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Unit 14 Notes
by FREDERICK GOULD - Saturday, February 27, 2016, 08:57 PM
 

Unit 14 Notes- The Global Crisis, 1921-1941


The Diplomacy of the New Era (p. 720-723)

  • Following isolationism, US not part of League of Nations, still pursue foreign policy

    • Sec. of State Charles E. Hughes ends war with Germany, other central powers

      • Essentially ignores Versailles, US charts path to avoid future wars

    • Washington Conference of 1921- Hughes calls for reduction of naval ships in US, UK, Japan- aims to stop arms race

      • Five-Power Pact- Agreement on reduction in navy size for Italy, France, US, UK, Japan

      • US also signs Nine Power Pact- continues Open Door Policy, and Four Power Pact- meant to stop further aggression

    • Kellogg Briand Pact- Makes using war as enforcement illegal

  • Main purpose of foreign policy is to open, keep overseas trade, prevent war

    • US, Europe drowning in debt, Europe devastated by war

    • Charles Dawes proposes that US give money to Germans while UK, France reduce Germany’s debt

      • Produced circular loans- US pays Germany, Germany pays UK, France, then they pay US- ineffective overall

    • Dawes’ plan establishes heavy US economic presence in Europe

      • US companies become huge share of Europe market- over-dependence

      • European domestic companies struggle due to US competition, high tariffs from US

    • US also becomes involved in Latin America- huge loans, corporation involvement

    • US involvement overseas hurt by collapse of market in 1929

  • During financial crisis, Hoover presented with problem of rising nationalist sentiment in Europe- countries become bent on expanding to help economy

    • Hoover first tries to appease Latin America- stay out of their affairs

      • Countries enter turmoil, to help Hoover agrees to recognize any sitting government, no matter how they achieve power

    • In Europe, Hoover tries to cancels/reduce debts, when he is unable to, multiple countries default on US loans- more turmoil

    • Failure of policy in Europe partially leads to rise of fascist rulers in Italy, Germany

      • Mussolini becomes more radical, Hitler rises in place of Weimar Republic

    • Hoover also faces crisis in Asia- Japan fears Chinese overreach in Manchuria

      • Coup happens in Japan to replace moderate leaders- Japan invades

      • Conquer Manchuria by 1932, US had hoped for moderate re-seizure

      • US finds itself powerless to deal with Japan as they go deeper into China

    • As Hoover leaves office, US stuck between isolationism and internationalism

Isolationism and Internationalism (p. 723-728)

  • FDR breaks with Hoover on economic policy- instead of decreasing European debt he loosens the gold standard- refuses to negotiate over currency stabilization

    • FDR also abandons debt negotiations- just lets it die- and it does

    • FDR does however, sign Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act- Gives administration power to negotiate joint tariff reductions with other nations

      • Does little in reality to help imports

  • US had been cold to Soviet Union- don’t like bolsheviks, now want trade agreement

    • Soviets agree to stop anti-US propaganda, US recognize Soviet Union as country

      • Relations would soon good bad for a variety of reasons

  • US begins “Good Neighbor” policy in Latin America, agree on trade deals

    • Successful in increasing trade, imports to US

    • Inter-American Conference- Roosevelt agrees to not intervene in the affairs of foreign states- further increasing Wilson’s policy towards Latin America

      • US instead uses economic force to exert control of Latin America

  • Roosevelt quickly ends Hoover’s hopes for agreements, disarmament, peace treaties

    • Arms conference in Geneva falls apart, Hitler and Mussolini leave

    • With world divided, US begins to pursue isolationism

      • Driven by disillusionment with foreign affairs, widespread belief that banked had tricked US into involvement in World War I

        • Investigation into banks launched, suspicions somewhat confirmed, Roosevelt backs isolationism based upon findings

      • Even modest efforts towards internationalism forcefully rejected

        • Isolationist tide help reject US joining World Court

  • Following isolationism, and fearing war in Europe, US begins designing neutrality acts

    • Neutrality Act of 1935 (renewed 1936)- establishes laws aimed at protecting neutrality, avoiding involvement through embargoes of both victim, aggressor

      • Neutrality Act of 1937- creates cash-carry policy allowing nations to purchase, transport nonmilitary goods

    • Italy conquers Ethiopia, also supports Rebel Falangist Francisco Franco in Spain

      • US still forcefully against getting involved in either conflict

    • Alarmed at events, Roosevelt urges “quarantine” of Japan due to continued aggression into China

      • Isolationism still holds strong, even through Japanese sinking of US ship

  • Hitler begins expanding- into Rhineland, then Austria- violating Versailles

    • Hitler wants part of Czechoslovakia- they will fight to keep it, but realize they can’t do it alone- but little help offered

    • Conference in Munich to settle issue- UK, France appease Germany- get assurance that Hitler will expand no further

      • Hitler violates agreement by taking over rest of Czechoslovakia

    • Hitler now threatens Poland- UK and France vow to assist Poland

      • Allies seek help from Stalin, but he signs non-aggression pact with Hitler

    • Hitler invades Poland, free from two front war- World War II begins

From Neutrality to Intervention (p. 728-734)

  • FDR keeps neutrality, but also looks to ease neutrality acts- allow armament shipping

    • Revision of neutrality acts allows for arms purchase under cash and carry

    • WWII enters “phony war” phase- only Russia is fighting- taking over neighbors

  • In 1940, Hitler begins new assault- takes Belgium, Denmark, Netherlands, strikes at France from north while Mussolini hits from south

    • Nazis take Paris, British troops barely rescued, UK only ally still fighting

    • Roosevelt increases arms shipments, prepares US for defense/war

    • At request of Churchill, FDR gives Britain enormous resources

      • Also circumvents cash and carry policy to give 50 destroyers

    • FDR’s policy benefitted from changing public opinion, feeling threatened

    • Burke-Wadsworth Act- First peacetime military draft

    • Enormous debate rises of what stance for US to take- Many call for more assistance, even intervention

      • America First Committee- Is isolationist, attracts powerful following

  • Presidential election of 1940- will have huge impact on US stance in WWII

    • Roosevelt doesn’t announce his intentions, but later accepts nomination

    • Republicans have hard time choosing platform- Roosevelt is in middle

      • Nominate businessman Wendell Willkie, adopt similar platform

    • Willkie left to try to outclass Roosevelt- which fails, FDR takes 3rd term

  • FDR continues providing aid, but increases role- commits to allies

    • Britain is bankrupt, still needs supplies- FDR settles on lend-lease policy

      • Allows britain to purchase for no more than promise to pay back

    • FDR now faces problem of transport- German submarines

      • Agrees to have US vessels transport merchant ships through western atlantic (neutral waters)- therefore increasing security

    • Germany invades USSR- FDR extends lend-lease policy, alliance to Stalin

    • Nazi submarines begin to target US ships due to US involvement

      • US responds by arming merchant ships, securing full passage across atlantic- basicly a naval war with Germany

    • US and UK conduct meetings, partially in secret to strengthen alliance

      • Atlantic Charter- Vaguely states goals of war- including “destruction the of Nazi tyranny”

  • Japan, with non-agression pact with axis, continues conquering Asia

    • Despite FDr warning, they take Indochina, Vietnam, threaten Dutch East Indies

      • Roosevelt warns them against invading DEI- they don’t respond- Roosevelt creates complete embargo, really hurts Japan (need oil)

      • Japan seems willing to negotiate, but militant takeover ends that hope

        • Fuel need is desperate, war is the only option

    • Negotiations quickly fall apart, US knows attack imminent, but don’t know where

      • Don’t expect a direct attack- more on US, ally assets in Asia

    • Pearl Harbor- Japan launches surprise attack on Hawaii naval base

      • US unprepared, had ships bunched up, immobilized

      • US loses 15 ships, 188 planes, 2000 people

      • US fleet, but not aircraft carriers, decimated in Pacific

    • US now unified for intervention- declare war on Japan on Dec. 7, 1941, then Germany and Italy- now completely in WWII

Crash Course #35- World War II Part 1


  • American Foreign policy shaped by Depression and WWI experiences

    • Americans not too eager to get involved in war, felt WWI was meaningless death

    • Launches so called Era of Isolationism for US

      • But that’s inherently untrue- Good Neighbor Policy towards Latin America made us intrusive, along with supporting dictators

      • But US is fairly uninvolved in foreign trade- Depression, tariffs

      • Congress also passes Neutrality Acts- bans arms shipments to belligerents- fascists, japanese, etc.

  • Isolationism in whole largely applied to Europe, WWII, but US was helping one side

    • FDR helps the British fight the Nazis before direct involvement

      • Cash and Carry Policy- US gives Britain stuff, Britain must bring it over

    • First peacetime draft- clear intentions to join war, along with material help

      • Lend Lease Act- Gives arms to countries who promise to repay post-war

      • US also stop trading with Japan

  • US officially enters war after Pearl Harbor- Japanese planes bomb naval base in Hawaii, decimate US Navy- US joins the war officially

    • US starts war in Pacific, Bataan Death March an early defeat, US and Filipino troops marched to POW camp, thousands die

      • But US would later decisive win battles near Australia, at Midway

    • US followed Island Hopping Strategy- capture islands, use as bases to refuel, attack Japan- Process is slow, brutal, costly

    • US later moves to Europe/Africa- after we take North Africa, set sights on Europe

      • Stalin isn’t happy with US/UK because they invade thru Sicily

      • Process is slow while Russians die, eventually US invades Germany on D-Day- “the beginning of the end for Nazis”

    • While we did some important stuff, Russians did the dirty work, lost 20mil

    • Nazis then later Japanese surrender during 1945

  • US forces Japanese to surrender through use of atomic bombs

    • Manhattan Project- Codename for project to create the bomb

    • Dropped on Nagasaki, Hiroshima- cause more deaths than all US casualties in pacific- heavily debated on whether it was necessary

      • Debated whether civilian targeting, whether japanese would surrender, intimidation to Russia, or purely ethical standards

      • Overall it is justified through the belief that it saved US lives

        • Also through the terrible brutality of bombing campaigns on civilians, how atomic bombs were little different

        • Must consider the effects of atomic bombs versus long term bombing campaigns, viewpoints of those involved




Crash Course #37- World War II Part 2


  • WWII brings about ideological changes, also affects general identity of American people

    • Governmental changes- increased federal involvement through war reform

      • Rationing, complete control of industries, fixed wages, prices, etc.

      • FDR was able to get away with it because it gave people a job

        • 2% unemployment is improvement from great depression

  • US enters period of economic growth, tons of production, GNP skyrockets

    • Done through gov. spending- increased taxes

    • Big businesses grow due to federal contracts to increase production

      • Gives most powerful the “lion’s share” of the market

    • West becomes production hub- pretty much built the west

      • Hurts the South- which lacked cities

    • Unions also grow in size, involvement

      • Gov. also helps unions to avoid disputes

      • Women’s role increases in factories, workplaces

        • Demographics of working women changes

        • Employers see it as temporary however, let them go post-war

          • Hurts women enormously post-war

  • WWII is ideological war- FDR’s freedoms- speech, worship, from want, from fear

    • FDR’s economy calls for high employment, welfare

      • Pushes for “Economic bill of rights”- essentially creates welfare state- guarantees wages, conditions, etc.

        • But that doesn’t really happen, because America

    • GI Bill of Rights- Gives college, employment to returning soldiers

    • Free Enterprise- freedom to US market- no restrictions

    • Also changing ideology- anti-nazi-like-racism- FDR preaches unification based on “heart and mind”- not race

      • Intellectuals publish books denying scientific racism

        • But that doesn’t mean there's no racism in the US

      • US accepts more Mexicans- some help fight in war

    • Japanese in US endure tragedy- Executive Order 9066- expels all Japanese from US- 110,000 sent to internment camps, fail to recieve any justice

  • War changes the role of African Americans- 1 million serve, Great Migration continues

    • Birth of Civil Rights Movement- A. Philip Randolph’s march on Washington

      • Demands series of laws, gets Executive Order 8802- bans defense discrimination, creates Fair Employment Compliance Agency

        • Helps blacks get jobs in wartime industries, helps women too

      • War also sees black empowerment become key part of liberalism

  • US takes more active role in post-war peace, world affairs

    • Leaders agree on dividing up Germany, trying nazis for war crimes

      • And also allowed for the Cold War... but whatever

    • Create World Bank to rebuild Europe- backed by the dollar

      • US becomes financial leader in capitalist world

    • Also create the UN- US involvement in security council represents active policy

Atlantic Charter- During war- declares that post-war world will be the “American Creed”- freedom, all that US jazz