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Unit 14 notes
by Rheanne Carbonilla - Saturday, February 27, 2016, 12:40 PM
 

Unit 14 Notes



Rheanne Carbonilla

Kaan

Period 2

February 19, 2016



Washington Conference of 1921

pg 720


•An attempt to prevent what was threatening to become costly & destabilizing naval armaments race between America, Britain, & Japan


•Hughes (Sec. of State) proposed plan to delegates


→ Reductions of in the fleets of all 3 nations

→ 10 year moratorium on the construction of large warships

→ Called for scrapping 2 million tons of existing shipping


•Five-Power Pact of February 1922 - Est. limits of total naval tonnage & a ratio of armaments among signatories



•Nine-Power Pact - Pledge a constitution of the Open Door Policy in China



•Four-Power Pact - US, Britain, France, & Japan promised to respect one another’s Pacific territories & cooperate to prevent aggression



Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928


•Kellogg-Briand Pact concluded the effort to protect peace without accepting international duties


•“New” Sec. of State, Frank Kellogg proposed a multilateral treaty outlawing war as an instrument of nat. policy


•14 nations signed agreement in Paris on August 27, 1928


- 48 other nations later join

Circular Loans

pg 721


•Charles G. Dawes, Amer. Banker & diplomat, negotiated an agreement


• Where amer. banks would loan to the Germans (to be able to meet reparations)


•Britain and France agreed to reduce amount of payments


•Dawes Plan didn’t solve as much problems they addressed



•High tariff barriers that were erected the Rep. Congress created problems


•American economic expansion in Europe continued till 1931



Economic Expansion in Latin America


•U.S. investments in Latin Amer. more than doubled in 1924 & 1929


•Amer. cooperations built roads & other facilities


•To weaken appeal of revolutionary forces in the region


•Increase access to Latin Amer. natural resources



•Amer. banks offered loans to Latin Amer. gov’ts


→ Had trouble earning money to repay them in the face of the US tariff barrier



Manchuria

pg 722



•Manchuria remained officially a part of China, Japanese maintained economic control since 1905


•Mod. govt of Japan failed to take steps to counter Chiang’s ambitions


•Japan military leaders staged a coup in the autumn of 1931


•Seized control of foreign policy from the weakened liberals


•Later after, invasion in Manchuria was launched


•Militarists remained in command


•Conquest ended by the beginning of 1932



•Japan expanded its aggression farther into China in 1932


•Attacked city of Shanghai & killed thousands of people



Failure of America’s Interwar Diplomacy

pg 723

•US attempted to create an international system in the 1920s


•System based on voluntary cooperation among nations & on an Amer. refusal to commit itself to the interests of other countries → Collapsed


•US experimented with adopting a few of internationalism and resorting to Nationalism for 6 years



FDR’s “Bombshell”

pg 724


•Roosevelt decided to allow gold value of the dollar to fall to enable Amer. goods to compete in world markets in World Economic Conference in June 1933


•After the conference, FDR released a “bombshell” message repudiating the orthodox views of most of the delegates & rejecting agreement on currency stabilization



•Roosevelt abandoned commitments of Hoover Administration to settle the issue of war debts through international agreements


•FDR signed a bill to forbid American banks from making loans to any nation in default on debts



Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act


•Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act of 1934 - Authorized administration to negotiate treaties lowering tariffs by as much as 50% in return for reciprocal reductions


•Resulted in increase of Amer. exports of 40%



Inter-American Conference


•Efforts to enhance diplomatic & economic relations with Latin Amer. - “Good Neighbor Policy”



•Inter-American Conference took place in Montevideo in Dec. 1933


•Sec. of State Hull signed a formal convention, “No state has the right to intervene in the internal or external affairs of another “


•Americans tried to use economic influence instead of military force


•New reliance on economic pressures eased tensions between US & its neighbors




Neutrality Acts

pg 725


•1935 Act


•Neutrality Acts of 1936 & 1937


→ Designed to prevent recurrence of events that pressured US to go into WWI


•1935 Act - Est. mandatory arms embargo against victim & aggressor in any military conflict


•Empowered the president to warn American citizens that they might travel on ships of nations only at risk



•Neutrality 1936 Act - renewed provisions



•Neutrality 1937 Act - Est. cash-carry policy → Belligerents could purchase only nonmilitary goods from the US & had to pay cash & carry goods on their own


“Quarantine” Speech

pg 727

•Summer of 1937, Tokyo attacked 5 of China’s provinces


•Roosevelt warned dangers of Japanese aggression to world peace


•“Aggressors should be “quarantined” by the nat. community to prevent contagion of war from spreading”


•Roosevelt drew back



•Dec. 12, 1937 Japanese aviators bombd & sank U.S. gunboat “Panay” as it sailed on Yangtze River in China


•Attacked in broad daylight



Munich Conference


•Sept. 29 Hitler met with leaders of France & GB at Munich to try to resolve crisis


•French & British agreed to accept German demands in Czechoslovakia in return for Hitler to not respond



Failure of “Appeasement”


•Policy “Appeasement” was identified closely to England’s Prime Minister, Chamberlain


•Failed



•Hitler took the remaining areas in Czechoslovakia in March 1939 → Violating terms in Munich Conf.


•Issued threats against Poland


→ Britain & France gave assurances to Polish govt. in case of invasion


•Stalin signed non aggression pact w/ Hitler in August 1939


• Freed Germans from danger of two front war



•Sept. 1, 1939 Hitler launched a full-scale invasion in Poland


•Britain & France declared war on Germany 2 days later



Cash-and-Carry

pg 730


•1939 measure maintained prohibition on Amer ships passed by Congress


•permit belligerents to purchase arms on same cash-and-carry basis for the sale of nonmilitary materials



•War in Europe lasted through winter & spring became known as the “phony war”


•Soviet Union overran & annexed Latvia, Estonia, & Lithuania


•Later in December invaded Finland


•Congress imposed in ineffective “moral embargo” on armaments shpments to Russia



Fall of France


•Spring of 1940 Germany invaded the west


•Attacking Denmark & Norway, Netherlands then Belgium, finally invading France


•Mussolini invaded France from the south as Hitler invaded from the north on June 10th


•June 22 France fell to the German onslaught



Shifting Public Opinion

•July, with France defeated, 66% of public believed Germany was a threat to the US



•Debate in Spring of 1940 began between interventionists, Advocates in expanding America into war & those who consisted in neutrality



•Journalist William Allen White - Chairmen of new Committee to Defend America


•Members lobbied for increase in American assistance to Allies but opposed actual intervention



America First Committee

pg 731


•America First Committee - Attracted some of the most prominent leaders in the US


•Included: Charles Lindbergh, Gen. Hugh Johnson, Sen. Burton Wheeler


•Indirect support of a large proportion of Rep. Party


•Complicated by a pres. campaign



Wendell White

pg 732


•Candidate & party platform took positions differently from FDR’s


•Keep the country out of war, but would extend assistance to allies



•Managed to evoke more public enthusian than any other Rep. candidate



•Roosevelt won with 55% of the popular vote to Willkie’s 45%


•Won 449 electoral votes to Wilkie’s 82 votes



Lend-Lease


•Lend-Lease - Allowed govt to sell & lend or lease armaments to any nation deemed “Vital to the defense of the US”


•Tied the Allies closer to US → Congress enacted the bill




Atlantic Charter


•April 1941, senior military officers of the 2 nations agreed on joint strategy to follow when US went into war



•FDR joined Churchill (Prime Minister) in releasing a doc., “Atlantic Charter”


•2 nations set out “certain common principles” to base “a better future for the world”



Tripartite Pact


•September 1940, Japan signed Tripartite Pact - Loose defensive alliance w/ Germany & Italy, extended Axis into Asia



Pearl Harbor

pg 734


•Many officials paid attention to a large Japanese convoy moving southward through China Sea


•Created confusion, led the govt to overlook indications of an attack


•Many believed since Hawaii was so far from Japan few thought attack was possible



•7:55 A.M. Sunday, Dec. 7, 1941 Japanese bombers took off in aircraft carriers to US naval base at Pearl Harbor


•Hour later a second wave came


•Military commanders allowed ships to remain defenseless in the harbor & airplanes parked in rows on airstrips


•Lost 8 battleships, 3 cruisers, 188 planes in the first 2 hours


•More than 2,000 soldiers & sailors died



•Within 4 hours of December 8, 1941 when Roosevelt addressed a session in Congress, the Senate & house 388 to 1 approved declaration of war against Japan


•3 days later, Germany & Italy declared war on US






Crash Course 36

•After the Great Depression, unemployment rate was 14% in 1940 but dropped to 2% in 1943


•In 1944 American factories were producing a plane every 5 minutes


•Factories also produced a ship every day



•Before WW2 only 4 million Americans paid income taxes but after the war 40 million did



•Defense spending created the west coast as an industrial center


•Seattle became a shipping and aircraft manufacturing hub


•CA got 10% of all federal spending, LA became the 2nd largest manufacturing hub in the country


Crash Course 37

•After WW2 the US and the USSR were the only nations that had any power left


→ But the US still worried about having a strong free market oriented Europe for the all the goods the US were producing


•The idea for the Soviets was to create a communist buffer between Germany but in the eyes of the US it looked like communism was just going to keep expanding


→ Because of this the US produced the Policy of Containment


•The Policy of Containment allowed communism to stay where it was but not allowed to spread



•By the end of the 1950s the contours of the Cold War have been established


•West vs East


•Capitalist freedom vs Communist totalitarianism