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Unit 14 Notes
by Pascal Beckert-McGirr - Saturday, February 27, 2016, 11:50 AM
 

Pascal Beckert-McGirr

Mr. Kann

AP U.S. History

24 February, 2016

Replacing the League (P. 720)

  1. American membership in league of nations no longer a realistic possibility

    1. In 1921 Evans Hughes secured legislation from congress to declare war with Germany at an end

      1. Negotiate separate peace treaties with former Central Powers

        1. Policymakers believed the US would receive all advantages of Versailles treaty with none of burdensome responsibilities

  2. Washington Conference of 1921

    1. Attempt to prevent naval armaments race between America, Britain, and Japan

      1. Hughes proposed plan for dramatic reductions in fleets of all nations

        1. Ten-year moratorium on construction of large warships

          1. Called for scrapping of nearly 2 million tons of existing shipping

            1. Conference ultimately agreed to accept most of its terms

              1. Hughes himself had not anticipated this

    2. Five Power Pact of February 1922 established both limits for total naval tonnage and a ratio of armaments among the signatories

      1. For every 5 tons of American and British warships, Japan would maintain 3 and france and Italy 1.75 each

    3. Nine-Power Plan,

      1. Continuation of the open door policy in China

    4. Four-Power Plan

      1. US, Britain, France, and Japan promised to respect each other's Pacific territories and cooperate to prevent aggression

  3. Kellogg-Briand Pact

    1. Concluded effort to protect peace

      1. French foreign minister Aristide Briand asked US to join an alliance against Germany

        1. Secretary of State Frank Kellogg proposed multilateral treaty outlawing war as an instrument of national policy

          1. Fourteen nations signed the agreement in Paris in 1928

            1. Forty-eight nations later joined the pact

              1. Rested on the “moral force” of world opinion

Debts and Diplomacy (P.720-721)

  1. European Debt

    1. Europe’s economic health at the time depended on American prosperity

      1. Major European industrial powers suffering after WWI

        1. Staggering under heavy burden of debt

    2. Allied powers struggling to repay $11 Billion in loans they had contracted with the United States

      1. During and shortly after the war

        1. Republican administrations were unwilling to reduce or forgive

    3. United States stepped in with a solution

  2. Circular Loans

    1. American banks would provide enormous loans to the Germans

      1. Meet their reparation payments

        1. Britain and France would agree to reduce the amount of those payments

          1. Dawes won Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts

            1. Did little to solve problems it addressed

    2. Responsible for growing American economic presence in Germany and source of troubling circular pattern to international finance

      1. America would lend money to Germany, they would use money to pay France and England who would use the money to repay war debts to the United States

        1. Flow was able to continue only by virtue of the enormous debts European countries were accumulating to American banks

  3. American influence in Europe

    1. Opening automobile factories in Europe

      1. Capturing large share of overseas market

    2. Other industries were establishing subsidiaries worth more than $10 Billion throughout the continent

      1. Took advantage of the devastation of European industry

        1. Some people were afraid the US was too dependant on unstable European economies

  4. Economic Expansion in Latin America

    1. US felt even fewer reservations about assisting American economic expansion in Latin America

      1. During 1920’s US military forces maintained a presence in numerous countries in the region

        1. American corporations built roads and other facilities

          1. American banks were offering large loans to governments

Hoover and the World Crisis (P.721-723)

  1. Latin America

    1. Hoover worked hard to repair damage created by earlier american policies

      1. Made a ten-week goodwill tour through the region before his inauguration

        1. Once in office he tried to abstain from intervening in the internal affairs of neighboring nations

          1. Moved to withdraw American troops from Haiti

    2. Economic distress led to the collapse of one Latin American regime after another

      1. Hoover announced new policy---America would grant diplomatic recognition to any sitting government in the region without questioning the means it had used to obtain power

        1. Repudiated the Roosevelt corolary to the Monroe Doctrine

          1. Refusing to permit American intervention when several Latin american countries defaulted on debt obligations

  2. Europe

    1. Enjoyed few successes in its efforts to promote economic stability

      1. Hoover proposed moratorium on debts in 1931

        1. Failed to attract broad support or produce financial stability

          1. Many economists and political leaders appealed to president to cancel all war debts to US

            1. Hoover refused-Several european nations went into default

              1. Severely damaging tense international climate

  3. Fascist Control of Europe

    1. Ineffectiveness of diplomacy was troubling in view of new governments in Europe

      1. Mussolini of Italy had been growing Italy to be more nationalistic and militaristic and Fascist leaders were loudly threatening an active campaign of imperial expansion

      2. Nazi Party in Germany

        1. Led by Adolf Hitler

          1. Racial superiority of the Aryan people

            1. Lebensraum

  4. Manchuria

    1. Most alarming to Hoover was crisis in Asia

      1. Japan, reeling from economic depression were concerned about strength of china

        1. Alarmed at their insistence on expanding his power in Manchuria

          1. Remained part of China but over which Japan had maintained economic control since 1905

    2. Government of Japan failed to take forceful steps to counter China's ambitions

      1. Japan's military leaders staged what was a coup

        1. Seized control of foreign policy from liberals

          1. Launched major invasion of northern Manchuria

  5. Failure of America’s Interwar Diplomacy

    1. American refusal to commit itself to interests of other countries had collapsed

      1. US faced a choice

        1. Energetic, form of internationalism, enter into firmer more meaningful associations with other nations

        2. Resort to nationalism and rely on its own devices for dealing with its problems

          1. Experimented with elements of both approaches

Depression Diplomacy (P.724)

  1. FDR’s “Bombshell”

    1. Economic relations with europe

      1. Roosevelt already decided to allow the gold value of the dollar to fall to enable American goods to compete in world markets

        1. Shortly after the conference Roosevelt released a famous “bombshell” message

          1. Repudiating the orthodox views of most of the delegates

            1. Rejecting any agreement on currency stabilization

  2. Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act

    1. Roosevelt approved the RTA in 1934

      1. Authorized administration to negotiate treaties lowering tariffs by as much as 50%

        1. In return for reciprocal reductions by other nations

          1. By 1939 Secretary of State Cordell Hull negotiated new treaties with twenty-one countries

            1. Resulted in increase in American exports to them of nearly 40%

              1. Mot of the agreements admitted only products not competitive with American industry and agriculture

                1. Imports in US continued to lag

America and the Soviet Union (P.724)

  1. USSR and US

    1. Powerful voices in US were urging a change in policy

      1. Wanted better relations with Soviet Union

        1. USSR appeared to be possible new source of trade

    2. Soviet union as well appeared to favor a new relationship

      1. Hoping for American cooperation in containing power of Japan

        1. Soviet leaders were afraid that they were a threat to russia from the southeast

      2. US and USSR reached agreement in Washington

        1. Soviets would cease propaganda efforts in US and protect American citizens in Russia

        2. US would recognize the communist regime

    3. Relations between the two soured soon once again

      1. American trade failed to establish foothold in russia

        1. Soviets received no reassurance from US that it was interested in stopping Japanese expansion

          1. By end of 1934 both sides were viewing each other once more with distrust

The Good Neighbor Policy(P.724-725)

  1. Inter-American Conference

    1. Somewhat successful american efforts to enhance diplomatic and economic relations with Latin america

      1. One of most important targets of new trade policies

        1. During 1930s the US succeeded in increasing both exports to and imports from the other nations of the Western Hemisphere by almost 100%

    2. New American attitude towards intervention in Latin America

      1. Hoover administration had abandoned earlier practice of using military force to compel latin american govts. to repay debts

    3. At the conference, secretary of state Hull signed a formal convention “No state has the right to intervene in the internal or external affairs of another”

      1. Good Neighbor Policy did not mean that the US had abandoned its influence in latin america

        1. Simply replaced one form of leverage with another

          1. Instead of military force, the US now used economic influence

The Rise of Isolationism (P.725-727)

  1. Sources of Isolationism

    1. US faced with choice between more active effrts to stabilize world or more energetic attempts to isolate the nation from them

      1. US chose to be isolated

        1. Support for isolationism came from the idea that Americans were listening to the argument that powerful business interest had tricked the US into participating in WWI

        2. Other people believed that the League of Nations failure to stop Japanese aggression-internationalism-had failed

    2. Senator Gerald Nye had found exorbitant profiteering and blatant tax evasion by many corporations during the war

      1. Suggested that bankers had pressured Wilson to intervene in war so as to protect their loans abroad

      2. Roosevelt shared some of the suspicions voiced by the isolationists

        1. Continued to hope for at least modest American role in maintaining world peace

          1. Asked Senate to ratify a treaty to make the US a member of the world court

            1. Expanded Americas symbolic commitment to internationalism

              1. Would not have actually increased its responsibilities

  2. Neutrality Acts

    1. The 1935 act, and Neutrality acts of 1936 and 1937 were designed to prevent a recurrence of the events many Americans believed had pressured the US into WWI

    2. 1935 Law

      1. Established mandatory arms embargo against both victim and aggressor in any military conflict

        1. Empowered president to warm American citizens that they might travel on ships of warring nations only at their own risk

          1. Isolationists believed the “protection of neutral rights” could not become an excuse for American intervention in the war

    3. 1936 Neutrality acts

      1. Renewed these provisions

    4. 1937 Neutrality Acts

      1. Congress passed still more stringent measures

        1. New Neutrality Acts established the so-called cash-and carry policy

          1. By which belligerents could purchase only nonmilitary goods from the US and had to pay cash and carry the goods away on their own vessels

  3. Ethiopia

    1. American stance of militant neutrality gained support in 1935 when Mussolini launched his attack on Ethiopia

      1. LEague of nations protested Italy resigned from the organization

        1. Completed its conquest of Ethiopia

        2. Formed Axis alliance with Nazi Germany

          1. Most americans responded to the news with renewed determination to isolate themselves

            1. ⅔ responding to public polls opposed any American action

  4. “Quarantine” Speech

    1. Deteriorating situation in Asia

      1. Japan’s aggressive designs against China had been clear since invasion of Manchuria

        1. In summer of 1937 Tokyo launched even broader assault

          1. Attacked China’s five northern provinces

      2. Roosevelt believed the US could not allow the Japanese aggression to go unremarked or unpunished

        1. Aggressors should be contained

          1. President was vague about what such a quarantine would mean

            1. Evidence that he was contemplating nothing more drastic than a break in diplomatic relations with Japan

            2. Not considering economic or military sanctions

              1. Public response to the speech was hostile

                1. Roosevelt drew back

The Failure of Munich (P.727-729)

  1. Munich Conference

    1. Hitler met with leaders of France and Great Britain at Munich in an effort to resolve the crisis

      1. French and British agreed to accept German demands in Czechoslovakia

        1. In return for Hitler's promise to expand no further

          1. Last territorial claim in europe said Hitler

  2. Failure of “Appeasement”

    1. Munich accords were most prominent element of a policy that came to be known as “appeasement”

      1. Came to be identified exclusively with Chamberlain

        1. Became clear that the policy was a failure

      2. In March 1939 Hitler occupied remaining areas of Czechoslovakia violating the Munich agreement unashamedly

        1. In april he began issuing threats against Poland

          1. France and Britain gave assurances to Poland they would come to its aid in case of invasion

            1. Tried to draw in Stalin for Poland

              1. Already decided he could accept no protection from the west

                1. Signed non aggression pact with Hitler freeing the Germans from two-front war

          2. ON september 1, 1939 he launched a full-scale invasion of Poland

            1. Britain and France declared war on germany two days later

Neutrality Tested (P.729-731)

  1. Cash and Carry

    1. Question was how much the US would do to assist Allied Nations

      1. Roosevelt believed the US should make armaments available to the Allied armies to help them counter German munitions industry

        1. In September 1939 he asked Congress for revision of Neutrality Acts

          1. Wanted to remove the forbidding sale of american weapons to any nation engaged in war

            1. Permit belligerents to purchase arms on the cash-and-carry basis

  2. Fall of France

    1. Germany launched invasion to west

      1. Attacked Denmark and Norway

        1. Then to Netherlands and Belgium

          1. Eventually drove deep into the heart of France

            1. Allied efforts proved futile against Nazi blitzkrieg

    2. On june 10, Mussolini brought Italy into the war attacking france from the south while Germany was attacking from the north

      1. On June 22, France fell to Germany

        1. Nazi troops marched into paris

    3. In europe only the shattered remant nt of the Britihs army

      1. Rescued from beaches of Dunkirk by flotilla of military and civilian vessels

  3. U.S. increased involvement

    1. Roosevelt increased American Aid

      1. Also began preparations to resist nazi invasion of the US

        1. Asked Congress for additional $1 Billion for defense

          1. Received it quickly

    2. Proclaimed that the US would extend to the opponents of force the material resources of this nation

      1. On may 15 Winston Churchill sent roosevelt the first of many long lists of requests

        1. Ships, armaments, and other assistance

          1. Insisted that england could not survive without them

    3. Eventually circumvented the cash-and-carry provision by trading 50 American destroyers to England in return for the right to build American bases on British territory in the Western Hemisphere

      1. Returned to the factories a number of new airplanes purchased by the US so that the british could buy them

  4. Shifting Public Opinion

    1. Reason roosevelt was able to do so much was a shift in public opinion

      1. People began to be afraid of fascism

        1. Thought it posed direct threat to US

          1. Congress was aware of change

            1. Becoming more willing to expand American assistance

  5. America First Committee

    1. Opposing the Fight For Freedom Committee

        1. Wanted to urge immediate declaration of war

      1. Did not want to join the war so soon

        1. Had some of America's most prominent leaders

          1. General Robert E. Wood, General Hugh Johnson, Senator Gerald Nye, Senator Burton Wheeler and more

The Third-Term Campaign (P.731-732)

  1. Roosevelt's third term

    1. People questioning roosevelt's intentions

      1. People wondering if he would run for third term

    2. He refused to withdraw from the contest

      1. Made it impossible for another democrat to establish a foothold

        1. Democrats renominated him

  2. Wendell Willkie

    1. Republican Nominee for president

      1. Dynamic and attractive, politically inexperienced businessman

    2. Republicans faced more difficult task

      1. Roosevelt straddling center of defense debate

        1. Favoring neither extreme isolationist nor extreme interventionist

          1. Republican had few alternatives

            1. Solution was to succumb to popular movement

  3. Roosevelt's Victory

    1. Roosevelt received 55% of the popular vote and won 449 electoral votes

      1. Compared to Willkie’s 45% popular vote and only 82 electoral votes

Neutrality Abandoned (P.732-733)

  1. Lend-Lease

    1. Great Britain was virtually bankrupt in December 1940

      1. Couldnt meet Cash-and-carry requirements

        1. England’s needs were greater than ever

    2. Roosevelt suggested method that would “eliminate the dollar sign” from all arms transactions

      1. Labeled “Lend-Lease”

        1. Allow the govt/ not only to sell but lend or lease armaments to any nation deemed “vital to the defense of the US”

          1. The US could funnel weapons to England on basis of no more than Britain's promise to return or pay for them when the war was over

  2. Germany Invades the USSR

    1. Germany invades Soviet Union

      1. Shattered Nazi-Soviet pact of 1939

        1. Russians drove quickly and forcefully deep into Russian territory

        2. Soviets did not surrender

          1. Roosevelt persuaded Congress to extend lend-lease privileges to USSR

            1. Started new formal Soviet-American alliance

              1. American industry now crucial to helping both of Hitler’s enemies on two fronts

                1. Navy playing active role in protecting flow of goods to Europe

  3. Atlantic Charter

    1. Senior military officers of GB and US met

      1. Agreed on joint strategy they would follow were the US to enter War

    2. Roosevelt met Churchill on British vessel off of Newfoundland

      1. Joined prime minister in releasing Atlantic Charter

        1. Set of common principles

          1. On which to base a better future for the world

            1. Statement of war aims that called for “the final destruction of the Nazi tyranny.”

The Road to Pearl Harbor (P.733)

  1. Tripartite Pact

    1. Japan taking advantage of crisis in Europe to take control in Pacific

      1. In September 1940 Japan signed the Tripartite Pact

        1. Loose defensive alliance with Germany and Italy

          1. Extended Axis into Asia

  2. U.S. and Japan

    1. Japan did not respond to Roosevelt’s warnings about advancing into the Dutch East Indies

      1. US froze all of Japan's assets in the US and established a complete trade embargo

        1. Severely limited Japan’s ability to purchase supplies

          1. American public opinion was very strongly Anti-Japanese

    2. Tokyo could reither repair relations with US and have supplies or find supplies elsewhere

      1. At first the Prime minister (Prince Konoye) seemed willing to compromise

        1. Militants forced Konoye out of office and replaced him with General Hideki Tojo

          1. Japan was desperate for fuel

            1. Little alternative to war

  3. Tokyo’s Decision for War

    1. Toko government kept pretense of wanting to negotiate

      1. On november 20, 1941 Tokyo sent diplomats to washington

        1. Tokyo had already decided that it would not yield on the question of china

          1. Washington had made clear it would accept nothing less than reversal of that policy

            1. Hull rejected Japanese overtures out of hand

              1. Told secretary of War that it was up to him

                1. American intelligence had decoded a Japanese message

                  1. New attack was only in a matter of days

  4. Pearl Harbor

    1. On Sunday december 7, 1941 wave of Japanese bomber attacked US naval base at Pearl Harbor

      1. Second wave came an hour later

        1. Military commanders in Hawaii had taken no precautions against such an attack

          1. Had allowed ships to remain bunched up defenselessly in the harbor

            1. Airplanes parked in rows on airships

      2. Within two hours the US had lost 8 Battleships, 3 cruisers, 4 other vessels and 188 airplanes

        1. More than 2,000 soldiers and sailors died and another 1,000 injured

    2. American forces greatly diminished in Pacific

      1. Everyone in US wanted to fight war now

        1. President went to capitol hill and 4 hours later congress had declared war on Japan

          1. Three days later on December 11, Congress declared war on Germany and Italy





















Crash Course #35: World War II Part 1

  1. After WWI americans were gunshy of involvement in foreign wars

    1. People died for almost no cause

      1. “Isolationist” Policy

    2. “Good-Neighbor Policy”

      1. Less involvement in foreign Latin American Policy

  2. Neutrality Acts

    1. Banned Sale of arms to any other countries

    2. Many people cautioned of the involvement of the war

  3. FDR wanted to help the British

    1. Congress recognized nazi’s as a threat

      1. Cash and Carry arms

        1. U.S. Provided more aid to Britain

    2. Peacetime draft

      1. Formed larger army

  4. Pearl Harbor

    1. 187 Aircrafts were destroyed

      1. FDR asked congress for declaration of war

        1. They agreed and the U.S. joined war

    2. Bataan Death March

      1. Largest surrender in U.S. History

        1. Thousands of Americans died

  5. U.S. Island Hopping

    1. Bases for planes

      1. Get closer to Japan and then bomb

  6. U.S. Enters European War

    1. Starts in North Africa

    2. Allies invaded sicily and Italy

      1. Fought most of 1942

    3. Invaded Normandy in 1943 with British and Canadians

      1. Beginning of demise of Nazi’s

  7. Russian’s in europe

    1. Lost at least 20 Million people

      1. Captured berlin

        1. War ended may 8 or 9 1945

  8. U.S. War ends in August when Nuclear bomb was dropped

    1. Not celebrated in U.S

      1. Manhattan Project

        1. Little Boy, Big Boy

          1. Killed hundreds of thousands of people

            1. Death toll was greater than number of total american casualties in eastern front

  9. Harry S. Truman

    1. Was dropping of bomb justified?

      1. No, to threaten USSR

        1. Using such a weapon was morally unjust

      2. Yes, ended war

        1. More people would've died without dropping the bomb

  10. Precision Bombing

    1. By 1945 it was an acceptable strategy to kill civilians

      1. 40% of 50 Million killed were civilians

        1. 10% in WWI






















Crash Course #36-World War II Part 2


  1. World War II changed the United States

    1. Strengthened Federal Government

      1. More govt. intervention and control than in WWI

        1. War Production board

        2. War Manpower commission's

        3. Office of pryce commision

          1. Massive rationing of food and supplies

      2. Fixed wages, rents, production quotas

        1. Government controlled what cars could be produced

      3. Most people happy to be working

        1. 2% Unemployment in 1943

        2. 1944 American factories producing factory every 5 minutes

          1. Producing ship every day

        3. U.S. GNP from $91 billion to $214 Billion

          1. Federal Spending

            1. Paid for with taxes

    2. Big Business got even bigger

      1. Government contracts

        1. Cost plus contracts

          1. Guarantee that companies make profit

            1. Went to biggest business

      2. 200 Biggest business’ controlled half of U.S. assets

    3. War Defense Production

      1. Seattle became ship manufacturing hub

  2. Women in Work

    1. By 1944 women made up ⅓ of civilian labor force

      1. Married women in 30’s outnumbered single women

        1. People saw these changes as temporary

      2. After war many had to return to service jobs

  3. FDR’s Four Freedoms

    1. Freedom of Speech

    2. Freedom of Worship

    3. Freedom from want

    4. Freedom from fear

      1. FDR called for new economic bill of rights

        1. Southern democrats did not want it to

          1. Expand power of unions

          2. Give more power to African Americans

  4. GI Bill of Rights (Servicemen's readjustment act)

    1. By 1946 more than 1 million soldiers enrolled in college

      1. 4 Million got mortgage assistance

        1. Spurred housing boom

  5. The American Century-Henry Luce

    1. Share with all people (in foreign countries) industrial products and american ideas

      1. Wanted to be opposite of Nazi’s

        1. Nazi’s were racist

          1. Americanism would mean diversity

  6. Asian Americans in War

    1. Japanese Americans suffered horrible racism

      1. Executive order 9066

        1. Japanese internment

          1. 110,000 people were interned

  7. Civil Rights Movement

    1. A. Philip Randolph threatened march on washington

      1. Executive order 8802

        1. Banned discrimination in defense hiring

      2. FEPC

        1. Helped african americans obtain jobs in manufacturing

          1. 1 Million african americans found jobs in manufacturing

  8. U.S. Intervening policy post war

    1. U.S. entered WWII

      1. Began intervening in world affairs

        1. After WWII there was power vacuum and the U.S. and U.S.S.R were only states powerful enough to actually be powerful