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Unit 14 Notes
by Kiva McElhiney - Saturday, February 27, 2016, 11:33 AM
 

Kiva McElhiney

APUSH

Mr. Kann

26 February 2016

Unit 14 Notes


THE DIPLOMACY OF THE NEW ERA (pg. 720-723)

  • Myth of Isolationism- during this time, people had turned their backs on the globe

    • now starting to become more involved with world affairs

      • played more of an active role during the 20’s than ever before (720)

  • Washington Conference of 1921- this was an attempt to prevent Britain, America, and Japan from entering a race -- which could be costly and destabilizing

    • proposed a plan for dramatic reductions in the fleets of the three nations

      • also for a ten year moratorium on the construction of warships

    • also produced two other related treaties--

      • the Nine-Power Pact- pledging continuation of the Open Door policy

      • the Four-Power Pact-the US, Britain, France, and Japan promised each other specific territories to prevent aggression

  • the “New Era” effort to protect the peace -- conference helped with this (720)

  • Kellogg-Briand Pact- 1928, concluded the Washington Conference of 1921

    • fourteen nations signed the agreement in Paris (August 27, 1928)

      • eventually, a little later on, 48 other nations signed the pact

        • held no “instruments” of enforcement -- only moral obligation (720)

  • Circular Loans- growing economic presence in germany

    • source of a troubling economic pattern in international finance

      • AmericaGermany   France and England (to pay of reparations from the war) give back to the United States (war loans)

        • this only continued by virtue of enormous debts

    • US banks were becoming a daily part of European life

      • industries spreading to Europe - capturing overseas market

        • many companies were taking advantage of the devastation that Europe was in (721)

  • Economic Expansion in Latin America- during the 1920’s, military forces kept a presence in many countries

    • the investment in the region almost doubled (1924-1929)

      • people argued to weaken the amount in the area, but there were so many resources that they decided differently

        • Latin American also having trouble paying off debt to the US

          • “Yankee Imperialism” growing (721)

  • Manchuria- Hoover administration saw a major crisis in Asia - early step to WWII

    • Japanese slowly recovering from economic depression

      • increasing strength of the Society Union and nationalist China

        • China expanding government power in Manchuria

          • was previously China’s, then Japan’s, now trying to take it back - had many difficulties during this process (722)

  • Failure of America’s Interwar Diplomacy- After Herbert Hoover left office, realized that the U.S’s practice of voluntary involvement with other nations had collapsed

    • adopt a more “energetic” form of internationalism -- OR practice forms of nationalism where they rely on own devices

      • next six years, experimented with these ideas (which one they liked) (723)


ISOLATIONISM AND INTERNATIONALISM (pg. 723- 738)

  • FDR’s “Bombshell”- Rooseveltreleased a message saying that he rejected any agreement of currency stabilization

    • conference that they were previously in dissolved-- did not reach agreement

      • in 1936, the administration finally decided to work w Western currency

    • FDR also got rid of the issue of settling war debts through international agreement -- let the issue die (724)

  • Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act- the US had no interest in war debts, did want to improve position on world trade though

    • Roosevelt approved this act, it authorized administration to negotiate treaties that lowered tariffs

      • resulted in an increase in American exports

        • problem was, other nations could not obtain US currency to buy or pay off debts to banks (724)

  • Inter-American Conference- signed formal convention saying that “no state has the right to intervene in the internal or external affairs of another”

    • Roosevelt respected this pledge while he held office

      • even though this policy was passed, they still occupied a lot of Latin America -- policy I guess did not apply (?) (725)

  • Sources of Isolationism- support for this emerged in four different ways

    • internationalists had grown to be disappointed w the League of Nations and how it couldn’t stop Japanese aggression in Asia

    • other Americans listened to the argument that “powerful business intersects”

      • that Wall Street had tricked the US into participation in WWI (725)

  • Neutrality Acts- made to prevent a recurrence of the events that (many americans believed) led to WWI

    • established mandatory arms embargo - renewed these provisions

      • world conditions becoming more and more unstable

        • new act established “cash-and-carry policy”

          • this was when a nation on the verge of conflict could purchase non military goods

            • would have to pay cash and carry out on their own (725)

  • Ethiopia- military neutrality gained a lot of support when Mussolini launched attack on Ethiopia -- League of Nations protested

    • Italy resigned from the organization - continued conquest into Ethiopia

      • formed alliance with Nazi Germany

        • many Americans responded with a strong want to isolate themselves (725)

  • “Quarantine” Speech- given by president FDR

    • called for an international quarantine of the aggressor nations

      • president was worried that the war would spread -- contemplating a break in diplomatic relationship w Japan

        • public responses very hostile -- leading FDR to draw back (727)

  • Munich Conference- Hitler met w the leaders of France, and Great Britain

    • this was an effort to resolve the crisis

      • French and British accepted German demands over territory in Czechoslovakia bc Germany promised to not expand further (727)

  • Failure of “appeasement”- the Munich accords were one of the strongest policies that came to be known as this

    • became to be identified with Chamberlin

      • fairly soon after, it started to crash and was obviously not working

        • Hitler occupied remaining remaining areas-- which went against the Munich agreement

          • Germany started threatening Poland, saying how they wanted to occupy territory (727)


FROM NEUTRALITY TO INTERVENTION (pg.728- 736)

  • Cash-and-Carry- this is the process when goods are fully paid for with cash, and taken away that same time by the purchaser

    • after all the commotion in Europe, many americans outrage

      • BUT the US didn’t want to get more involved so this was the only system they would practice to show their support (730)

  • Fall of France- many Western European strongholds were falling into the hands of Germany

    • eventually, France fell into Germany’s power

      • there were only few remnants from the British army left

    • Roosevelt had already begun to increase aid for the allies

      • also had to make plans to try and resist (possible) Nazi invasion

        • bc of everything with France, FDR said that they would help the allies even more

          • to help make war materials for British, they used all the money they had-- not very smart (730)

  • Shifting Public Opinion- FDR was able to take all of these steps bc of a change in this

    • many Americans previously thought that a german victory would not be a threat to the US -- things changed when Germany invaded France and Britain threatened

      • now saw them as a direct threat

        • now becoming more willing to permit expanding assistance

    • also more concerned by the need for internal preparations for war

      • Burke-Wadsworth Act -- first peacetime military draft in America’s history (730, 731)

  • America First Committee- these people were the opposers of the US getting involved

    • had the indirect support of the Republican party

      • debate about the issue was very loud and rough

        • this debate became complicated by a presidential campaign (731)

  • Wendell Willkie- this was the man nominated by the Republican party for president

    • tried to compete with FDR by forming a “popular movement”

      • dynamic and attractive -- BUT politically inexperienced

        • the parties position was not that much different from Roosevelts

          • would extend assistance to the allies

            • did not win- no match for FDR (732)

  • Lend-lease- this was a new system, would allow the gov to not only sell, but to lend and lease their weaponry as well (to any nation that needed it--- or would help defend the us)

    • basically, could give weapons to Britain if they said they would pay back

      • Isolationists attacked this - said it would tie them to close to the allies

        • Congress passed the bill anyways

          • with the new bill enacted, FDR had to figure out how to ship the products - make sure they get there safely (732)

  • Germany Invades the USSR- Germany not threatened by the US’s actions

    • Germany invades the Soviet Union, breaking the pact and agreement they had

      • many assumed the Soviets would surrender, but they did not

        • this helped the US bc they reached out to Russia, offering weaponry -- now on our side (Soviet- American alliance) (732)

  • Atlantic Charter- this was a document where the two nations (britain and the US) would state their common principles

    • ways they could create a “better future world”

      • it was also a disguised form, which also states war tactics

        • mainly included ways for the final destruction of Nazi Germany

          • now 1941, the US was fully involved in the war -- would not declare that though unless they faced an attack (733)

  • Tripartite Pact- in September 1940, Japan signed this pact

    • this was a loose defensive alliance with Germany and Italy -- extended the Axis into Asia

      • the US enraged with Japan for doing this -- terminated a longstanding American treaty with Tokyo

        • president also froze all of Japanese’s assets -- est complete trade embargo

          • this greatly limited Japanese ability to purchase essential supplies (oil) (733)

  • Tokyo’s Decision for War- ask Mr. Kann -- don’t quite understand this?

  • Pearl Harbor- a wave of Japanese bombers attacked the US’s naval base at pearl harbor -- a second wave came an hour later

    • the consequences were disastrous to the US

      • lost many important goods (ships etc.) also many people died

        • Japanese suffered light losses

          • this event did do something: It unified the American people overnight

            • led to a declaration of war against Japan, for the second time in 25 years, the US engaged in a WW (733, 734)


Crash Course 35

  • after American experience w WWI, were worried to get involved in WWII

    • “age of isolationism”

      • United States much less involved w World Trade

        • because of the Depression and because of Tariff policies

  • were generally neutral when it came to Europe - Great Britain

    • FDR really wanted to help the allies

      • were the only one actually fighting the Nazis

        • congress also acknowledged that the Nazis were a threat

  • congress created the nations first time draft so they could send out troops

  • gave billions of dollars of war materiel to Britain

  • ended all trade with Japan

    • Pearl Harbor -- declaration of War

      • Germany declared war on US - officially WWII

  • Russians did most of the fighting in Europe - lost MANY people

  • US doesn’t celebrate the end of WWII -- partly because it would celebrate atomic weapons

    • most destructive weapons the world had ever seen

      • death toll from the two bombs was greater than all Americans in the Pacific

        • the question of the atomic bombs and if they were justified in still present

  • bombing became incredibly advanced during World War II

    • more than ever before

  • many died during World War II