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Unit 14
by THOMAS MCNULTY - Saturday, February 27, 2016, 09:31 PM

Thomas McNulty



Hi how are ya?

Book Notes:

  1. Myth of Isolationism (720)

    1. Idea that US was isolationist

      1. In reality actually more active

Replacing the League:

  1. Washington Conference of 1921

    1. America trying to build peace

      1. Charles Evans Hughes leading the way

      2. Trying to get treaties with powers to give them benefits in the Treaty of Versailles but little involvement

    2. First of these was at Washington Conference to settle Naval arms race

      1. Proposed idea of huge reduction in navy

        1. It was agreed upon

      2. Led to the Five-Power Pact

        1. Limits and ratio of how much tons you could have

      3. Also led to the Nine-Power Pact

        1. More Open Door Policy in China

      4. And Four-Power Pact

        1. Japan Britain and US all agree to their territories and cooperate

  2. Kellogg-Briand Pact

    1. Kellogg Pact ended the conference

    2. France minister Briand asked if US wanted alliance against Germany

      1. US said led by Kellogg that they should instead they should outlaw war as national policy

        1. Rested on moral force

Debts and Diplomacy:

  1. Circular Loans (721)

    1. America wanted their overseas trade to remain the same

      1. Meant there needed to be no arms race and war

    2. Really needed Europe to stay afloat

      1. Were in bad WWI issues and other debt

    3. Charles Dawes agreed to allow banks to give huge loans to Germany to pay their war debts but in return Europe lowered the German debt

      1. It went America, Germany, Allies, and then back to the US

      2. Because of this they were more into the life in Europe

        1. America make factories and get money in Europe

    4. High tariffs that the US had in place also made it hard for Europe to sell goods

  2. Economic Expansion in Latin America

    1. America got more involved in Latin America

      1. Still military

      2. Companies built a lot of infrastructure

      3. Loans to get them linked with America more

        1. Hard to repay b/c tariff barrier

    2. Known as Yankee Imperialism

Hoover and the World Crisis

  1. Book Notes(722)

    1. Since the GD was very isolationist, the new interactions to Hoover were very different

    2. GD also led to nationalism and power hungry leaders

    3. Hoover tried to fix Latin America

      1. Toured through region

      2. Withdrew troops from Haiti

    4. Announced policy that America would recognize any government in the region no matter what

    5. Hoover proposed European debt pause

      1. No success nobody wanted it

      2. Also didn’t cancel them

    6. At the time Mussolini was coming to power

      1. Also the Nazi party was growing bigger led by Adolf Hitler

  2. Manchuria

    1. Another step towards war was a major crisis in Asia

      1. Japan invades Manchuria

        1. Wanted to expand their and Soviet power

        2. Manchuria was controlled by them and China wasn’t that present in the area

    2. American response: Henry Stimson hoped that Japanese moderates would gain control in government

      1. When they took all Manchuria, he lightly threatened them

      2. Hoover said no economic sanctions against Japan

    3. Only denied diplomatic recognition of the new territories

  3. Failure of America's Interwar Policy (723)

    1. It was apparent that America's international system had collapsed

      1. 2 choices, to be more energetic and get with other nations or be more passive and use only itself

    2. For 6 years it used both

Depression Diplomacy:

  1. FDR’s “Bombshell” (724)

    1. Change in economic relations with Europe between presidents

      1. Hoover wanted to solve war debts question and keep gold standard

        1. Hoover agreed to then participate in the World Economic Conference

    2. FDR was the one that went and said that there would be no currency stabilization

    3. This ended the conference

    4. He also didn’t want to settle the war debts

      1. Ended the circular system by saying no more bank loans

  2. Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act

    1. Wanted to improve America's trade

    2. Trough act tariff lowered by 50% and the same for other nations through treaties

      1. Increased American exports

      2. Problem was that it was lowered usually on non-competitive foreign goods

        1. Therefore they didn’t reap much of the benefits

America and the Soviet Union:

  1. Book Notes

    1. Since America wanted to trade more it tried to open up trade with Russia

      1. Were seen as bad but they still wanted trade

    2. Soviets wanted US help in containing Japan

    3. Agreement that Russia stop propaganda and protect US citizens in Russia and America recognizes communist regime

      1. Didn’t work out so well

        1. Trade died and US didn’t promise to contain Japan

      2. Went back to being not friends

The Good Neighbor Policy:

  1. Inter-American Conference

    1. More successful relations with Latin America through Good Neighbor Policy

      1. Increased imports and exports by over 100%

    2. New American Latin American attitude

      1. No more military force to pay debts and pressure

      2. At Inter-American Conference, idea that no state has the right to intervene in ex/internal affairs of another

        1. Good Neighbor Policy

    3. They then used economic pressures to influence Latin America

    4. It made Latin America more happy but they were economically locked in with America

The Rise of Isolationism:

  1. Sources of Isolationism (725)

    1. Roosevelt tried to get back into arms control conference at Geneva

      1. Submitted a arms control idea

    2. Because things were looking bad, America decided to go isolationist

      1. Thought internationalism had failed

      2. Others thought powerful business interests had tricked US into WWI

    3. Roosevelt still wanted to maintain world peace

      1. Tried to make US member of World Court

      2. Would have been international but little US responsibility

        1. Still denied by people

  2. Neutrality Acts

    1. Things getting bad 1935 and America sees war

      1. Neutrality Act 1935 designed to keep America from being dragged in

    2. Neut. 1955, 36 and 37 all were things

      1. 35 made arms embargo against victim and aggressor in any military conflict

        1. Also warn people that traveling on ships to warring nations is at their own risk

      2. 36 renewed this for another year

      3. 37 Cash and Carry policy meant that warring nations could buy nonmilitary goods and had to pay in cash and transport it back to their country

  3. Ethiopia

    1. Isolationism got bigger when Mussolini invaded Ethiopia

      1. Italy invaded, LON got mad, Italy left LON and joined Germany to for Axis Powers

    2. More isolationism in Spanish Civil War

      1. Started by the Falangists

        1. Fascist group that revolted against government

        2. Led by Francisco Franco and was supported by the Axis Powers

  4. “Quarantine” Speech (727)

    1. Asia also doing really bad

      1. Manchuria was bad but then it got worse

    2. Japan attacked China's 5 Northern provinces

      1. Roosevelt tried to warn people that they needed to do something

        1. Idea that they should be Quarantined to prevent war from spreading

    3. Public shut his idea down

    4. Later Japanese bombed and sank US ship Panay in China

      1. It was obviously deliberate but isolationists took it as a accident and was public opinion so that was the idea

The Failure of Munich:

  1. Munich Conference

    1. Hitler looking in 1936 that he wants land

      1. Militarizing Rhineland and rearming other areas

      2. United Germany and Austria

      3. Tried to take Sudetenland

    2. Met in Munich with Allies to try to settle problem

      1. Gave Hitler the land

        1. He said that would be the last land grab

  2. Failure of “Appeasement”

    1. Munich was practice of appeasement

      1. Later Hitler occupied the rest of Czechoslovakia

      2. Then threatened Poland

    2. Allies said that they would help Poland if invasion

    3. Stalin signed the Nonaggression Pact of 1939 and gave Germany assurance that they would only have a 1 front invasion

      1. Hitler staged Polish attack on border and invaded

        1. Allies then were at war against Germany

    4. This was the start of WWII

Neutrality Tested:

  1. Cash and Carry (730)

    1. Question of how far the war had to go to get the US involved

      1. At very least Roosevelt wanted sale weapons to Allies

        1. Asked for a revision to the Neutrality Acts

      2. It was met with strong opposition and so he got Cash and Carry of weapons

    2. This was seen as all that was necessary for a while

      1. Seemed like a Phony War

        1. Then Russia invaded small countries and eventually Finland

      2. Only thing the US did was create a moral embargo on weapons to Russia

  2. Fall of France

    1. War got serious after invasion of France 1940

      1. Went Denmark, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium, then France

        1. So effective because of Nazi Blitzkrieg

      2. Italy attacked France from bottom and Hitler top

    2. British army barely escaped and it was far smaller so many died in the process

    3. Roosevelt started increasing aid and preparing for possible US Nazi invasion

    4. Eventually it was accepted that the US must give resources

      1. This was accepted finally but some saw it as a wasted effort

        1. He still did it

      2. It was still Cash and Carry by sometimes it wasn't

  3. Shifting Public Opinion

    1. Roosevelt could do this because people shifted their opinion towards war

      1. Before they thought if Germany won it wouldn’t effect the US

        1. After France it seemed like it would

    2. Congress was more quick to give war things

    3. Burke-Wadsworth Act created the first peacetime draft

    4. Still some were isolationist

      1. 1940 heated debate between Interventionists and people who wanted neutrality

      2. The Fight For Freedom Committee was for immediate declaration of war

      3. Other Committee to Defend America was for Allie assistance but no war intervention

  4. America First Committee (731)

    1. Led by Robert E. Wood

      1. Famous followers that were for the committee

    2. It was non interventionalist

The Third-Term Campaign:

  1. Wendell Willkie (732)

    1. Question if FDR would run for another term

      1. He was nominated for president with the VP of Henry Wallace

    2. Republicans nominated Wendell Willkie

      1. Wanted out of war and sending supplies to allies

      2. The only thing he could do was make FDR look unstable into 3rd term

    3. He ultimately lost

Neutrality Abandoned:

  1. Lend-Lease

    1. Roosevelt after he won made some changes in how he was dealing with the war

      1. He said he was continuing what he was doing, but really he was being more linked

    2. Britain and England were broke and couldn’t afford Cash and Carry

      1. Roosevelt thought of Lend-Lease which he hoped wouldn’t anger non interventionalists

    3. Lend Lease meant they could lend or lease weapons and stuff to people who were “defending the US”

      1. It was passed and it meant that there was temporarily free weapons

      2. Lots of people didn’t like it but it still passed

    4. Problem with it was that most of the supplies were destroyed by German subs.

      1. Roosevelt used the idea of Hemispheric Defense to justify defending ships

      2. It would be in the Atlantic where the ships would go which was neutral and so they were just defending the neutrality

  2. Germany Invades the USSR

    1. At first Germany did little about this

    2. Germany invaded Russia (not related)

      1. Then because the Soviets were being fought by Germany the Lend Lease program was given to Russia

        1. Then Germany found it a problem

    3. First, Germany blew up the American ship Greer

      1. Then the ships were told to shoot all German subs. on sight

      2. Another boat that was later blown up was the Reuben James

        1. This led to the approval of armed merchant ships

  3. Atlantic Charter (733)

    1. Meeting tying US and GB together

    2. FDR and Churchill made the Atlantic Charter

      1. Common principles that would better the world

        1. One of these was the destruction of the Nazi party

    3. Also some army captains got together and thought of what their strategy together would be if the US entered

    4. Roosevelt was fairly certain that if there was an attack at America then they would enter the war

The Road to Pearl Harbor:

  1. Tripartite Pact

    1. Japan took this time to take more land in the Pacific

    2. 1940 Japan signed the Tripartite Pact with Germany

      1. Loose alliance with Italy and Germany in Asia

        1. Somewhat extension of the Axis Powers

    3. 1941 Japan moved farther into China even though the US was already mad at Japan

      1. They didn’t care though

    4. Roosevelt then froze all their assets and made an embargo

      1. Most people supported this

      2. Because the embargo, they had no oil and things to take more land

  2. Tokyo’s Decision for War

    1. Japan had a choice to make

      1. Either listen to the US and get back trade or find it elsewhere

    2. The current leader Prince Konoye wanted to reestablish trade

      1. He was then thrown out and replaced with Hideki Tojo who led the war party

    3. They sent a piece of legislation (That for more trading) to Washington but no matter what they wanted to keep China

      1. US said no, give China back

      2. War was then known to happen by US, guy at the meeting (Hull) knew it was gonna happen

      3. There was also messages received that were war like

  3. Pearl Harbor

    1. US knew there was an attack but didn’t know where

      1. Saw some sketchy Japanese ships near Pearl Harbor

    2. US was more preoccupied about a convoy moving south through the China Sea

    3. 1941, Japanese bombers attacked the ships at Pearl Harbor

      1. 2 waves each an hour apart

    4. They were totally not prepared

    5. US lost tons of ships and 2,000 soldiers + 1,000 injured

    6. The attack unified the American population finally on war

      1. War was declared by the US the next day

      2. Germany and Italy declared war 3 days later and the US did so the same day on them




  1. What WWII did

    1. Strengthened the Federal government and gave more control

      1. Industry's were taken by the government and rations were made to keep troops fed

      2. Changed wages, rents and other prices

    2. Reason was because most people were just happy to be working

    3. Kicked the American eco into overdrive

    4. Lots of more military produce and just produce in general

      1. Because of federal spending

      2. Lots of it paid for in taxes

        1. After war recognition of income tax as a thing

    5. Lots of internal development

    6. Unions also got bigger

    7. Women were recognized in the factories and seen as workers

      1. Rosie the Riveter

      2. Most though were let go after the war because they had men then to work

  2. America’s Gains from the War

    1. Ideological war

      1. FDR’s Four Freedoms

        1. Freedom of Speech

        2. Freedom of Worship

        3. Freedom from Want

        4. Freedom from Fear

    2. G.I. Bill

      1. Help out the soldiers returning from war

    3. Free enterprise 5th freedom

      1. Allowing people to buy anything they want from anywhere

    4. Changed how America viewed themselves

      1. Example saw Nazis as bad and so they saw America as non-racist, freedom, and equality

  3. Race and the War

    1. War brought many Mexicans into America

      1. 500,000 served in the war for the US

    2. Asian Americans received very bad treatment

      1. Chinese Americans were relatively fine

      2. Japanese Americans suffered horrible racism

    3. Executive Order 9066 put all people of Japanese heritage into internment camps

  4. Thought Bubble

    1. Fred Korematsu went to the supreme court over his internment where he lost

    2. African Americans got the most change from the war

      1. Many in the Great Migration got jobs in the factories

    3. WWII led to a new black civil rights movement

      1. A. Philip Randolph threatened a march on Washington demanding access to defense employment, end segregation, and an anti-lynching law

      2. He ended up getting Executive Order 8802

        1. Banned discrimination in defense hiring and created the Fair Employment Practices Commission

          1. Helped Af. Am’s gain jobs in wartime manufacturing

    4. Many Blacks saw themselves as fighting against the Axis and American racism

      1. After the war there was far more focus on black rights

  5. After the War

    1. Not isolationist at all after the war

      1. Very involved in Yalta, Teheran, and Potsdam

        1. Going for a more peaceful world

    2. Result that Germany would be divided and Nazi’s tried

    3. Established the UN

      1. Ensure peace



  1. Post WWII

    1. US and USSR were the only 2 nations with any power left

      1. US was stronger though because they had more people and better things

      2. Also USSR was led by Joseph Stalin

    2. US was still in bad spot without Asian or European trade

    3. Russia concerned about Germany invading them again

    4. john green? why you calling my people slow?

    5. USSR after war encouraged the creation of pro-communist governments

      1. These places were between them and Germany for their safety

        1. US saw this as spread of communism

        2. This would be bad because US needs to sell goods

  2. Containment

    1. Responded with the idea of containment

      1. Block further expansion

      2. Expose falsities in soviet idea

      3. Reduce Kremlin's control

      4. Foster the seeds of soviet destruction

    2. Truman was for containment

      1. First test was in Greece and Turkey

        1. Truman Doctrine was to support freedom people against communism

      2. This laid the foundation to an arms race

  3. Thought Bubble

    1. The Marshall Plan was a response to the communism in Europe

      1. Use US aid to combat the instability leading to communism

    2. Like a European New Deal and it got Europe somewhat back on its feet

    3. Japan was also rebuilt but not in the Marshall Plan

      1. Japan gave up bad things in exchange for American military

      2. They then spend money on industry

    4. Germany experiencing Berlin Crisis

      1. Germany divided into East and West

      2. Capital Berlin was also divided

      3. West Berlin needed supplies brought across the country

        1. Roads were cut off

        2. US airdropped supplies into West Berlin

      4. Led to the creation of the Berlin Wall

  4. US vision of the Cold War

    1. Seen as a struggle between freedom and tyranny

      1. Led to parties being relatively agreed

    2. US wanted to get as involved as possible to keep freedom

      1. Even movies were made to show how evil communism was

    3. God was even used to go against the soviet ideas because they were Atheist

    4. Even stopped Truman from creating the Fair Deal

      1. Would have helped many Americans in money but it was too communist

    5. Idea that there was communist in everything

      1. Red Scare was the embodiment of this

  5. When Will I be Blown Up?

    1. Government is the only person that can save you

    2. Freedom is due to government

      1. Government keeps you free