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APUSH Unit 14
by Jamia Yard - Saturday, February 27, 2016, 04:11 PM
 

Jamia Yard

Kann

AP US History

27 February 2016

 

The Diplomacy of the New Era

Replacing the League (720)

  • Washington Conference of 1921
    • an attempt to prevent what was threatening to become a costly and destabilizing naval armaments race between America, Britain, and Japan
    • Evans Hughes opening speech
      • proposed a plan for dramatic reductions in the fleets of all three nations and a ten-year moratorium on the construction of large warships
  • Five-Power Pact
    • Feb. 1922
    • established limits for naval tonnage and a ratio of armaments
      • for every 5 tons of American and British warships, Japan would maintain 3 and Italy and France 1.75 each
  • The Nine-Power Act
    • pledged to keep the Open Door Policy with China
  • Four-Power Act
    • US, Britain, Japan, and France agree to stay out of each others way to prevent aggression
  • Kellogg-Briand Pact
    • 1928
    • multilateral treaty that outlawed war as an instrument of national policy

 

Debts and Diplomacy (720-721)

  • Charles G. Dawes
    • negotiated an agreement where American banks would pay big loans to Germans to pay off reparations payments
      • Britain and France would agree to reduce the amount of those payments
  • Circular Loans
    • France would use the German payments to pay debt to the US back
  • Economic Expansion in Latin America
    • US military occupied Latin America during 1920s
    • Us investments in Latin America more than doubled between 1924-1929
      • roads and other facilities and corporations

 

Hoover and the World Crisis (721-723)

  • Herbert Hoover
    • new policy said gov would recognize any sitting government in the region without questioning the means it was obtained by
  • Hitler
    • threatens the peace of Europe with his commitment to the Aryan race and his anti-semitism
  • Manchuria
    • Japanese army takes over Manchuria from nationalist China
    • Attacked Shanghai and killed thousands of civilians

 

Isolationism and Internationalism

Depression Diplomacy (724)

  • FDR’s Bombshell
    • repudiated the orthodox views of most of the delegates and rejected any agreement on currency stabilization
  • Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act 1934
    • authorized the administration to negotiate treaties lowering tariffs by as much as 50% in return for reciprocal reductions by other nations
      • increased American exports by 40%

 

America and the Soviet Union (724)

  • Agreement Soviet Union would stop propaganda against america and protect them and US would recognize the communist regime

 

The Good Neighbor Policy (724-725)

  • Inter-American Conference 1933
    • no state has the right to intervene in the internal or external affairs of another

 

The Rise of Isolationism (725-727)

  • US couldn't stop Japanese aggression towards China - internationalism failed
  • Neutrality Acts 1936
    • established mandatory arms embargo on victim and aggressor
  • Mussolini attacks Ethiopia
    • forms treaty with Nazi party
  • Quarantine speech
    • FDR suggests aggressors should be quarantined
    • received hostile feedback, FDR withdraws

 

The Failure of Munich (727-728)

  • Munich Conference
    • Hitler meets with the leaders of France and Britain
    • Hitler agrees to expand no further than Czechoslovakia
  • The Failure of Appeasement
    • Hitler issues threats against Poland, violates Munich Conference agreements
    • Stalin signs a non-aggression pact with Hitler
  • September 1, 1939 Hitler launches attack on Poland
    • France and Britain declare war on Germany

 

From Neutrality to Intervention

Neutrality Tested (729-731)

  • Roosevelt asks congress to revise the neutrality acts so they could sell weapons to any nation engaged in war
    • Cash-and-Carry
  • Fall of France
    • Nazi troops march into Paris June 22 1940, take it over
  • Shifting Public Opinion
    • Public believe Germany posed threat to US
  • Burke-Wadsworth Act
    • inaugurated the first peacetime military draft in American history
  • American First Committee
    • opposed the Fight for Freedom Committee who wanted increased American assistance to the allies

 

The Third-Term Campaign (731-732)

  • Wendell Willkie
    • Republican nominee
    • politically inexperienced business man
    • lost to FDR

 

Neutrality Abandoned (732-733)

  • Land-lease
    • allowed government to sell, lend, and lease armaments to any nation deemed “vital to the defense of the United States”
  • Germany Invades the USSR
    • invade Soviet Union in June 1941
    • German U-Boats fire on American vessels
      • FDR says to fire on German subs on sight
  • Atlantic Charter
    • Britain and America lay down certain common principles

 

The Road to Pearl Harbor (733-734)

  • Tripartite Pact - September, 1940
    • defensive alliance between Germany and Japan
  • FDR stops flow of supplies into Japan
  • Pearl Harbor
    • 7:55 AM December 7, 1941 Japan bombs Pearl Harbor naval base in Hawaii
    • two waves an house apart
    • December 8, 1941 US Declares war on Japan
      • three days later Germany and Italy (Japan’s allies) declare war on the USCrash Course 36:
  • Gov forces workplaces to recognize unions to prevent labor strike and continue production for war
  • women were let go after the war
  • eugenics debunked
  • race riots were popular because of racism from white americans
  • 500,000 mexicans fought in war as well as many natives
  • Japanese Americans lived in internment camps during WWII
  • 1 million+ African Americans fought in the war
  • Executive Order 8802 banned discrimination in defense hiring and created the fair employment practices commission - helped blacks obtain jobs in ship yards and factories
  • WWII ended the depression

 

Crash Course 37:

  • Cold war never heated up into combat
  • at the end of the war Germany was divided into East and West
  • America sends air relief to Berlin
  • American art was important because it was a sark contrast to Soviet propaganda
  • Supreme Court said being a communist leader was a crime
  • Americans were loyal because they are scared