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Unit 14 notes
by NIHAL DHILLON - Saturday, February 27, 2016, 07:06 PM
 

Chapter 27(720-734)



  • Myth of isolation(720)

    • In reality America played an active role in world affairs

  • Replacing the League

    • Evans Hughes  secured legislation that declared the end of the war with Germany and negotiate some treaties

    • Washington Conference of 1921

      • to try to prevent the naval arms race between Japan, America and Britain

      • Hughes proposed that all 3 nation should reduce the fleets and a 10 year moratorium on the construction of large warships. This would include scraping of 2 million tons of existing ships

    • Five Power Pact of February 1922

      • established limits for

        • total naval tonnage

        • ratio of armaments

      • for every 5 tons of American and British warships

        • 3 tons for Japan

        • 1.75 for France and Italy

    • Nine Power Pact

      • continuation of the Open Door Policy

      • Four power Pact

        • US, Britain France and Japan would respect one another's pacific territories and cooperate to prevent problems.

    • Kellogg Briand Pact of 1928

      • Briand, foreign prime minister asked ctr tary of state Kellogg(who took Huges place in 1925) to be their ally in 1927

        • Kellogg proposed a multilateral treaty outlawing war(basically no one will threaten each other with war)

          • 14 nations signed it and later 48 other nations joined

  • Debts and Diplomacy

    • allied powers had $11 billion in debt

      • Charles G Dawes

        • a diplomat and bankers proposed a solution

          • America would loan a lot of money to Germany with which they could pay reparations and Britain and France would reduce the amount of payments.

            • he won a nobel prize for his efforts but his plan did not do much.

      • Circular loans(721)

        • America would give enormous amounts of money(loan) to Germany → pay reparations to France and England → who would pay America back.

          • people took this opportunity, american manufactures opened european factories and etc.

          • High Tariffs were creating a problems

            • European nations were unable to export their goods therefore unable to pay the debt

      • Economic Expansion in Latin America

        • America invested a lot in Latin America building factories and roads. So the people would not revolt

        • They also lent money to Latin America just as they did to Europe and just like Europe Latin America was having a hard time paying back money due to the tariffs

  • Hoover and the World Crisis

    • the financial crisis began in 1929 and worsened by 1931 creating economic distress

    • Hoover lacked the tools to deal with the problem

    • Hoover did try to repair some of the problems in Latin America

      • Ten week Goodwill tour before his inauguration

        • did not want to be involved in international affairs and withdrew troops from Haiti

      • His Policy

        • America would grant diplomatic recognition to any sitting government in the region

        • refused to permit American intervention

      • Hoover did not want to cancel war debts

    • Italy(722)

      • Benito Mussolini’s Fascist Party had been in control since 1920

      • by 1930, its was growing more nationalistic and militaristic

    • Asia

      • Chiang Kai Shek's nationalist China

        • expanding government power in Manchuria

        • Manchuria was a part of China by the Japanese had economic control over it since 1905

        • Japan invaded northern Manchuria(723)

        • and then they attacked the city of Shanghai

        • Hoover left office early

  • Isolationism and Internationalism

    • Depression Diplomacy(724)

      • Roosevelt thought that money should be backed up by gold

        • Bombshell

          • message

            • at the conference delegates were trying to figure out how to stabilize the currency and roosevelt just rejected it

      • April 1994, bill

        • forbid banks to make loans to any nation in default of its debt

          • so the circular system would stop

            • war debt payments stopped expect from Finland

      • Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act of 1934

        • authorizing the administration to negotiate treaties that would lower tariffs as much as 50 % in return of reciprocal reductions by other nations

        • didn’t do much for America

    • America and the  Soviet Union

      • they did not trust each other

        • America saw Russia as a place they could trade with

        • Russia wanted America's help with Japan expanding

        • Russia offered to keep AMerican Citizens in Russia safe if they helped but America didn’t response and the relationship was bad as they were viewing each other with mistrust

    • The Good Neighbor policy

      • diplomatic and economic relations with Latin America

    • The Inter-American Conference

      • In Montevideo, December 1933, secretary of state Hull signed

        • “No state has the right to intervene in the internal or external affairs of another”

        • Roosevelt respected this(725)

          • meaning instead of military force they would use economic force

    • The Rise of Isolationism   

      • Arms control conference in geneva

        • proposal for reduction

        • the conference was a failure because nations withdrew from it

          • a lot of people supported isolationism

          • Wilsonian internationalist

          • populist minded politicians

        • Roosevelt want a treaty that would make America a member of the world court, which would expand America’s symbolic interactionism and not the responsibilities

          • there was isolationist opposition

            • father Charles Coughlin broadcasted

              • there were newspapers and etc

              • the treaty was defeated

      • Mussolini seemed to be planning to  invade Africa to expand their colonies

      • Neutrality Act of 1936 and 1937

        • 1935

          • arms embargo between victim and aggressor

          • American citizens were warned that if they traveled on ships it was at their own risk

        • The 1936 rewed the 1935

        • 1937

          • Cash and Carry policy

            • could only purchase nonmilitary goods, had to pay with cash and carry them yourself

      • When the League of Nations protested after the attack on Ethiopia, Italy resigned and joined the Axis powers(Germany)

      • Falangists (727)

      • Japan and china

        • 1937, 5 northern provinces of China were attacked

          • Roosevelt thought that Japan should not go unpunished for the aggression

            • Quarantine Speech

              • Public was hostile and roosevelt drew back(not breaking diplomatic relationship)

        • Japan sank the US gunboat Panay

          • the attack was in broad daylight

          • they said that it was an accident and the US considered their apology

  • The Failure of Munich

    • Germany rearmed an area that was in France’s control since WWI and it was very clear that Hitler was trying to expand German power

      • forces marched into Austria and he wanted Czechoslovakia

    • Munich Conference

      • Hitler met with France and Britain

        • they would agree on Hitler's Demand of Czechoslovakia if he promised to not expand any further

    • Failure of appeasement

      • Hitler started to occupy other parts of Czechoslovakia which mean he went against the Munich conference

      • he started to look at Poland

    • Stalin signed a Nonaggression Pact with Germany(728)

      • Soviet Union did not want war and Germany did not want to have a two front war

        • September first 1939, Hitler launched a full scale attack on Poland and two days later Britain and France declared war

  • Neutrality tested(729)

    • Roosevelt believed that America should atleast have armaments available to the Allied powers

      • he wanted the arms embargo lifted which was a part of the neutrality act

        • so the cash and carry can now be used for weapons or military goods(730)

      • war

      • Denmark, Norway, Netherlands and Belgium

      • France fell as a result of italy from the South and Germany from the North

        • Roosevelt send aid to the allied powers and asked congress for an extra 1 billion

        • Britain Asked for ships and etc.

          • many argued that it was worthless because of the position Britain was in but Roosevelt still helped Britain out

            • trading 50 American Destroyers would let Americans build bases in England

            • but Britain would just buy airplanes instead

              • Burke Wadsworth Act(731)

                • First peacetime military draft

            • Journalist William Allen White, Committee to defend America

              • increased assistance to allied power but no actual intervention

            • Some wanted war

              • Fight for freedom Committee

            • America First Committee

              • Charles Lindberg

              • General HUgh Johnson

              • Senator

                • Gerald Nye

                • Burton Wheeler

  • The Third Term Campaign(732)

    • Roosevelt from the Democrats

    • Henry Luce Time magazine

    • An experienced businessman, Wendell Willkie for the republicans

    • Roosevelt Won

  • Nuertaily Abandoned

    • lend-lease

      • America could lend and lease weapons to nations who would be “vital to the defence of the United States”

    • Getting things across was a problem Germany would destroy things.

    • The US would send American ships

    • Germany invades the USSR in June 1941

      • Roosevelt insisted that the lend and lease would be extended to USSR

      • In September the German U Boat fired on the American destroyer Greer

        • Roosevelt orders to fire at German boats on sight(733)

        • In october Nazi submarines Hit two American Destroyers sinking one of them(Ruben James)

        • US launches a Naval war against Germany

      • Atlantic Charter

        • Britain and US

          • they had common principles and wanted to destroy the Nazi for a better world

    • A road to Pearl Harbor

      • Tripartite pact 1940

        • a loose defensive alliance with Italy and Germany(in reality they did not have a strong relation, the european a war and Japan were separate)

      • US established a complete trade embargo cutting of Japan's off of its essential supplies

      • Sunday December 7,1941

        • Japanese attacked the Naval base at Pearl Harbor

      • The Axis powers(Japan, Italy and Germany) declared war (734)








Crash Course 36


  • strengthen the government

    • more government intervention

      • communions and administrations

      • fixed wages and rent

      • took over companies

      • fixed prices and production quote

      • employment was good

    • 1944

      • production

        • airplane every five minutes and a ship every day

        • gross national product, 91 to 214 billion

      • Federal income taxes

      • gov contracts

      • labor

        • unions

          • workers ⅓ were women

          • also served in the army

          • had to stop working when the war ended, it was temporary

      • ideological war

        • freedom of speech

        • freedom of worship

        • freedom from want

        • freedom from fear

      • Gi Bill of rights

        • service men's readjustment act

          • mortgage and education

      • free enterprise

        • consumerism

      • Henry Luce

        • The American century

      • Americanism

        • a matter of mind and heart

        • started debunking science

      • only 21 thousand of jewish people were allowed to come to America

      • immigration from Mexico

        • 500,000 Mexican served

        • alwell as Indians

      • Japanese Americans

        • expelled from the west coast

          • 70 % lived in California

      • Africans American

        • continuing the great migration

          • north and west

          • many served in the army

          • civil rights movement

            • Philip Randolph

              • executive order 8802

                • banned discrimination and defence hiring

                • fair employment practices commission

      • FDR

        • peaceful post war world

      • 1944

        • economic dominance as the dollar backed by by gold

        • United nation

          • ensure peace, US is one of the 5 permanent

      • WWII

        • ended the great depression

        • liberalism

        • opportunities for diversity

        • transformed freedom








Crash Course 37


  • Cold War

    • USSR - pro communist government

      • communist buffer

    • US - stronger, had atomic weapons

      • containment

        • stay where it is but should not spread

    • 1945-1990

    • Arms race

    • Harry Truman

      • Doctrine

        • support freedom loving people from communist threat

      • send money to Greece and Turkey

      • The national security council

      • military build up and arms race

      • Marshall plan

        • economic chaos for winter

        • USaid

          • new deal for europe

      • Japan

        • General Douglas MaCarthur

          • adopt constitution

          • letting women vote

          • Us becomes Japan's defence force

        • Berlin Airlift

          • after Stalin's blockade

      • 1950

        • west vs east

        • Capitalist or communist

      • The US gov

        • ethnic struggle

        • Walter Lippman

          • US might be getting on the wrong side

        • Hollywood

          • anti communist movies

          • American Expressionism

          • Congress, added under god as a resistance to communism

        • Nuclear war

          • Klaus Fuchs

            • leaked information to the Soviets

            • alwell as Julius Rosenberg

          • 1951

            • Dennis v. US

            • changed the idea of freedom