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Malcolm's Unit 14 Notes
by Malcolm Scannell - Saturday, February 27, 2016, 07:08 PM
 

Malcolm Scannell

Mr. Kann

AP U.S. History, Period 1

8 February 2016

Unit 13 Notes

American History Textbook:

  • The Diplomacy of the New Era

    • While many perceived Amer. to be isolationist, they assumed a more involved role regarding int’l. conflicts (720)

      • Especially in the 1920’s

      • Ex., the Washington Conference of 1921

        • Several nations met + agreed to reduce military sizes

          • Avoid sim. situation as WWI

          • Est. the 5-Power Pact

            • Between US, Brit., Japan, France + Italy

            • Could only build naval forces of a certain mass and ratio to the other countries

              • US + Brit.: 5 tons of ship, Japan: 3 tons, France + Italy: 1.75 tons

          • Also est. the Nine-Power Pact

            • Cont. the “Open Door” policy in China

    • Generally work towards attaining + sustaining peace

      • Kellogg Briand Pact

        • Essentially countries agree to not go to war

          • Yet, there was no enforcement agency of it

      • To help support efforts of diplomacy, Charles G. Dawes negotiated a plan w/ Amer. banks to loan $ to Germany

        • Would help them pay off of war reparations

          • The plan was for the  $ to circle through Europe and make its way back to Amer. (721)

            • Dubbed as the “circular loans”

              • Yet, this cycle ended w/ the stock market crash of 1929

                • Precedes GD, etc.

  • Hoover became pres. just before the global financial crisis

    • Started w. crash in ‘29 + worsened by ‘31

      • He was ill suited for helping Amer. + dealing w/ int’l. relationships

        • While dealing w/ Latin Amer., Hoover did not enforce the Roosevelt Corollary

    • Admin. did little help in Euro. as well (722)

      • Only further worsened lingering Euro tensions + spurred nationalism

        • Hitler in Germany, sought out Lebensraum

          • “Living space” for the Aryan Race, expansion

          • Represented a clear threat for Euro. + the world

        • Plus the Japanese invasion of Manchuria fueled nationalism

          • In response, US issues the Stimson Doctrine

            • US refused to recognize Japanese expansion/the nation’s territorial gains (723)

  • Isolationism and Internationalism

    • 1933, pres. FDR attends the World Economic Conference in London (724)

      • FDR shocked countries by stating that he does not support the Gold Standard for the US Dollar

        • He wanted it to fall in order to spur trade + allow Amer. goods to compete in int’l. markets

      • Later in ‘34, Roosevelt approved the Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act

        • US had the ability to lower tariffs on foreign countries that did the same to them

          • Up to 50%, w/ the hopes of helping to increase trade

      • Also in 1933, the US officially recognizes the Soviet Union

        • Wanted the USSR to contain Japan’s growing power + expansion

          • This shows how Amer. was involved in int’l. disputes, yet still sustained isolation values

        • In turn, Soviets would stop propaganda in the US

      • FDR’s approach to Amer’s. relations w/ Latin American Countries was dubbed as the “Good Neighbor Policy”

        • Wanted to improve relations w/ Latin America

          • This was done w/ the overarching goal of uniting the Western Hemisphere

        • Took the focus away from using the US’s military as leverage, and rather their new econ. relationship (725)

      • Sig. figure of isolationism in Senator Gerald Nye, from ND

        • Him + others believed that the only reason that the US became involved in WWI was to make a profit

          • Many believed this as fact

      • Neutrality Acts were est. + cont. from 1935-1938

        • Stated that the US could not sell weapons to warring countries

          • Policy supported isolation

          • This was held regardless of which country they were, even if they were the victims or aggressors

            • However, non-military goods could be sold via a “cash and carry” policy

          • Furthermore, they said that US citizens could not travel on ships from warring nations

            • 1935, Italy invades Ethiopia

              • Neutrality Acts were still in effect

                • US would not aid Ethiopia

              • This event spurred widespread fear that a second global war was coming

              • Nobody wanted another WW

                • Countries would not interfere with conquests in fear of starting one

              • Led by Mussolini, who became part of the axis powers

                • Germany, Italy + Japan

      • Later in the 1930’s, FDR issued the infamous “Quarantine” speech (727)

        • Essentially, it was his verbal response to Japanese aggression in their expansion

          • W/in the speech, he encouraged countries to embargo (setup econ. sanctions against) Japan

      • Leading into the Munich Conference, Germany had invaded areas of Czechoslovakia

        • An evident violation of the Treaty of Versailles

          • Countries feared a 2nd WW even more

            • To stop this, they practiced the policy of appeasement, which was giving into demands

        • At Munich, both France + Brit. allowed Hitler to keep the parts of Czechoslovakia he had already invaded

          • Neville Chamberlain, Brit. supporter of appeasement stated that it would provide “peace in our time”

            • Thought they avoided war

              • Yet of course, this miraculously failed, and Hitler only cont. to expand Germany (728)

                • Sept. 1, 1939, WWII officially began w/ the invasion of Poland

  • From Neutrality to Intervention

    • Immediately following Hitler’s invasion of Poland, the US passed the Neutrality Act of 1939 (729)

      • The act was originally designed to help France + Brit.

        • Went against old acts b/c US could now sell weapons + supplies weapons directly to warring countries

          • Made possible by the “Cash and Carry” policy (730)

            • Countries must pay in cash and receive the goods themselves, hence the name

            • By June of 1940, many countries, including France, had already fallen to the Nazis

              • Utilized the leathley efficient Blitzkrieg tactic

    • On the homefront however, many groups were formed and opinions swayed by the emerging effects of WWII

      • In Sept., 1940, Cong. passed the Burke-Wadsworth Act, which issued the first peacetime draft in Amer. history (731)

        • Very un-isolationist

          • Yet many people in Amer. still favored the policy

            • Amer. 1st Committee, was a powerful new lobby which attracted the membership of many esteemed pol. figures in the US

              • Essentially, they did not want to be involved w/ WWII on any level

        • 1940, FDR ran for (and won) his third term as president (732)

          • Opponent was Wendell Willkie, who lost in a landslide

          • During this term, Amer. passed the Lend-Lease Act in 1941

            • Increases the US’ involvement in WWI by a drastic measure

              • While they still have yet to officially declare war, they could lend supplies to countries that the pres. deemed in need of help

            • Puts less emphasis on the “Cash-Carry” policy by allowing countries to pick up goods in Iceland

      • The Nazi-Soviet Pact of peace was shattered in 1941 when Germany decided to invade the USSR

        • Quickly drove deep w/in Russian territory

        • At this time, FDR persuaded Cong. to extend the power of the Lend-Lease Act to aiding the Soviet Union

    • In homefront, US est. the Atlantic Charter in Aug., 1941 (733)

      • Became the 1st wartime meeting between Brit. + Amer. (FDR + Churchill)

        • Basically outlined their goals for the “Post-WWII” world

          • Include self determination, lower trading barriers + economic cooperation, etc.

    • Meanwhile in Japan, they formed a loose alliance w/ Germany + Italy w/ the Tripartite Pact

      • Allied in values, yet separate geographically, pretty much in 2 diff. wars

      • US froze Japan’s assets + instituted an embargo in response to aggression

        • Especially on oil + rubber, which were 2 valuable resources that they needed for their wartime efforts

          • Later on Dec. 7, 1941, Japan bombed US’ port in Pearl harbor (734)

            • US responded by immediately declaring war on Japan, and Germany later declared it on the US

              • Officially entered WWII

Crash Course Videos:

1.) Video 36: World War II Part 1

  • Amer. views on foreign policy were shaped/scarred by the G.D. + WWI

    • Amer. emerged from the global conflict very much stronger, yet really no other nations improved

      • League of Nations + Treaty of Versailles did little to promote change

        • US est. L.o.N., yet did not join

    • Period from 1920-entry into WWII is characterized by isolationism

      • However, the nation’s actions clearly show otherwise

        • Good Neighbor Policy

      • Yet, US was isolationist in an econ. sense

        • Usually neutral when it came to involvement w/ Euro. affairs

    • 1940’s, Cong. created the 1st Peacetime draft

      • Seen as the 2nd step towards involvement

        • The 1st being supplying allies w/ arms

      • Lend-Lease Act, US lent other countries arms + weapons if they promised to somehow pay Amer. back

  • 1941, attack on Pearl Harbor officially brought US into the war

    • Attacked by Japanese, declared war soon after + Germany on the US

    • Bataan, Philippines; massive amounts of Amer. + Philo. soldiers surrender

      • Largest by Amer. in hist., 78,000

        • War in the Pacific went back + forth between US + Japan

      • US strategy of “Island Hopping” worked, but was inefficient

        • Took over Japanese.-Occupied islands w/ a domino-like effect

    • US fighting the war in Europe actually started in N. Africa

      • Planned to invade up from Italy

        • Worked way up through 1943, and joined w/ Canada + France to attack Germany on Normandy beach in 1944

          • Dubbed as “D-Day”, the beginning of the end for the Nazis

      • However, Russians did most of the Euro. fighting + dying, and also were the ones who captured Berlin

        • Euro. war ended in May, 1945, Pacific in Aug.

    • Ended w/ atomic bombs, built by the Manhattan Project

      • Most destructive weapons ever

        • Killed hundreds of thousands

          • Hot topic of how ethical/necessary their use was

      • WWII in general saw a time of very efficient developments in bombing

        • Especially aerial bombardment

2.) Video 37: World War II Part 2 - The Homefront

  • WWII brought about many changes in Amer.

    • Some were ideological changes, cont. from the New Deal

    • Strengthened the US Government

      • Extended power of New Deal efforts

        • Unemployment: 14% in 1940, 2% in 1943

          • Production was “on steroids”

            • All of this was due to a massive increase in Government spending, investing in the nation

      • Much of the war was paid for with taxes

        • Developed their extents, more people paid them

          • Comps. + corps as well

            • All of this production industrialized the nation even more, especially in urban areas

              • A huge change came with the fact that many factory workers were now women

                • Made up ⅓ of workforce

        • Many were fired following the end of the war

    • During the war, a Government agency incentivized an expansion of the workforce and econ.

      • FDR also called for a new bill of rights to expand Fed. power

        • Failed, but passed the GI Bill of Rights

          • Worked to stop the unemployment for returning veterans

    • Ideological views developed shaped Amer. choices

      • Racism=Germany, therefore Amer. must=hope + acceptance

        • Yet, Amer. was still very much biased.

          • Exec. Order 9066, all persons of Japanese descent are expelled from the West Coast

            • Seen as a security threat

            • Sent to internment camps, where one man fought to not go and lost in the supreme court

        • African Americans had an enormous role in US during WWII

          • Marked the beginning of the civil rights movement

            • Led by A. Philip Randolph, made major bounds towards social justice

      • After the war, the US tried to enforce capitalism upon the world, and became the global financial leader

        • The dollar was extremely strong

          • US also helped to est. the United Nations

    • Overall, WWII ended the GD, reshaped the Amer. econ., extended the original goals of the New Deal + opened opportunities for African Americans