people gathered in places like Missouri and Iowa. These people hired guides and took all of their belongings into carriages and moved across the Oregon trail.
      • People generally moved from May to November, and they moved about 15 miles per day.
  • This was an arduous journey, and many people died on the trail. Cholera was a big problem.   
  • The Natives helped, they were hired as guides and traded fresh food and clothes with the Americans.

                  The ways of life were different on the trail, but not too different. Men still did all of the heavy lifting, they fixed the wagon, did the driving and hunted the food, and women did the washing, cooking and caring for children.   

                  People spent most of the trip walking so that the horses didn’t have to carry as much weight.   

                  Expansion and War (p. 346-351)

                  The Democrats and Expansion

                  Before the 1844 election, both Van Buren and Clay, the two main political candidates tried to not talk about Texas.  Clay secured the Whig nomination.

                  Many democrats from the south wanted expansion, so when James Polk came along and said that he wanted to annex Texas and Oregon, he got tons of support.

                  He won with 170 electoral votes and he secured the border at the 49th parallel.

  • The British decided to give him what he wanted and not go to war.

                  The Southwest and California (p. 346-347)

                  The US started having problems with Mexico as soon as they admitted Texas into the Union in 1845.

                  The US and Mexico were engaged in a dispute over the border of Texas, the US thought it was the Rio Grande, and Mexico claimed it was the Nueces River.  

                  The Rio Grande border would give the US claim to some of New Mexico as well.

                  In 1845 Polk sent troops down to defend the border.  

  • There were already many white settlers in NM, and they traded a lot with Missouri.
  • Polk had his sights set on acquiring New Mexico and California.  

                  He ordered that the navy seize California at the same time that he sent troops down to Texas.

                  The Mexican War (p.347-350)

                  Polk originally sent John Slidell down to Mexico to try to buy the territories, but as soon as Mexico said no he ordered troops to advance on the Nueces. Mexico refused to fight until May 13, 1846 then Polk declared war.

                  The Whigs claimed that Polk had made this war happen and that it was not in the best interest of the nation and he forced it upon them.

                  His opposers in the Northwest complained that the war was draining too many resources, and taking up too much time and that the reason that he settled so fast for Oregon was his preoccupation with Mexico.

                  The war took longer than Polk anticipated, and even though they won many battles, he used up quite a few resources.

  • He ordered offensives against California, and New Mexico.
  • After col. Kearny captured Santa Fe, he moved up to California and helped secure California with the help of the Navy.
    • Bear Flag Rebellion  

                  By fall 1846, Polk had control over California.  

                  Now that he controlled both territories, and Mexico still refused to admit it, he sent an army of 14,000 down to capture the capital. The New government of Mexico agreed to give him both California and New Mexico/Texas.  

                  Nicholas Trist negotiated the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, which was effective on February 2, 1848.

  • This set the border at the Rio Grande, and gave the US both California and New Mexico.
    • Polk felt like Trist violated his wishes, by not annexing all of Mexico, but he had to deal with it because he was just being unreasonable.

                  The Sectional Debate (p. 351-355)

                  Polk tried to be a president of the people and help bridge the problems between North and South, but they just got worse.  

                  Slavery and the Territories (351)

                  During  the US Mexico war,  (1846) Polk offered 2m to end the conflict.

                  Wilmot Proviso of PA proposed that the new land acquired from Mexico be free territory, this bill passed in the House, but failed at the Senate.

  • Southerners argued that because the territory belonged to all Americans, they should have the right to move in with all of their property, including their slaves.

                  Popular Sovereignty this plan proposed that the 36-30 line be expanded all the way to the pacific coast, so that all of the states in the south could be slave states.  

  • These two bills fought even after Polk’s presidency ended in 1849.

                  Presidential Elections 1848

  • The Whigs nominated Zachary Taylor, who was a war hero from the USM war, but had no political experience
  • The democrats nominated Lewis Cass, a longstanding member of the party, who although he had been there for a long time, was still boring and old.
  • Because the public was dissatisfied with these candidates, a new party was formed called the Free Party.

                  The Free-Soil Party

  • they first surfaced in 1840s and they were responsible for the downfall of the second party system,
  • they did not win the presidency with their candidate Martin Van Buren, but they did manage to secure themselves 10 seats in congress.

                  The California Gold Rush (p. 351-353)

                  In January 1848, James Marshall discovered that there was gold in the Nevada Hills. He tried to keep the knowledge to himself so other people wouldn’t come in and steal his empire.

                  Word got out about the gold by May, and it caused an influx of migration and immigration from all over the US and the world.  

  • hundreds of thousands of people flocked at the chance to find gold.  
  • In a four year period, the population increased from 14k to 220k nonnative persons.  
  • The San Fran newspaper had to stop printing because almost all of the residents of San Fran left to try to find gold.  

                  The 49ers were migrants from California who dropped everything to make the journey down towards the gold.  

  • They pack little supplies, mainly just what they could carry on their backs,.
  • They left behind farms, businesses and families.  
  • The majority of 49ers were men, approx. 95% of them  

                  Chinese Migrants:

  • The gold rush attracted the first chinese immigrants to the US. Poor people from China longing for a better life got loans from brokers and set sail for the US.  
    • They paid of these debts with the money they earned overseas.
    • The immigration to the US was voluntary, unlike the immigration of the kidnapped “coolies” to Cuba and Peru.

                  Indian Slavery

  • Because of the labor shortage caused by everyone flocking to the gold mines, the natives in the area were increasingly abused.
  • Indian hunters killed 120k people between 1850 and 1870, making it easier to exploit the 30,000 people left.
  • Natives who were caught “loitering”  could be forced to endure a term of indentured labor, which was basically slavery by a different name.

                  Benefits of the Gold Rush

  • Not everyone who went found gold, but of the people who came, not all of them returned home,  the disappointed migrants settled down in California and increased the population and agricultural value of the land.  
  • By 1856, the population of San Fran was 50,000. Before the Rush, it was 1000.  The population was very diverse due to the migration of Free blacks, slaves, eastern whites, and the immigration of South Americans and Chinese people.  
  • There was lots of racial turmoil based on the status of the different races.

                  Rising Sectional Tensions (353)

                  President Taylor believed that the best way to handle slavery in the territories was to make them states, so they could decide for themselves

  • He urged California to become a free state, and in Dec. 1849, he asked Congress permission to admit them into the Union.
  • He also asked that when New Mexico was ready to be a state that it be admitted to the Union as well.

                  Slave states opposed this because they feared that admitting two new free states would make them a minority in both the house and the senate. In 1849, there were 15 slave states and 15 free states, and they did not want that equilibrium to be upset.  

                  The North pushed for “personal liberty laws” so they would not have to return runaway slaves back to the South.  

                  All free states but one pushed for the territories to be free states, and the South began to talk about secession.  

                  The Compromise of 1850 (p. 353-355)

                  In the winter of 1849-50, the US tried to fix this conflict.

                  Clay’s Proposal Henry clay took ideas from both sides to try to settle down the disputes. His plan was to:

  • Admit California as a free state.
  • Form a territorial government for the rest of Mexico’s former territory.
  • Tighten up the fugitive slave law
  • Abolish the slave trade in DC, but do not ban slavery there.


  • The first half of the conference was dominated by Calhoun, Clay and Webster.  Calhoun had demands that could never be met, and he was getting pretty sick and old.  
  • Webster tried to rally support for clay from the North.  
    • He wanted to be president, but he was made secretary of state.
  • Calhoun was too sick, and Clay was defeated, so a new group of politicians dominated the second half of the debate.   
      • Clay’s proposal was debated for months, but it was defeated in July.   

                  William Seward of New York, Jefferson Davis of Mississippi, and Stephen Douglas of Illinois replaced them.  

  • These men were able to come to a compromise, and when Taylor died, they had no opposition. Douglas had the compromise that Clay had written split up into pieces so members could vote for the pieces that they thought were important and they supported.
  • Douglass also supported this with backroom deals involving the construction of railroads and other necessities.
  • When Millard Fillmore became president in 1850, he quickly signed the compromise.   


  • The Crisis of the 1850s (p. 355-364)
    • The Uneasy Truce
      • Both of the major parties had agreed to endorse the truce and in 1852, they held elections. Candidates from both sides tried to skirt around the sectional debate.
  • This proved very detrimental to the Whigs campaign, and their supporters who were anti slavery defected due to their lack of opinion on the matter.  
  • Many of their supporters went to the Free-Soil Party, making it easier for the democrats to win.

                  Franklin Pierce of the democratic party became the next POTUS.  

  • He tried to make the conflict between the north and the south go away by ignoring it. but that did not work.

                  The fugitive slave law was not being enforced in the North, and when Southerners came up to the north claiming that they were going to take home a person who was a former slave, mobs formed to keep them out. Northern state legislatures also created laws to ban sending deserters back to the south.  

  • This angered the south because they took the fugitive slave act as a victory in the compromise, but the victory was meaningless due to southern defiance.

                  Young America (p. 355)

                  Pierce tried to divert attention from the sectionalist crisis by promoting the idea of  “Young America”  

  • This was the idea that the American system of government was the best and that the US should try to make other countries have the same system.
  • He dreamed that Europe would become a democracy as well.  He also wanted to expand American territory to encompass more of the west and the east.
    • The sectionalist crisis blocked that from happening because the Northerners did not want to bring in slave territory and the South did not want to bring in territory that would be a free state.  
      • The annexation of canada was blocked (NS)
      • The admittance of Hawaii to the union was blocked (NS)
      • The seizure of Cuba (S)
      • The Annexation of Cuba by force was the Ostend Manifesto. This was based on a document from Belgium in 1854

                  Slavery, Railroads, and the West (p. 355-356)

                  In the 1850s, settlers had already completely populated the midwest and were spread outwards towards the lands that the US had promised the Natives during the 30s.  

  • Few Americans were against the violation of Native rights, so the only conflict with this westward expansion came from another issue: Sectionalism.  

                  The communication between the new territory of the west and the old states of the east was very bad, so they wanted to build a railroad connecting the whole country.  

  • The main issue was trying to figure out where the eastern center of said railroad would be, either in a free state of the north, or a slave state of the south.  
  • Part of the North’s argument was that a southern route would have to go through Mexican territory to reach California.
    • The Gadsden Purchase 1853 Jefferson Davis, the secretary of war sent James Gadsden to purchase the land at the bottom of Mexico and the US for $10m.  

                  The Kansas-Nebraska Controversy (p. 356)

                  Sen. Stephen Douglas, wanted the railway to go through the north, but he knew that going through the north would mean going through Native country. Because of this, he proposed a new bill to create Nebraska, a new territory.  

  • He knew he would face opposition from the south because they would not want yet another free state.  
  • He agreed to have Nebraska choose whether or not to be a free state or a slave state, but that wasn’t enough to gain southern support.  
  • He also agreed to split Nebraska into to two separate territories, Kansas and Nebraska, and Remove the 36-30 clause
  • In may 1854, this bill was passed.

                  This new law destroyed the Whig party, and also divided the democrats, the people of both groups who disagreed with the Kansas Nebraska Act.  These people called themselves the Republicans.

  • They soon became a major political force and managed to secure themselves seats in the House with the help of their allies.
    • Those include the Know-Nothings, and Republicans who were already in the House.

                  Bleeding Kansas (p. 3560-357)

                  When the Kansas legislature was first formed there were only about 1500 voters who moved in from the North and the South. But thousands of voters moved up from Missouri in order to ensure that Kansas would become a slave state. They quickly filled the legislature with Southerners and legalized slavery.

                  An Anti-Slavery group from the North came in and formed their own constitution, along with the old one.  

  • They were attacked by the anti-slavery group and their governors mansion was burned down. They also destroyed many of their printing presses.  
  • In retaliation, John Brown, a known abolitionist took 6 of his followers and killed 5 pro-slavery settlers. This became known as the Pottawatomie Massacre
  • Charles Sumner of MA delivered a Speech in May 1856 calling out Andrew Butler of S.C. for the Crime Against Kansas. He also called him the Don Quixote of slavery.
  • Because of this, Preston Brooks of SC, a member of the House came to beat him up Sumner flipped his desk, which was nailed to the floor. He then proceeded to fall over, and so grave were his injuries that he had to stay out of office for four years. In the North he was seen as a hero and in the south Brooks was seen as a hero.

                  The Free-Soil Ideology (p. 357-359)

                  The North believed in the idea of free labor and free soil, and the south was against that. They believed that the South was not recognizing individualism with their aristocratic system, and they did not want that system to spread to the north. This was the main reason for destroying the system in the south, they did not want it to spread to new places, so they also had to get rid of slavery. They believed that slavery was key in the aristocratic system, so if they could stop slavery they could stop the growth of the southern system as a whole.

  • This was the ideology of the Republican Party.
  • The majority did not want to abolish slavery because of the exploitation of blacks, but for the power of whites.

                  The Pro-Slavery Argument (p. 359)

                  The slavery movement was hurt by rebellions such as Nat Turner’s rebellion of 1831, HBS’s Uncle Tom’s Cabin, and Garrisonian Abolitionism, but this just made their will to secure the position of slavery in the south that much stronger.  As a response to this, White men in the south began writing their own pro-slavery books.

  • T. Drew of the College of W. and M. started writing the first one.
  • 20 years later, in 1852, the Pro-Slavery Argument was published.

                  Calhoun argued that the south should stop having to defend slavery by saying that it is a necessary evil, but infact be promoting in as a positive good.  His arguments were:

  • Slavery was good for the slaves, and good for the masters.  
  • Workers in the North had worse conditions than the slaves, and Slavery was necessary for the success of the national economy.
  • Southern society was much better than Northern society because Northerners were greedy, destructive and mean.
  • The society of the North was full of unruly immigrants whereas the south was full of pleasant, happy refined people.  
  • Also, they justified slavery using the idea that blacks were mentally inferior to whites and needed to be taken care of.  
  • They also used biblical and religious justification, the same way that the north used it as a n argument against slavery.

                  Buchanan and Depression (p. 359-360)

                  The presidential election of 1856 proved more difficult because all of the parties had to pick someone who was not hated for the Kansas conflict.  The Democrats picked James Buchanan, who had been out of the country during the conflict and the republicans picked John Fremont. The Know Nothings picked Millard Fillmore.  Buchanan won, by just a few votes.  

  • He was 65, which made him the second oldest president. He was also pretty shy, and indecisive, this became a problem because it was a time where decisions needed to be made.
  • The depression began in 1856, and the depression strengthened the republican party in the North because they blamed the failure on the democrats of the south.

                  The Dred Scott Decision (p.360-361)  

                  Dred Scott was a slave whose master had taken him to live in Illinois, and when his master died in 1846 he sued the widow for his freedom on the grounds that he lived in an anti-slavery zone. He won the case and gained his freedom, but the widow’s brother John Sanford, took the case to state supreme court and they reversed the decision and gave him back in 1850.  Scott then went to the Supreme court, but Chief Justice Taney declared that because Scott was not a citizen, and he was considered private property, he had to be returned to his masters.

  • The North was very upset with this but the south was very happy.

                  Deadlock over Kansas (p. 361-362)   

                  President Buchanan agreed with the Dred Scott decision, and he also wanted to settle the matter of Kansas by making it a slave state.   

                  The pro-slavery legislature of Kansas called for a constitution convention but the anti-slavery group refused to attend, this lead to the formation of a bill that would allow slavery. This was called the Lecompton bill.

  • The Lecompton bill was put to vote, but the anti-slavery voters showed up for that part, and it lost by over 10,000 votes.
  • Buchanan pressured congress to pass the bill anyway, but many people rejected it and it died in the House.   
  • It was sent back out to voters, and the overwhelming majority again voted to not have slavery in Kansas, even if it meant postponed statehood.  

                  Kansas was finally allowed to be a state– a free one, in 1861, at the end of Buchanan’s reign.

                  The Emergence of Lincoln (p. 362-363)

                  The congressional elections of 1858, were between Douglas, a well known democrat, and Abraham Lincoln, a scarcely known lawyer.  

                  Lincoln, in order to bring light to his amazing speaking skills engaged Douglas in many public debates, which gained him national recognition.

  • These debates centered around their difference in opinion on slavery, Douglas did not have a defined opinion, whereas Lincoln was against it.
    • According to Lincoln, if blacks did not have rights, then immigrants did not deserve them either. Meaning that if slavery were to keep spreading, then immigrants would have less prospects in the west as well.  
  • Lincoln was not an abolitionist because he could not think of a good alternative for slavery in the states that already had it. But he did want to stop it from spreading. He thought that it would die out by itself in the places that already had it.

                  Douglas won the senate spot, but Lincoln gathered national support. The democrats began to lose many of their followers, and they lost their majority in the House.

                  John Brown’s Raid (p. 363)

                  John Brown, the same man who was responsible for the pottawatomie massacre with the help of 18 followers went down to Virginia and attacked the arsenal at Harpers Ferry.  

  • He thought that he could start a slave rebellion, but instead he was surrounded by citizens and militiamen, and he had to surrender. He was hung for treason along with six of his followers.  

                  This raid helped convince the south that the Union was the wrong place for them, and they should leave. They thought that the raid had the support of the Republican Party (it didn’t) and that the north was committed to forming slave rebellions in the south.  

                  The Election of Lincoln (p.363-364)  

                  The presidential election of 1861 tore apart the Democrats.

  • The democrats of the deep south demanded that the candidate be someone who strongly supported slavery and the westerners demanded someone who supported popular sovereignty.  
  • When the committee chose to support popular sovereignty, the 8 delegates from the lower south walked out.  
    • The walkouts nominated J. Breckinridge of Kentucky, and the western democrats nominated Stephen Douglas.
    • The Ex. Whigs nominated John Bell.

                  The Republicans were scared of the power of the south to block their economic prosperity, but they still chose Abraham Lincoln as their candidate.  

  • Even though Lincoln only won ⅖ of the popular vote, and he did not win the majority in congress, he still won the presidency.
    • This was one of the final signals to the south that they were not well represented in the union and their case was hopeless.
    • A few weeks after Lincoln’s victory, the south began the process of disunion.


Crash Course 17:

  • How Texas and California became states:
    • by 1860 almost 300,000 people had moved to the west via the Oregon trail.   
      • many people died of diseases such as cholera and dysentery
    • Only New Mexico and California had substantially sized American settlements.
      • When Mexico first became independent there were only about 2000 mexicans there, so in order to fill up the land aid their trade, they invited US farmers down with the promise of land and tax exemption.  
  • Stephen Austin made lots of money by selling off parcels of his land until there were 7,000 residents of the settlement known as Austin.
    • This freaked out the Mexicans and they decided to close off immigration
    • The Americans staged a rebellion, and Mexico sent troops, and the Americans rebelled even more.
      • this is where “remember the Alamo” comes from. They were all killed so the Mercans want to remember them and keep fighting.
      • Texas got their independence after the Battle of San Jacinto.

                  Texas was its own country but in 1837 it asked to become a state.  

                  They wanted to be a slave state but that would mess up the equilibrium, so Jackson and Van Buren ignored them.  

  • They Annexed Texas right before Polk took office in 1845.  
  • They also made an agreement with GB for oregon which fixed the slave state/free state ratio.

                  Polk wanted to buy California from Mexico but they said no.  

  • So he went to war with the Mexicans.  
    • He was supported by most of America

                  Henry David Thoreau refused to pay taxes cause they were going towards this war so he was arrested.  

                  Mexico’s army was defeated in 1847, but they still refused to give up, so the US captured Mexico city in order to force Mexico to obey.  

  • The treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo was signed in 1848, which formally gave the US rights to Mexico, California, and other territory that was unnamed at the time.  

                  Now that the US possessed all of this land they had hundreds of thousands of Native Americans and Mexicans under their jurisdiction.  

                  Even though they were promised the same rights as White Americans they were treated like second class citizens.

                  it didn’t help that they were Catholics.

  • The American Party, known as the Know Nothings were Rising in power, and promoting Nativism.
    • They weren’t very good at politics, but they still managed to get many people into public office.  

                  The Gold Rush

                  California did not have enough people to become a state before the GR, but after 1848, their population grew to 360,000 before the civil war.  

  • There were around 25,000 chinese immigrants.
  • 3/1 men to women ratio.    

                  The State of California  

                   They made it so only white people could participate in their government, or vote.

  • They also sold native american orphan children as slaves.  

                  Slavery or No slavery?

  • Half of California is above the 36-30 line and half is below it.  
  • The free soil party wanted it to be a free state so that whites could work there.

                  Zach Taylor became president in 1850 and it became a free state.  

  • Clay came up with a compromise to make the south Happy.
    • Cali would be a free state
    • DC would not be allowed to get new slaves but they could keep the ones they had.
    • New fugitive slave law
    • Popular sovereignty.  

                  Emerson said that if the US acquired Mexico would be like poison, he was right, but John green thinks he was too dumb to know it.  


Crashcourse 18:

The Civil war

  • The civil war was basically all about slavery.  
  • The new fugitive slave law was very controversial because it required anyone who knew that someone was a fugitive slave had to turn the slave in. But that was kind of difficult for the people of the north who really didn’t believe in slavery.  
    • This was also bad because free blacks could be easily confused with slaves and sent to the south.  
    • Some free blacks moved to canada.
  • Railroads were also a big deal. Stephen Douglas pushed for a transcontinental railroad because it would improve connection between the states, and bind the union together.
    • He had to make Kansas and Nebraska states, in order to make the railroad go through his hometown.
      • They repealed the repealed the Missouri Compromise when they decided that Kansas and Nebraska could pick whether to be slave states or free states.
  • this caused lots of violence within Kansas.
  • This also cause the formation of the Republican Party.

                  They were made up of whigs, free-soilers, and know nothings. Most of their support came from the north.


                  Northerners felt like having slaves in what should be northern territory was going to be bad for them.  

  • In the west, whites could become self sufficient farmers, but if slaves were allowed, that would be taken away.  

                  The Republicans participated in the their first election in 1856, they ran John Fremont, who was an explorer, and not a politician.

                  They got 39% of the vote  

                  Kansas was trying to become a state but their elections were very fraudulent.  

                  They also had an issue because people from both northern and southern states who did not even liver there just came in to vote.   

                  John Brown murdered 5 people because he was angry at the way anti-slavery groups were running the show.

                  Kansas solved its issues by making two different constitutions,

                  The Lecompton one and the anti-slavery one

                  The former was the one that was accepted by the government even though the government didn't really accept them at all.  

                  Kansas joined the US as a free state.

                  Dred Scott: The supreme court agreed with the supreme court of Missouri and gave Dred Scott back to his master’s family even though he had won his freedom in a previous case because he lived in a free area.

                  Roger Taney said that all black people had no rights because they aren’t citizens.  

                  He basically said that there were no free states.

                  John Brown wanted to have a slave rebellion and tried to raid Harper’s ferry, but he didn’t succeed. He was hagned

                  Abe Lincoln first turned up when he ran for Senator against Stephen Douglas, he lost but they had a bunch of debates mostly about slavery that made Lincoln well known.  

                  All of the democrats disagreed on who to nominate, so they had 3 candidates

                  He won 40% of the votes but he still won.

                  The southerners ditched as soon as he won.

                  seven states seceded from the union by the time he entered office.

                  April 12, 1861, was when the civil war actually started.

                  The war basically happened because of the US’s failure to recognize black Americans should have the same rights as whites.