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Unit 14 Notes
by EMMA ATLAS - Saturday, February 27, 2016, 11:13 AM
 

Unit 14

Chapter 27: The Global Crisis


The Diplomacy of the New Era

Pg. 720

  • Many wanted to remain isolated: Isolationism

    • In the 20s US played a more active role in the world

Replacing the League

Pg. 720

  • Harding did not want the US a part of the league of nations

    • Instead passed legislation declaring war with Germany over

      • Went on to negotiate separate peace treaties

  • Charles Hughes

    • Wanted to find something that would replace the league

  • Washington Conference of 1921

    • Prevent a naval armament race between US UK and Japan

      • Dramatically reduced fleet

    • Five Power Pact

      • Made it so Japan and France would have less than UK and US

        • US and UK fleets would be  around the globe

        • Japanese fleets only in the Pacific

    • Nine Power Pact

      • Continued open door policy in China

    • Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928

      • Outlawed war as a an instrument of national policy

Debts and Diplomacy

Pg. 720

  • Had to  ensure American trade overseas was safe

    • US was concerned about EU

      • American health depended on EU economy

        • EU dealing w. destruction and Debt

  • Dawes Plan

    • US gave enormous loans to the Germans to pay of the debts

      • Created a circle of debts

  • American car manufacturers were coming to EU

    • US was becoming too dependant on the unreliable EU market

  • There were high tariffs

    • EU could not ship goods to the US

  • American involvement in Latin America  grew in the 1920s

    • no one could repay American Loans

Hoover and the World Crisis

Pg. 721

  • Financial crisis began in 1929

    • Produced nationalism

      • Threatened international agreements

  • Hoover worked hard to fix the damage of policies in Latin America

    • Economic distress led to many regimes in L.A. to collapse

      • America would grant diplomatic recognition to any sitting gov. in the region

  • Hoover was able to have certain economic stability with EU

    • Many wanted the Pres. to cancel all war debts

  • Mussolini had taken over Italy

    • Growing nationalistic and militaristic

  • Nazi Party in Germany

    • Weimar Republic

      • Lost all support--> Inflation

    • Believed the Aryan race was above all

  • Crisis in Asia

    • Strength of the Soviet Union and of Kai-Shek's  nationalist China

      • China expanded power to Manchuria

      • Japanese invaded Manchuria

        • US hoped Japan would stop invasion

Isolationism And Internationalism

Pg. 723

  • There was a worldwide depression

  • Most Americans were  not worried about what was happening in the rest of the world

Depression Diplomacy

Pg. 724

  • Roosevelt took American currency off the gold standard

    • To help goods compete in the world market

  • Bombshell Massage

    • Sent to those with Orthodox views

  • He forbid American banks from giving loans to any nation that had not paid off other debts

  • Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act

    • to negotiate low tariffs

      • increased American exports

America and the Soviet Union

Pg. 724

  • Trade helped improve relationship with the soviet union

    • Soviets wanted help with Japan

      • Continued to view each other with mistrust

The Good Neighbor Policy

Pg. 724

  • Good Neighbor Policy

    • Helped mend relationships with south America

      • US still had a big influence in South America

The Rise of Isolationism

Pg. 725

  • Most Americans wanted to remain isolated from the world

    • They believed they were tricked into WWI

      • did not want to be so again

    • Scared of Japan's dominion over Asia

  • Roosevelt still wanted to help maintain world peace

    • 1935

      • Mussolini is about to invade Ethiopia

        • US passes Neutrality Act

          • Keep the US out of war

  • When Axis powers were formed Americans still were isolationist

    • Again with civil war in Spain

  • Roosevelt was alarmed

    • moved slowly to becoming more involved

  • Japan was attacking China

    • Roosevelt believed the aggression should not go unpunished

      • Wanted to break diplomatic relations

    • 1937

      • Japanese sank US ship in China

        • Many people called this an accident

The Failure of Munich

Pg. 727

  • 1936

    • Hitler moved his army back into the Rhineland

      • violated Versailles treaty

  • 1938

    • Germany annexed Austria

      • demanded that Czechoslovakia cede to Germany

  • Munich Conference

    • Told hitler to not expand any farther that Czechoslovakia

      • appeasement

    • Hitler broke the Munich agreement

      • Issued threats against Poland

        • Invaded in 1939

          • GB and France declared war

  • Stalin signed a nonaggression pact with Germany

From Neutrality to Intervention

Pg. 728

  • Roosevelt did not know whether to stay neutral or not

Neutrality Tested

Pg. 729

  • Roosevelt believed the US should supply the allies weapons

    • revised neutrality acts

  • Soviet Union overtook countries in Eastern EU

    • Latvia, Estonia, Lithuania and then Finland

  • Spring 1940

    • Germans launched attack on Denmark than norway and finally France

      • Mussolini then attacked France as well

    • Roosevelt was getting ready for German invasion of US

      • Public opinion was shifting

        • Saw germany as a threat to the US

      • Passed Burke-Wadsworth Act

        • First Peacetime draft

The Third-Term Campaign

Pg. 731

  • Roosevelt was re nominated for the democratic party

    • opposition promised to keep the country out of the war

      • Roosevelt won

Neutrality Abandoned

Pg. 732

  • “Lend Lease” program

    • US would give weapons to any allied country and repaid after the war

  • Shipping across the atlantic was dangerous

    • US navy escorted transport ships across the ocean

  • Germany invaded USSR

    • US extended lend lease to them

      • Germany started targeting American ships

  • The Atlantic Charter

    • called for destruction of Nazi tyranny

      • Between US and Britain

  • Roosevelt was sure Americans would only accept war if there was an attack on the US

The Road to Pearl Harbor

Pg. 773

  • Japan Signed Tripartite Pact with Germany and Italy

    • loose agreement

  • Roosevelt was unhappy with Japan

    • terminated commercial treaty

  • Japanese invaded Vietnam

    • Then Indonesia

    • Moved to Dutch east Indies

  • Roosevelt froze all japanese assets in the united States

    • stopped selling them oil

      • Some Japanese wanted to compromise with the US

      • Others wanted to find resources other ways

  • Pearl harbor

    • December 7th 1941

      • Harbor had taken no precautions to an impending attack

        • Ships were bunched up and defenseless

      • US suffered heavy losses

  • Americans got behind the war

    • US declared war on Japan

    • Italy and Germany declared war on US


Crash Course 36

  • WWII shaped America

    • Strengthened Fed Gov

      • rationing

      • fixed wages

      • controlled  industries

  • Brought unemployment to 2%

    • boosted economy

  • Gov. spent more money

    • paid for with taxes

    • Spurred development

      • especially on the west coast

        • not good for the south because they did not have as many cilies

  • Many workers in factories were women

    • Government Saw this as temporary

  • WWII was an ideological war

    • GI bill

      • helped returning soldiers

        • could enrol in colleges and buy houses

  • People started to rethink Eugenics

  • Bracero Program

  • Asian Americans

    • Japanese Americans expelled people from the west coast

      • sent to internment camps

  • AAs

    • served in segregated regiments

      • beginning of Civil rights movement

  • 1944 conference

    • dollar replaced pound in world transactions

      • US became leader in economy

    • US set up the UN

      • took leading role in the world


Crash Course 27


  • 1945-1990 Cold War

    • The US and USSR only the strong countries

  • USSR encouraged Communist governments

    • US wanted to contain communism

    • Greece and Turkey

      • Truman Doctrine

        • support people against communism

  • Marshall Plan

    • Response to economic hardship in EU

      • New Deal for EU

    • Japan was rebuilt

      • Japan had no more army

  • Germany was divided

    • Berlin wall was built in 1961

  • 1950

    • Communism was terrifying to people

  • Atomic secrets were leaked to other countries

  • McCarthy

    • He said he had a list of communist