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Unit 14 notes
by MINGJIE LIAN - Saturday, February 27, 2016, 08:48 PM
 

Replacing the league

  • Washington conference of 1921 (720)
    • Washington conference of 1921
      • Attempt to prevent naval armaments between America, Britain, and japan
        • Hughes proposed a plan to reduce the fleets of all three nations
        • And ten years’ moratorium on construction of large warships 
        • Conference agreed to accept most of its terms
        • Called the Five power pact of feb 1922
          • Established limits for total naval tonnage and ratio of armaments
      • Also the nine power pact
        • Continuation of the open door policy
      • Four power pact
        • US, japan, france, and Britain promised to respect one another’s pacific territory
        • Kellog-briand pact
          • Washington conf wanted to protect the peace
          • Kellog-briand ended it
          • Kellog proposed a multilateral treaty outlawing war as an instrument of national policy
          • 14 nations signed the agreement in paris
          • Circular loans (721)
            • 1924 Charles g. dawes negotiated an agreement under which American banks would provide enormous loans to the germans
            • In return, Britain and france agree to reduce the amount of those payments.
            • Dawes won the nobel peace prize
              • Responsible for a growing American economic presence in Germany
                • Source of a troubling circular pattern in international finance
                • Germany would use that money to pay reparations to france and England
                  • Then us those funds to repay war debts to the US
                  • Enormous debts Germany and other eurapean nations were accumulating to American banks and corporations
                  • Economic expansion in latin America
                    • US gov felt fewer reservatons about assisting the US economic expansion in latin America
                      • US military maintained presence in many countries in the region
                      • US investments in latin America more than doubled in 1924 and 1929
                        • Built roads and other facilities in the area
                        • Weaken the appeal of rev. forces in the region
                        • Increase own access to latin america’s rich resources

Hoover and the world crisis

  • S
    • World financial crisis began in 1929
      • Intensified in 1931
        • Producing a dangerous nationalism that threatened the weak international agreements
        • Depression was toppling existing political leaders
        • Replaced with powerful governments
    • Hoover lacked the tools for dealing with it
  • Hoover worked to repair damages in latin America
    • Made 10 week goodwill tour before inauguration
    • Tried to stay out of internal affairs of neighboring countries
    • Repudiated the Roosevelt corollary to the Monroe doctrine
      • Refusing to permit American intervention
      • Manchuria (722)
        • Major crisis in asia
          • Another step towards WW2
          • Japanese were concerned about the increasing strength of the Soviet union and china
            • Concerned mostly on china’s gov expanding to Manchuria
            • Manchuria: China’s land but japan maintained control since 1905
            • Japan staged a coup in 1931
            • Seizing control of foreign policy from the weakened liberals.
    • Launched invasion to Manchuria
    • Failure of american’s interwar diplomacy (723)
      • When hoover left office in 1933, It was clear that the international system that the US tried to create had collapsed
      •  Two choices
        • Adopt a more energetic form of internationalism or it could resort to nationalism
          • Next 6 years they experiented on both of these approaches
          • FDR’s “bombshell”(724)
            • Hoover argued that by resolving question of war debts and reinforcing the gold standard will the US eco. Will recover
              • Agreed to participate in the world economic conference
                • Roosevelt a famous “bombshell” message
                • Conference quickly dissolved
                • 1936: finally agreed to new negotiations
                • Reciprocal trade agreement act
                  • New admin. had an active role in improving america’s position in world trade
                    • Roosevelt approved the reciprocal trade agreement act of 1934
                      • Authorizing the admin. To negotiate treaties lowering tariffs by as much as 50 percent 
                      • By 1939 secretary of state negotiated new treaties with 21 countries
                        • Increase in American exports by 40 percent
                        • Inter American conference
                          • Enhancing relations with latin America using the good neighbor policy
                            • Latin America was one of the most important trade reciprocity
                            • 1930s the US succeeded in increasing both exports and imports of the western hemisphere
                            • Roosevelt administration used economic influence to repay debts
                              • Eased tension
                              • Did nothing to stem the growing domnation of the latin American economics
                              • Sources of isolationism  
                                • Support for isolationism started to emerge
                                  • Old Wilsonian internationalist had failed to stop Japanese aggression
                                  • Other americans were listening to the argument that powerful business interests had tricked the US into participating in WW1
                                    • Found out profiteering and tax evasion by many corporations during the war
                                      • Suggested that bankers had pressured Wilson to intervene in the war to protect loans abroad
    • 1935 roosevelt asked senate to ratify treaty to make the US a member of the world court
      • Isolationist resulted in the defeat of the treaty
      • Neutrality acts
        • The 1935 act established mandatory arms embargo against both victim and aggressor in military conflict
          • Also empowered the president to warn American citizens that they might travel on the ships on the ships of the warring nation
          • Isolationists believed protecton of neutral rights could not be the reason for the US to go to war
  • 1936 neutrality act renewed these provisions
  • In 1937 congress passed the new neutrality act
    • Established the cash and carry policy
    • Belligerents could purchase nonmilitary goods from US
      • Had to pay cash and carry the goods from there own vessel
      • Ethiopia
        • American stance of militant neutrality gained support in 1935
          • When Mussolini launched his attack on Ethiopia 
          • League of nations protested
            • Italy resigned from the organization to complete conquest
            • 2/3 opposed any actions
            • Many wanted the US to isolate themselves
    • The Falangists
      • A group much like the Italian fascists
      • Revolted in 1936 against rep. gov.
    • Hitler and Mussolini both supported general Francisco franco
      • Became the leader of the falangists
      • Quarantine speech (727)
        • Japan’s aggressive designs against china had been clear since the invasion of Manchuria
          • 1937 japan launched an assault that attacked china’s 5 northern provinces
          • In speech in Chicago in 1937, Roosevelt talked about the dangers of the Japanese aggression
            • Response to the speech was hostile
            • Roosevelt drew back
            • Munich conference
              • Sept 29 hitler met with the leader of france and great Britain at munich
                • Effort to resolve the crisis
                • French and british agreed to accept the german in Czechoslovakia
                  • Hitler promised to expand no farther
                  • Failure of “appeasement”
                    • Munich accords were the most prominent element of a policy
                      • Came to be known as “appeasement”
                      • Policy was a failure
                      • March 1939 hitler captured the rest of Czechoslovakia
                        • Violating the munich agreement
                        • Issued threats against Poland
                        • 1939 stalin and hitler signed a non aggression pact
                        • Launched invasion to Poland
                          • Britain and france declared war on Germany 2 days later
                            • WW2 started
                            • Carry and cash (729)
                              • Pres and majority of US favored Britain, france, and the other allied nations
                                • How much will US assist?
                                  • Roosevelt believed that the US should make armaments available to the allied armies
                                  • Sept 1939, asked congress for revision of the neutrality acts
                                    • Roosevelt wanted the arms embargo lifted
                                    • 1939 congress permitted belligerents to purchase arms
                                    • Fall of france (730)
                                      • 1940- Germany launched an invasion to the west
                                        • Attacking Denmark and Norway
                                        • Then Netherlands and Belgium
                                        • Then france
                                        • June 10 mussolini brought Italy into the war
                                          • Invading france from the south as hitler was attacking from the north
                                          • June 22 france fell
                                          • Shifting public opinion
                                            • Major shift in American public opinion
                                              • Before fall of france, americans believed a german victory in war would not be a threat for the US
                                              • By July most Americans believed that Germany posed a threat to the US
                                                • Congress realized this and expanded US assistance to the allies
                                                • Sept approved the burke wadsworth act
                                                  • Inaugurating the first peacetime military draft in US history
                                                  • America first committee (731)
                                                    • Opposing the fight for freedom committee was the America first committee
                                                      • Attracted some of US’s most prominent leaders
                                                        • Chairman was general Robert E wood
                                                        • Won support of many newspapers
                                                        • Support of large portion of the republican party
    • Debate between the two sides was loud and bitter
      • Summer and fall of 1940
      • Complicated by a presidential campaign
      • Wendell Willkie (732) 
        • Roosevelt straddling the center of the defense debate
          • Favoring neither extreme isolationists nor extreme interventionists
          • Rep. had few viable alternatives
            • Solution was to compete w/ the president
            • Nominated Wendell Willkie
  • Both candidate took positions little different from Roosevelt
    • Keep country out of war
    • Extend generous assistance to the allies
    • Willkie had to outmatch roosevelt’s personal magnetism to defeat him
      • Managed to evoke more public enthusiasm than any rep. candidate
    • In the end Roosevelt won
    • Lend lease
      • 1940 GB was virtually bankrupt
        • Can no longer meet the cash and carry requirements
        • President suggested a method that “would eliminate the dollar sign”
          • New system was labeled as “lend-lease”
            • Allow the Gov. to sell, lend, and lease armaments to any nation deemed “vital to the defense of the US”
            • Germany invades the USSR
              • At first Germany did little to challenge hostile American actions
                • Fall of 1941, German forces invaded the Soviet union in june
                  • Shattering the 1939 nazi-soviet pact
                  • When soviets didn’t surrender Roosevelt wanted to extend lend lease to soviets
                  • Atlantic charter (733)
                    • Series of meetings are tying the US and GB more closely together
                      • Created a joint agreement for US to join the war
                      • The president made no military commitments, but released a document called the Atlantic charter
                        • Set out certain common principles
                        • Better future for the world
                        • Final destruction of the nazi tyranny
                        • Tripartite pact
                          • Japan taking advantage of the crisis
                            • Sept. 1940, japan signed the tripartite pact
                              • Loose defensive alliance with Germany and Italy
  • In july 1941 troops moved into indo china and seized the capital of Vietnam
    • When japan ignored all of roosevelt’s warning, he froze all there assets in the US
    • Established a trade embargo
    • Limiting japan’s ability to purchase essential supplies
    • Tokyo’s decision for war
      • Several weeks tojo gov want to negotiate peace
        • 1941 Tokyo proposed a modus vivendi highly favorable to itself
          • Sent to Washington to discuss
          • Decided not to yield on the question of china
          • Hull rejected the overture
          • Decoded messages from Japanese that tells them war is imminent
          • Pearl harbor
            • Dec 7, 1941 7:55 am, wave of Japanese bombers attacked pearl harbor second wave came an hr later
              • Disastrous for the US
              • Many planes, soldiers, and boats were lost

 

Crash course 36

  • Lots of changes on how to be seen
    • Some were continuation of the new deal
    • WW2 strengthened the Feds of the US
      • War production board
      • War manpower commission
      • Office of price administration
        • Took control of the eco.
        • Massive rationing of food and supplies
        • Feds fixed wages, rent, and pricing
        • Unemployment dropped from 14 -2
        • 91billion – 214 billion dollars
          • Much was paid by taxes
          • Before ww2 only 4 mill americans paid fed income taxes
            • After 40 mill did
            • Big business got even bigger
              • Gov contracts
              • Gov spending spurred development
                • Defense spending created west coast as an industrial center
                • Seattle became shipping and aircraft manufacturing
                • Cal got 10 percent of all fed spending
                • Most workers in factories were women
                  • 1944 woman made 1/3 of the labor force
                    • Married women outnumbered single women in the workforce
                    • Gov saw this as temp
                    • When war was over most women workers let go
                    • FDR’s four freedoms
                      • Freedom of speech
                      • Freedom of worship
                      • Freedom from want
                      • Freedom from fear
                      • National resources planning board offered a plan for a peacetime economy based on full employment and expanded welfare
                      • 1944 FDR called for new bill of rights
                        • Expand governmental power
                        • Guarantee adequate income, medical care, education and housing
                        • Congress passed the GI bill of rights
                          • AKA servicemen’s readjustment act
                            • Attempt to prevent widespread unemployment for returning soldiers
                            • 5thfreedom
                              • Free interprise

Crash course 37

  • After WW2 US and USSR were the only country with powers left
    • US was a lot stronger
    • US needed a strong, free market oriented Europe
      • Goods made by US can be bought in Europe
      • Soviet worried about invasion of Germany
  • End of WW2 USSR encouraged the creation of the pro-communist government.
  • Soviet idea was to create a buffer between them and Germany
  • US looked like communism might expand
  • America responded w/ policy of containment
    • Block further expansion of soviet power
    • Expose the falsities of soviet pretensions
    • Induce retraction of the kremlin’s control and influence
    • Foster the seeds of destruction within the Soviet system
    • Containment came in Greece and turkey in 1947
      • Valuable region
        • Oil
  • Announced the Truman doctrine
    • Support freedom loving peoples against communist threats
    • Sent 400 million dollars in aid to Greece and turkey
    • Containment policy + trumen doctrine laid foundations for a military build up
    • Marshall plan was a response to economic chaos in Europe
      • Brought on by harsh winters
      • Use US aid to combat the economic instability
      • Worked
        • Western Europe was rebuilt so by 1950 production lvls and Europe was on its way to becoming a US style capitalist mass consumer society
  • Japan was also rebuilt
  • Forcing japan to adopt a new constitution
    • Women right to vote
    • Pledging that japan would foreswear war
    • Japan spent money on industry
    • Germany experiencing the first berlin crisis
      • At the end of the war Germany was divided into east and west
      • Berlin was also divided
      • 1948 stalin cut off the roads to west berlin
        • Americans responded w/ 11 month airlift of supplies
        • Eventually led to stalin lifting the blockade in 1948
          • Soviets detonated first atomic bomb 
            • NATO was established
            • Chinese rev ended in communist victory
            • By 1950 the contours of the cold war established
              • West vs east
              • Capitalist freedom vs communist totalitarianism
              •