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Unit 14 Notes
by KAMRUL RUHIT - Saturday, February 27, 2016, 09:25 PM
 

Kamrul Ruhit

Mr. Kann

APUSH

27 February, 2016

Unit 14


  • The Diplomacy of The New Era

    • America in a state of isolationism

      • 1920’s was a time of Great international affairs for the U.S

  • Replacing the League

    • By time of President Harding's Administration, American entry into League of Nations was unlikely

    • 1921, Evan Hughes declares WWI to an end

      • creates separate treaties

        • Similar content to Treaty of Versailles

          • none of responsibilities attached

    • Hughes wanted alternative to keep world peace

    • Washington Conference of 1921

      • Conference to discuss navy of several large nations

        • wanted to dramatically reduce fleet

          • create large warships

        • called for scrapping of 2 million tons of current ships

          • council accepted many of his terms

            • Five Power Pact

              • limits for total tonnage and ratio of armaments

                • nations received different terms

    • Conference produced Nine-Power Pact

      • kept open door policy alive

    • Four-Power Pact

      • Pacific territories respected

    • Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928 stopped era of peace

      • A french minister wanted America to ally against Germany

        • Secretary Frank Kellogg, replaced Hughes in 1925, made a treaty against war as an instrument for national policy

          • Many nations initially signed it

            • later many other joined as well

  • Debts and Diplomacy

    • Many agreed the first step to diplomacy was ensuring international American trade, with no interference

    • Europe was a point of worry

      • American prosperity depended on their economic condition

    • Europe was recovering from WWI

      • accumulated much debt

        • 11 billion in loans to the U.S

          • Republican government not willing to make any sort of deal for relief

            • Germany as well under pressure from reparations

    • 1924, Charles G Dawes, a banker, offered large loans for the Germans to pay reparations

      • British and French were also to lower reparations payments

        • Dawes received a nobel prize but his solution did little to fix the problem

    • The money would go into circulation but end up back to the U.S

    • American institutions becoming more involved in European economy

      • America feeding off of unstable European economy

        • this reliance was warned to have lead to disaster

    • Republican congress had been creating high tariffs

      • The Europeans were unable to export their goods

        • were having trouble repaying their loans

          • many ignored this fact

            • backlashed in 1931

    • America  unwilling to deal in Latin American affairs

      • had military presence in the area

        • American had done much for latin America in the 20’s

          • purpose to make the revolutionaries look bad

            • also to have access to their natural resources

    • America offering Latin America loans

      • LA unable to make money to repay loans due to High American Tariffs

  • Hoover and the World Crisis

    • Great Depression creating nationalistic view that threaten earlier agreements in international affairs

    • Depression was replacing prominent political figures with ones into expansion for a solution

      • This essentially lead Hoover and America into the war

    • Hoover worked in LA to repair American policies damage

      • went on a ten week tour through LA

    • When in office, avoided intervention in LA, and worked to pull out forces from area (Haiti)

    • As regimes continuously kept falling in La, America made new policy

      • to accept the next standing gov’t without questioning it

    • Defied Monroe Doctrine when LA countries defaulted on loans

    • Hoover’s Moratorium unsuccessful in Europe

      • U.S wanted hoover to forgive war debts

        • he refused

          • many European nations defaulted

    • Diplomacy’s ineffectiveness was troubling to some in Europe

    • Mussolini’s party was in control since 1920’s

      • was heavily growing

        • becoming nationalistic and militaristic

          • Fascist mindset

    • Nazi Party was growing

    • Weimar Republic died by inflation

    • hitler was growing in popularity as a nationalistic leader

      • hitler lost for battle as Chancellor

        • came into power a year later

          • Many of his beliefs were factors for endangering peace

    • America worried for Crisis in Asia

      • Japan scared of increased power in Soviet Russia and China

    • Chiang’s interest in Manchuria was concerning to many

      • it was chinese land but still Japan had large control over it

    • Japan created a coup in 1931

      • Weeks later an invasion on northern Manchuria was made

    • America had few choices

      • Senators hoped Japanese moderates would retake Tokyo and halt the invasion

    • The militarists prevailed and won Manchuria

      • Senator Stimson gave warnings but did not give much backing

      • Hoover did not allow Stimson to work with League of Nations

    • Stimson’s only solution was to not recognize the new territories

      • did not work and Japanese went into Shanghai killing thousands

    • Hoover left office in ‘33

      • America’s international system plan had collapsed

        • Either America become more interested or become self reliant

          • it tried with both approaches for 6 years

  • Isolationism and Internationalism

    • Roosevelt’s administration had to deal with the GD and decaying international affairs

    • U.S in the 30’s was unwilling to deal with International affairs

      • Nation went isolated and mindset turned inwards

        • Roosevelt realised he could not much longer run the nation like that

  • Depression Diplomacy

    • Roosevelt tackled economic relations with Europe

      • Hoover said to restore U.S economy would require tackling ideas of war debt and reinforcing the Gold Standard

    • Hoover went to World Economic Conference

      • Roosevelt was willing to let gold standard fall to stay in international market with American goods

    • Roosevelt made a “bombshell” speech which ended the conference without reaching any agreements

      • two years later negotiations were resumed

    • Roosevelt abandoned Hoover’s administration mindset and tackled war debts

    • He took a cold approach to the matter

      • No American banks could loan to nations on defaulted loans

        • that resulted in the ending of the circular system

    • The New admin wanted to increase America’s position in world trade

    • Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act of 1934

      • America would lower their tariffs as much as other nations would

      • Sec of state made 21 new treaties

        • resulted in increase in American export

          • American imports still lagged

  • America and the Soviet Union

    • An attempt to increase foreign trade allowed for better relation to the Soviet Union

      • U.S and Russia hostile since Bolshevik revolution in 1917

        • U.S not recognized SU till 1933

    • America pushing for better relations for trade

      • Russia wanted America as an ally to get help for Japan

    • Agreement reached

      • Russia would protect Americans in Russia and stop propaganda

        • America would Recognize SU

    • American and  Russian trade had not done so well

      • America had not helped Russia much with Japanese problem

        • tensions rose

    • By end of ‘34, U.S and Russia hostile again

  • The Good Neighbor Policy

    • America wanting to increase relations with Latin America

      • known as the good neighbor policy

    • LA was prominent target for trade increasing

      • U.S increased trade with western hemisphere by 100%

    • These better relations resulted in more American involvement in the area

    • At an Inter-American Conference, it was declared that states could not interfere in each other's affairs

    • Roosevelt followed that throughout his time in office

    • Roosevelt replaced America’s military presence with economic influence in LA

  • The Rise of Isolationism

    • Roosevelt's Administration killed international harmony

    • Disarmaments talks in Geneva had been going for a year with no result

      • Roosevelt offered a new negotiation

        • the entire conference was a bust

    • The  London NAval conference was dying as well

    • Between the choices of isolationism and more involvement in international affairs, support for isolationism was growing

    • League of NAtions unable to solve Asia crisis

      • faith in internationalism failing

    • Nye investigation

      • Businesses in around pre-WWI tricked AMericans into the war to protect their business interests

    • Roosevelt wanted to maintain world peace

      • Roosevelt wanted to make America part of the World Court

        • it would make it seem like America is into internationalism without  actually giving it responsibilities

    • Isolationists opposition defeated the treaty

      • Roosevelt backed down for a while

    • Mussolini was attempting to take Ethiopia to spread its colonial powers in AFrica

    • Neutrality Act made to avoid American involvement

      • These acts believed to prevent same conditions that were pre-WWI

    • It would place embargos on Hostile nations

      • and warn Citizens of Naval situations

    • Cash and Carry Act

      • Hostile nations could only buy non-military goods and had to pay in cash and carry them in their own ships

    • ‘35, Mussolini attacked in ethiopia

      • When Italy was confronted, they dropped from the League of NAtions and joined with Nazi Germany

    • This made America wanted to stay isolated even more

      • The Civil war in Spain even more fueled Isolationist want

    • The Falangist revolted in ‘36

      • Their leader, General Francisco Franco had Hitlers and Mussolini’s support

        • both physically and mentally

    • Republicans went to Spain to support the cause

      • U.S, Britain and France decided to stay completely neutral

    • Roosevelt wanted to rid the isolationists of their power in Foreign policy

      • The U.S at first could not do much

    • Asia situation was deteriorating

      • ‘37, Japan lead a large attack against China

        • attacked the large five provinces

    • Roosevelt couldn’t let Japan get away with that scott-free

      • he implied isolating Japan to prevent war fervor from spreading

        • he was general when he said to isolate

    • Japanese air bombed a U.S ship “Panay” as it was in China

  • The Failure of Munich

    • Hitler’s German Nationalism showed in ‘36

      • he moved the revamped army to a French area, violating the Treaty of Versailles

    • Hitler marched his men into Austria and wanted a union

      • The international community had not said much

    • Hitler now had good conditions to annex Czechoslovakia, a land he had now also wanted

      • Czechoslovakia was preparaed to fight back but needed support

        • it got none

    • Everyone would do anything to prevent another war

      • Tensions rose after Czech fell

    • Hitler met with Britain and France to settle issue

      • Settled that Germany would not expand further

        • Roosevelt supported

    • Appeasement was used to settle peace

      • it failed

  • From Neutrality to Intervention

    • President said AMerica would remain neutral

      • but allowed for them to support it in thought

  • Neutrality Tested

    • All of AMerica supported the Allied Powers

      • the question was how much of America was willing to support the war

    • America was willing to supply the allied powers

    • Roosevelt wanted to revise the Neutrality act

      • the original one prevented any war trade with hostile nations

        • Isolationists forced him to accept a lower revision

    • Roosevelt could still carry out Cash and Carry rules with arms

    • Germany crushed Poland

      • a long pause in the war occurred

        • most of the fighting was between Germany and its surrounding nations

    • Soviet Union took advantage of the confusion and annexed a few nations

      • The prez and congress were angry but only put an Embargo on Russia

        • Russia finished its conquest

    • Germany again ran the war with an advance on the West

      • They eventually reached the heart of France

    • The Allied power were nothing for the Nazi’s

    • Mussolini attacked France from the south

      • France was on the attack from two sides

    • 12 days after, France fell

    • Roosevelt increased aid to the allies

      • He also was beginning to prepare for the Nazi’s in the U.S

        • He asked Congress for 1 billion in defense and got it

    • After Churchill entered office, he began working with Roosevelt to supply the allies

      • Many argued the British were already in the loss and any more aid would be a waste

    • The President was insistent on helping the allies

      • did it all legally

    • American public opinion shifted

      • After France fell, many Americans believed they were next

        • Congress accompanied the change and increased aid

    • American War preparations were becoming a concern

      • Burke-Wadsworth Act approved

        • made the first American Peacetime military draft

    • The isolationists were still active and ran many debates in the 1940’s

    • Fight For Freedom Committee made to support war

    • American First Committee was made to resolve that

  • The Third Term Campaign

    • The Beginning of the 1940’s were all about Roosevelt’s intentions

      • It was thought he would run for a third term

    • Right before the Democratic conventions he stated he would run again

      • the Democrats took him and his vice president

    • The republicans nominated a businessman to combat the Democrats

      • Wendell Wilkie

        • Their positions were fairly similar

          • They wanted to stay out of war but would give aid to allies

    • Wilkie had to out pizzaz Roosevelt and Scare Americans out of a third term

      • He ended up doing a phenomenal job out all previous republicans in campaigning, however Roosevelt still won

  • Neutrality Abandoned

    • Roosevelt began making large changes in America’s stance on the war

      • He simply stated he was continuing the forms of aid to the allies

    • The British were bankrupt in 12/1940

      • Churchill said his needs for aid was more than ever

        • Roosevelt made the lend-lease system to aid the allies

          • It allowed America to sell, lend or lease their weapons to Britain

            • It allowed America to give britain many weapons on the promise they would get them back in some

    • Roosevelt had to deal with the issue of getting the weapons to Britain

      • Shipping in the Atlantic had become very dangerous

        • German submarines had destroyed .5 million tons of shippng each month

    • Americans began monitoring and patrolling the Atlantic

      • Germany had little response to this

    • Germany had invaded the Soviet Union in ‘39

      • shattered the Nazi-Soviet Pact

    • Germans drove hard into Russia

      • the Soviets did not surrender

        • Roosevelt wanted to extend lend-lease system to Soviet Union

          • would create a relationship with Stalin

    • It was very clear who the Americans were supporting in the war

    • Nazi’s began a concentrated campaign against American vessels

    • American responded with a shoot on sight order for the naval Germans

    • Germany had attacked two ships and sunk one of them

      • Congress made many changes to ships in the atlantic and basically started a naval war with Germany

    • Britain and the U.S began meetings that brought them closely connected together

      • Two senior military officers met to establish a possible entry for the United states into the war

      • Roosevelt met with Churchill and while not joining the war made the Atlantic Charter

        • it called for the end of the Nazi’s

    • Roosevelt felt that an attack on America would make the public fully support the war

  • The Road to Pearl Harbor

    • Japan was taking advantage of the War

    • Roosevelt had showed some resistance to Japan

    • Japan seized Vietnam

      • Roosevelt Placed an Embargo on Japan and froze all their assets

    • Japan had to choose between bettering relations with the U.S or finding another source

      • At first they wanted to compromise

        • the Konoye party was overthrown and war sentiments increased in Japan

    • The New party stalled on the name of Compromise with a set goal in their head

      • A negotiation was attempted but not successful

        • The matter of Japan was brought to the military leaders

          • A japanese attack was confirmed

    • The attack location was unconfirmed

      • It was expected for the Japanese to attack the British or the Dutch

    • Americans monitored Japanese activity and gave a warning to those at PEarl Harbour

      • but more attention was given to a Japanese convoy in the China Sea

        • Americans, partly because of confusion, thought the attack was not much of a threat to them rather than the british

    • Japanese bombers took off of carriers hundreds of miles away and bombed Pearl Harbour

      • A second wave hit an hour later

        • the Americans were not prepared

          • The Americans had devastating losses while the Japanese had slight losses

    • American forces in the Pacific were low

      • Pearl Harbour united the American people into War

    • Congress had a landslide vote for war

      • America’s second World War was started




Crash Courses


  • WWI scared Americans from war

    • wanted to stay Neutral in international matters

    • League of nations unsuccessful

      • Treaty of Versailles remade Europe

    • Age of Isolationism

      • America still had many international conferences

    • Good neighbor policy

      • we were not very helpful to LA

      • We supported dictators in the area

    • america not very involved in world trade

      • because of tariffs

      • and depression

    • Japan invades China

    • Italy invades Ethiopia

    • Act made to not sell war trade with hostile nations

    • America wanting to help allies

      • British really only fighting

    • Cash and CArry for weapons trade with British

    • Peacetime draft made

      • for preparation of war

    • Roosevelt supporting allies

      • basically gave supplies to Britain

    • Japanese embargo

      • motive for Pearl harbour

        • America entered war after that

      • American and Filipino troops surrendered

    • Had many successful battles as well in the pacific

    • Americans used the tactic of Island hopping

    • Called European War

      • first battle against Europe in Africa

    • Allies attacked land different from Soviets want

    • American liberated Paris and many concentration camps

    • Russians captured Berlin

    • 1945, European war ends

    • After nuclear attacks on Japan, they surrender

    • Atomic Bombs made through Manhattan Project

      • AB most deadliest weapon known by far to man

    • Those two bombs gave more casualties than americans had in the pacific war

    • Was said America dropped bombs for USSR

    • Some say dropping the bombs saved American casualties

    • Aerial bombings were large in Pacific war

    • Many civilian attacks in WWII