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U14 Notes
by TARA JONES - Saturday, February 27, 2016, 08:19 PM
 

pg 720

Replacing the League

  • Harding admin. 1921 US membership in League of Nations was not a possibility

    • Sec of State Charles Hughes’ legislation from Congress 1921 declared end of war with Germany

      • Negotiated peace treaties with Central Powers

        • US policymakers believed we’d get benefits of Versailles treaty but none of the downsides

        • Hughes wanted something to replace the League

          • Something to guarantee peace

          • Hughes built safeguards against future wars

            • Most important was Washington Conf. 1921

              • Attempted to prevent naval armaments race between US, Brit and Japan

              • Plan to dramatically reduce fleets in all three nations

              • Restriction on construction of warships and shipping

              • Conference agreed to most terms

              • Five power pact of 1922 created

              • Then Nine power pact confirmed continuation of Open Door policy in China

              • Four power pact promised each nation would respect one another’s pacific territories

    • Kellogg-Briand Pact 1928

      • Concluded US efforts to protect peace w/out accepting international duties

      • French foreign min. asked US to join an alliance against Germany

        • Sec of State Frank Kellogg proposed treaty outlawing war as an instrument of national policy

      • 14 nations signed

        • 48 others joined after

      • Contained no way of enforcement

Debts and Diplomacy

  • Admin. wanted to make sure overseas trade had no obstacles

    • Preventing war was first step

    • Financial Arrangements the second

      • US most concerned about Europe

        • US relied on their econ. heavily

        • Eur. suffering after WW1, much debt

          • Allied powers owed US for loans

            • Republican admin. would not forgive

          • Germany owed reparations

pg 721

    • US came up with solution: Dawes Plan/Circular Loans

      • 1924 Charles Dawes, US banker, negotiated agreement

        • US banks would give enormous loans to Germans

        • Brit and France would agree to reduce the amounts of those payments

      • Did little to solve problem

      • Caused growing US economic presence in Germany

        • Became more than economic

        • US car companies opening factories in Eur.

        • Other comps opening forming subsidies there

        • US becoming reliant on unstable Euro economies

      • Circular because US would give to Germany who would pay Brit and France who would pay US

      • High tariffs causing problems

        • Caused by Republican congress

        • Europe unable to export goods to US

          • Hard to earn money to send to US

  • Fewer reservations for Latin Amer.

    • Military forces in many countries

    • Built facilities there

Hoover and the World Crisis

  • Diplomatic challenges

    • World Financial crisis 1929 intensified 1931

      • Created dangerous nationalism

        • Threatened international agreements

    • Depression

      • toppling political leaders replacing them with governments who valued expansion as a solution

  • Latin America

    • Hoover trying to repair actions of previous politicians

      • 10 week goodwill tour

      • Abstained from intervening in internal affairs of nearby countries

      • Pulled troops from Haiti

    • New policy: US would grant diplomatic recognition to any gov. without questioning the way it came to power

      • Repudiated the Roose. corollary and Monroe Doct. when several Latin countries didn’t pay debts to US 1931

  • Europe

    • US had little success in promoting economic stability

      • Hoover’s proposed plan to stop debts was not popular or effective

pg 722

    • Many appealed to pres. to cancel all war debts to US

      • Refused, several Euro nations went into default

  • New governments coming to power in Europe

    • Benito Mussolini's fascist party in power of Italy

      • 1930s growing nationalistic and militaristic

      • Wanted to make empire

    • National Socialist/ Nazi party growing in Germany

      • Weimar republic lost all support

        • Discredited by inflation

      • Adolf Hitler, leader, growing in support

        • Lost 1932 Election for chancellor

        • Came to power less than 1 year later

        • Belief in racial superiority in Aryan race and his commitment to providing Lebensraum (living space) for the race and anti semitism and militarism

        • Crisis in Asia

          • Japanese concerned about rising power of Soviet Union and Chiang Kai-Shek’s China

            • Kai-Shek targeted Manchuria, was technically part of China but Japanese had been using it

              • Moderate gov. of Japan failed to stop Kai-Shek, citizens held a coup (overthrow of the state) 1931

pg 723

  • Weeks later Japanese invaded Manchuria

  •  US had few options

    • Sec of state Henry Stimson hoped Japanese moderates would stop invasion and retake Japan

    • Militarists stayed in command

    • Stimson issued useless warnings to try to sway Japanese

    • Hoover forbade him from joining League of nations economic sanctions against Japan

    • Stimson’s only ability was to refuse diplomatic status to Manchuria as part of Japan

    • Japan furthered aggression by attacking Chang Hai and killing many

    • US choice:

    • Could adopt form of internationalism and enter an alliance

    • Or could resort to nationalism and rely on their own resources

    • Experimented with both under Roose.

pg 724

Depression Diplomacy

  • Hoover believed by restoring gold standard and addressing war debts US economy could recover

  • Roosevelt took office

    • Agreed to participate in World Economic Conference 1933

      • Discussed values of different country’s currencies in comparison to one another

      • Had already decided to let gold standard fall so other country’s currencies could buy more things from US

      • R released bombshell message refused orthodox views of gold standard, US would not have to make an agreement with other countries

      • Conference did not meet agreement

        • Not until 1936 did another conference like this take place

    • Roose. backed out of Hoover’s agreements on war debts

      • Let issue die

        • Declined to negotiate at London Conference

        • 1934 Forbade US banks from making loans to nations who had not paid debts to US

      • War debt payments stopped

    • Active interest in making sure US comp.s could sell abroad

      • Approved Reciprocal Trade Agreement act 1934

        • Allowed admin. to negotiate treaties lowering tariffs by up to 50% in return for the same reductions from other countries

        • Sec. of State Cordell Hull negotiated many treaties with many countries

        • Agreements only allowed products into US that would not compete with US manufactured products

        • Imports into US lagging/steady

          • Other countries not receiving US currency to pay off debts

America and the Soviet Union

  • US hopes of expanding foreign trade made US befriend Soviet Union

    • Had for a long time mistrusted each other after Soviet Revolution

      • US gov had not officially recognised Soviet regime

    • Sov. Union was possible source of trade so US made nice

      • US still disagreed with Communism

    • Russians wanted US help in containing power in Japan so they would not expand into Russia

      • Soviet prime minister reached agreement with US officials

        • Russia would stop propaganda efforts in US and protect Amer.s in Russia

        • In return the US would recognise the Communist regime

    • US trade did not do well in Russia

      • US was not helping with Japanese

      • Soviet U and US mistrusted each other again

The Good Neighbor Policy

  • US efforts to enhance diplomatic relations with Latin Amer. through Good Neighbor Pol.

    • Important target in US trade

      • Increased US exports and imports over past years

    • New American attitude towards intervention in Latin America

      • Hoover admin. had taken military out of Latin Amer

      • Roose went further

        • Inter American Conf. 1933

          • Hull signed document stating no nation had right to intervene on internal/external affairs of others

pg 725

  • Roose. respected this

    • Still sought to have influence on Latin Amer.

    • Used Economic force to do this instead of military force

      • Eased tensions between US and Latin Amer.

Rise of Isolationism

  • End of any hope for international peace through treaties and disarmament

    • Arms Control Conference met since 1932

      • 1933 Roose. sent proposal for arms reductions

      • Other countries debated and ultimately disagreed

      • Eventually Hitler and Mussolini withdrew from talks

      • Conference failed

    • Japan withdrew from London Naval conference 1935

      • Trying to create agreements on limitations of naval power

  • Most Americans supported isolationism

    • People who once supported League of Nations now did not because it couldn’t stop Japanese war in Manchuria

    • Internationalism had failed

      • Many believed it was powerful business people who had tricked US into getting involved with WW1

      • Nye investigations found Companies had jacked up prices post WW1and did not pay taxes

      • Was thought that bankers pressured Wilson to get involved with WW1 to protect their loans abroad

      • Contributed to Roose. aligning with isolationists

    • Roose. still wanted some role in world peace

      • 1935 asked Senate to make treaty making US part of the world court

        • Would have made US seem more aligned with internationalism w/out the responsibilities of actually being internationalist

        • Treaty defeated by isolationist momentum in US population

    • Isolationism grew stronger

      • Though in summer 1935 US learned Mussolini's plan to invade Ethiopia in hopes of acquiring land in Africa

        • US legislatures planning documents to keep US out of the conflict

        • Neutrality Act 1935 created to do this

          • Acts of 1936 and 37

          • Tried to prevent a repeat of what happened with WW1

          • Said we couldn’t sell arms to nations at war

          • Allowed Pres. to warn citizens to travel to warring nations at their own risk

            • We would have no reason to break neutrality

            • New Neutrality Act 1937

              • Est. Cash and carry policy

                • Both sides of any war could purchase only non military items from US in cash and had to carry them on their own vessels

              • 1935 Italy invaded Ethiopia

                • League of Nations protested

                  • Italy left League

                  • Formed alliance with Nazi Germany (Axis Powers)

                • Americans wanted to stay isolated

                  • 1936-37 Civil War in Spain

                  • Falangists a group like fascists revolted against Republican gov. in Spain

pg 727

    •  Axis powers supported General Franco

    • Leader of falangists 1937

    • Some individuals went into Spain to support Republican gov. and fight

    • Roose. tried to challenge ideas of Isolationists

    • Situation in Asia

    • Japan against China after invasion of Manch.

    • Tokyo launched assault on 5 northern provinces of China

    • Roose. wanted to punish Japanese/ Help Chinese

    • Spoke publicly on dangers Japanese proposed to world peace

    • Was possibly considering break in relations with Japan

    • Hostile response to this from populists

  • 1937, Japan attacked US boat in China Panay

  • Clearly deliberate

  • Japan claimed it accidental

The Failure of Munich

  • Hitler wanted to expand German power 1936

    • Moved German army into Rhineland, violated Versailles treaty and rearmed French region

    • 1938 Nazis went to Austria and Hitler claimed union between Aust. and Germ.

      • Hitler now occupied 3 sides of Czechoslovakia which he wanted to obtain for Germans to have more room

        • 1938 Demanded Czech. give part of their country to Germany

        • Czech wanted to fight but wanted support from other Euro nations

          • Received none

          • Most Euro. nations did not want another war

        • US becoming worried

          • War of the Worlds Radio Cast

    • Hitler met with France and Brit. and Munich to resolve crisis

      • Brit. and France agreed to let Hitler have the one part he wanted if he agreed not to expand further

      • Hitler agreed

      • Munich Accords, Appeasement

        • Identified with Chamberlain, prime min. of Brit.

        • Failed policy  

      •  March ‘39 Hitler took over rest of Czech.

        • Issued threats against Poland

          • Brit. and France said they would fight for Poland

          • Tried to get Russia to help in this

          • Stalin had decided he could not trust the west

pg 728

  • Signed non- Aggression pact with Hitler

    • Kept Germans from two front war

  • Hitler tried scare tactics on Poland to avoid invading

    • Failed

    • Staged an incident on the border allowing him to claim Germany had been attacked

    • 1939 Invasion of Poland

    • Brit. and France declared war on Germ.

pg 729

Neutrality Tested

  • Pres. and most of pop. favored Allied powers

    • Pres. believed US should give them armaments

      • 1939 Roose. asked for revision of Neutrality Act, wanted Arms Embargo lifted

      • Isolationists forced him to accept weaker version than he wanted

        • Maintained prohibition on US ships entering war zones

pg 730

    • Permitted selling Arms to French and Brit. with Cash and Carry terms

  • Hitler stopped expanding after Poland

    • Phony war

    • Only fighting was between Russia and neighbors

      • Took over Latvia, Estonia and Lithuania

      • Later Finland

    • US posed ineffective embargo on shipments to Russia

    • 1940 Soviet advance/takeover was complete

  • Germany launched invasion in the west

    • First Denmark and Norway, then Neth. and Belgium, then France

    • Allied were ineffective in stopping Nazi Blitzkrieg

    • Italy brought into war

      • Invaded France from South while Germany did from North

    • France defeated

      • New Collaborationist, French cooperating with Germans, regime established in Vichy

      • Only British now stood against Axis

        • British fought in Dunkirk, France

    • Roose had already been increasing in helping Allied powers

      • Preparing for invasion of US

        • Asked Congress for an additional 1 billion for this

      • Winston Churchill sent request to US for resources, first of many

        • Many US officials felt Brit. was already in a bad position, too far gone

        • Pres. gave Churchill his requests

          • Ignored Cash and Carry provision

          • Gave ships to England in exchange for the right to build Brit. military bases on Brit. territory  

      • Because of major shift in popular opinion

        • Before, most believed German victory would not affect US

        • When France was defeated, belief that Germany posed direct threat to the US

        • Congress now more willing to expand aid to Allies

pg 731

    • Enacted Burke-Wadsworth Act, peacetime military draft

  • Isolation not dead

    • Debate 1940 between interventionists and those insisting on neutrality

    • William Allen White, chairman of committee to protect America

      • Opposed intervention, was for sending aid

    • Fight for Freedom Committee

      • Those who wanted immediate declaration of war

    • America First Committee

      • Opposed them

      • Attracted Leaders

      • Led by Gen. Robert E Wood

      • Was supported by papers, and much of Republican parties as well as nazi sympathizers and anti semites

The Third Term Campaign

  • Politics 1940 revolved around Roose.s intentions

pg 732

    • Would he run for third term? Was a coy man

    • Made it hard for a rival democrat to run

    • Said he would accept a draft for his party

      • Renominated

      • Chose Agri. Sec. Henry Wallace

        • Considered too liberal  

  • Republicans nominated Wendell Willkie

    • Charismatic businessman

    • Took similar position to Roose.

      • Had to outmatch him in personality and instill fear in Roose as a third term pres.

    • Was supported, but ultimately lost to Roose.

Neutrality Abandoned

  • Roose making changes in US role in war

    • Claimed to be staying in same role, sending aid not men

    • Aid taking new forms

      • Brit. was going bankrupt

        • Could not meet Cash aspect of Cash and Carry policy

      • New system called Lend Lease

        • Allowed gov to lend or lease arms to any nation deemed vital to US

        • Isolationists disliked

          • Claimed it was a device to tie US to Allied powers

        • Congress passed

      • Brit could not meet Carry aspect of Cash and Carry

        • Shipping lanes in Atlantic had become dangerous

        • Brit was losing ships

      • Stimson argued US should sail arms to England

      • Roose. decided to use concept of Hemispheric defense

        • US navy would defend transport ships in the West Atlantic

        • 1941 These ships went as far east as Iceland

          • Escorting merchant ships

          • Radioing info. about location of Nazi ships

        • Germany did little to challenge at first

          • Events in Europe changed their position

            • Germany invaded Russia

            • Soviets did not surrender

            • US Congress gave them arms under lend lease program

              • Lead to full on alliance between US and Stalin

        • Nazi submarines began to attack US ships

          • 1941 U boat attacked US ship radioing the U boat’s location to Brit.

            • Roose. gave US ships permission to fire on sight

          • Nazi submarines hit two US destroyers Reuben James

            • Sank one

Crash Course 36

  • Ideological changes

  • WW2 Strengthened Fed gov

    • More control than even WW1

    • Many administrations

    • Rationing of food and supplies

    • Gov. took over certain business/ industries

  • Unemployment dropped

  • US economy better

    • Many amer.s paying taxes

    • Big corporations owned much

    • Bad for south

      • No industrialization

  • Unions now being recognized

  • Women making up much of labor force

    • Many married

    • Was seen as temporary, many were let go

      • Hard on women who needed to work for income

  • Was an ideological war

    • 4 Freedoms

    • FDR called for new bill of rights

    • Passed GI Bill of rights

      • To help soldiers after war

  • Big business wanted free enterprise

    • Book, the American Century

  • Struggle against Nazism

    • Striked opposite idealism in US, equality and inclusion

    • Anti semitism still existed

    • Race riots

  • Increase in immigrants from Mexico

    • Many served in war

  • Japanese Amer.s were expelled in large numbers

    • Lived in internment camps

    • Supreme court decision

  • Blacks still segregated but fought

    • Many migrated to northern and western cities

    • Civil Rights movement

      • Phillip Randolph

      • Got Exec. order 8802

        • Helped blacks obtain jobs in manufacturing

    • Many engaged in Double V campaign

    • Army and Navy began to integrate

 

  • FDR trying to get peaceful post war world

    • 1944 Conf. established US dominance as dollar replaced pound as global currency

  • UN Established

    • US member of eternity council

  • Atlantic Charted before US joined war

    • Redefined freedom

  • Amer. Creed embodied WW2 message