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Unit 14 notes
by Beminet Desalegn - Saturday, February 27, 2016, 09:44 PM
 

Unit 14

Chapter 27

“The Global Crisis, 1921 - 1941”

The Diplomacy of the New Era

Replacing the League (pg. 720)

  • Secretary of State Charles Evans Hughes

    • 1921

      • made Congress end war with Germany

      • separate peace treaties with Central Powers

    • wanted to replace League of Nations (LoN)

      • guarantee world peace

    • Washington Conference of 1921

      • attempt to prevent upcoming naval armaments race

        • US, Britain, Japan

      • proposed a plan for reduction in fleets

        • 10yr stop to warship constructions

        • destroy nearly 2 million tons of existing shipping

      • Congress accepted most of the terms

      • Five-Power Pact

        • february 1922

        • limited total naval tonnage

        • ratio of armaments among the signatories

          • 5 ton of US & Britain

            • Japan = 3, France & Italy = 1.75

            • Japan dominant in East Asia

      • Nine-Power Pact

        • continued Open Door Policy in China

      • Four-Power Pact

        • US, Britain, France, & Japan

          • respect one another’s Pacific territories

          • cooperate to prevent aggression

  • Kellogg-Briand Pact

    • 1928

    • French foreign minister Aristide Briand

      • asked US in 1927 to join an alliance against Germany

    • Secretary of State Frank Kellogg

      • proposed a treaty outlawing war used as national policy

Debts and Diplomacy

  • US wanted no obstacles in overseas trade

    • free of interference

    • prevent armaments race

    • reduce possibility of war

  • US most concerned over Europe

    • economy largely depended on them

  • European industries suffered b/c of WWII

    • heavy debt

      • Allied Powers = $11 billion loans from US

  • 1924

    • Charles G. Dawes

      • American Banker & Diplomat

      • agreed for American banks to lend Germans

        • could pay WWI reparations

      • in return

        • Britain & France reduce amount of payments

      • won Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts

  • France and England repaid war debts to US

    • US presence in Europe increases

      • US factories in Europe

      • took advantage of terrible European industry

      • Americans scared US is too dependent on unstable Europe

    • high US tariffs

      • Europeans can’t sell to US

        • can’t pay loans

    • caused American economy to fall

  • American military forces in South America in 1920s

    • investments increased

    • Americans built roads, etc

    • wanted access to their rich natural resources

    • US offered loans

      • Latin Americans couldn’t pay back

        • high tariffs

Hoover and the World Crisis (pg. 721)

  • world financial crisis in 1930s

    • produced nationalism that threatened foreign agreements

  • Latin America

    • Hoover worked to repair damages

    • refused American intervention when countries couldn’t pay

  • Europe

    • Benito Mussolini

      • Fascist Party

        • in control of Italy since the early 1920’s

        • growing in nationalistically and militarily

        • threatened imperial expansions

    • National Socialist (Nazi) Party

      • Germany

      • 1920’s

        • Weimar Republic

          • after WWII

          • lost all popular support

            • b/c of high inflations

      • Hitler becomes popular

        • believed in superiority of Aryans (Germans)

        • committed to providing living space of his “master race”

        • pathologically anti-Semitist

        • passionate of militarism

        • he was a threat to European peace

  • Japan

    • concerned about Soviet Union & Chiang Kai-shek’s nationalist China

    • Manchuria

      • officially Chinese, but under control of Japanese since 1905

      • Chiang insisted on expanding his gov’s power there

      • Japan failed against Chiang’s ambitions

        • Japan set up a coup in 1931

          • seize control of foreign policy from weakened liberals

          • launched a major invasion of northern Manchuria

        • US gov hoped Japan would stop invasion

        • Secretary of State Henry Stimson

          • warned Japan to stop

          • but Hoover forbade him to cooperate with LoN

        • Japan continued to attack Shanghai

          • hilled thousands of civilians

Isolationism and Internationalism

  • Roosevelt administration

    • had to deal with economic crisis

    • effects of decaying international structure

    • the Depression produced political chaos throughout the world

Depression Diplomacy (pg. 724)

  • Roosevelt allowed gold value of dollar to lower

    • American goods could compete in world markets

  • Bombshell

    • FDR rejected agreements on currency stabilization

    • 1936

      • administration agree to stabilize Western currencies

  • FDR

    • signed a bill in 1934

      • forbade American banks from loaning to nations with debts

        • to stop the circular loan system

        • war debt payments stopped

  • Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act of 1934

    • negotiate treaties lowering tariffs as much as 50%

      • in return for reciprocal reductions by other nations

    • increased American exports

    • but it only permitted goods from not competitive to US industry

America and the Soviet Union

  • US & Russia mistrusted each other

  • US wanted change in policy

    • Soviet Union as a possible source of trade

    • Soviets eager b/c they saw Japan as a threat

  • Nov 1933

    • Soviet Foreign minister Maxim litvinov

      • reached an agreement with president

    • Soviets stop propogandas in US

      • protect Americans in Russia

    • in return, US recognize the communist regime

    • relations did not last long

  • American trade not doing good in Russia

    • US not interested in stopping Japan expand

  • went back to mistrusting each other

The Good Neighbor Policy

  • in 1930’s

    • US increased both exports and imports

      • b/w other nations in Western Hemisphere

  • Inter-American Conference

    • Montevideo, Uruguay in December

    • Secretary of State Hull signed convention

      • no interventions in internal and external affairs of another

  • US now economically influential in Latin America

The Rise of Isolationism (pg. 725)

  • Roosevelt wanted arms reductions

    • Hitler and Mussolini withdrew

  • Geneva Conference failure

  • London Naval Conference

    • argued to limit naval armaments

    • Japan withdrew

  • support for isolationism grows

    • b/c internationalism failed

    • there were some isolationism opposition

  • summer of 1935

    • Mussolini’s Italy prepares to invade Ethiopia

      • an effort to expand its colonial holdings in Africa

  • Neutrality Act

    • designed to prevent a recurrence of events that made US enter WWI

    • the 1935

      • mandatory arms ban against both victim and aggressor in military conflict

      • president can warn Americans

        • traveling: if a ship is at risk

    • the 1936

      • renewed the previous acts

    • the 1937

      • cash-and-carry policy

        • countries at war can purchase only nonmilitary goods

        • had to pay cash and carry the goods away on their own

  • Mussolini attacks Ethiopia

    • League of Nations protested

      • Italy resigned from there

    • completed its conquest of Ethiopia

    • Axis

      • formed an alliance with Nazi Germany

  • Spanish Civil War

    • Falangalists

      • Fascists

      • revolted in July 1936 against existing republican gov

    • General Francisco Franco

      • supported by Hitler and Mussolini

        • vocally and with weapons and supplies

      • US, Britain, and France agreed with help neither side

  • summer of 1937

    • Tokyo attacked China’s 5 northern provinces

    • Roosevelt wanted to punish Japan

  • December 12, 1937

    • Japanese aviators bombed & sank US gunboat Panay

      • clearly deliberate

The Failure Munich (pg. 727)

  • 1936

    • German army moves to Rhineland

      • violated the Versailles Treaty

      • rearmed the area that France had in control since WWI

  • March 1938

    • German forces marched into Austria

    • Hitler proclaimed a union or Anschluss

      • b/w Austria (his native land) & Germany

        • fulfilled his dream to unite german speaking people

    • Austrian invasion

      • Hitler now occupied 3 sides surrounding Western Czechoslovakia

        • wanted to annex the region

  • September 1938

    • Hitler demanded Czechoslovakia to give him Sudetenland

      • they refused, and also got no help from others

      • Other nations did not want war

  • Munich Conference

    • September 29

      • Hitler met with leaders from France & Great Britain in Munich

    • Appeasement Policy

      • British and French agree to meet german demands

        • then Hitler stops expansion

  • March 1939

    • Hitler occupied remaining areas of Czechoslovakia

      • violated Munich agreement

  • April

    • Hitler starts to threaten Poland

  • Non-Aggression Pact

    • August 1939

    • Hitler and Stalin

    • freed Germans for the moment from two-front war

  • September 1, 1939

    • Germany invades Poland

    • Britain and France declare war on Germany

From Neutrality to Intervention

Neutrality Tested (pg. 729)

  • Americans favored Allied nations

  • Roosevelt wanted to sell weapons to Allies

    • revise the Neutrality Acts

    • isolationists opposed

    • Congress went with Cash-and-Carry policy

  • Phony War

    • not much fighting in Europe

    • real war was b/w Russia & its neighbors

    • Soviet Union

      • annexed latvia, Estonia, and Lithuania

      • invaded Finland in November

      • Americans did not stop it

  • Spring of 1940

    • Germany launched an invasion to the west

      • attacked Denmark, Norway, Netherlands, Belgium, and France

  • June 10

    • Mussolini enters the war

      • invaded France from south when Hitler stop from north

  • June 22

    • France became under German control

  • Roosevelt increased American aid to allies

    • began preparations for possible Nazi invasion

  • Roosevelt starts to provide Winston Churchill with war weapons

    • many Americans against it

      • Britain was lost cause

  • Before France invasion, Americans not threatened by German victory

    • after, many Americans start to feel threatened

    • Congress allowed American aid to Allies

  • Burke-Wadsworth Act

    • 1st peacetime military draft in US

  • advocates and opposers of isolation debated

    • some wanted to help Allies but not intervene

The Third-Term Campaign (pg. 731)

  • Roosevelt refused to withdraw from the election

    • made it impossible for other Democrats to run

  • Democratic Convention

    • Roosevelt said he would accept a “draft” from his party

      • Democrats renominated him

  • Republicans nominated Wendell Willkie

    • wanted to keep US out of war but help Allies, too

    • Willkie used the “danger of 3rd term” as campaign

    • but Roosevelt won the election

Neutrality Abandones (pg. 732)

  • to the public

    • Roosevelt said he would only keep supporting Allies

  • December 1940

    • Great Britain bankrupt

      • couldn’t buy weapons

  • Lend-lease

    • allow the gov to sell, lend, lease armaments

      • to nations seen important to US’ defense

    • America could give weapons to Britain w/o promise of return payment

    • isolationists attacked it, but Congress passed it

  • sending weapons to Britain became hard

    • German submarines destroyed them

    • Americans sent ships only in the western atlantic

      • went as far as Iceland

      • told the British the location of German submarines

  • June 1941

    • German forces invaded Soviet Union

    • Germans drove quickly to Russian territory

      • Soviets did not surrender

    • Roosevelt extends lend-lease to them

  • September

    • Nazi submarines start to go against American vessels

    • Nazis attacked American destroyers

      • US launched a naval war against Germany

  • April 1941

    • officials from US and Britain met in secret

      • US agrees to enter the war

  • Atlantic Charter

    • b/w Churchill and Roosevelt

    • a statement about needing to destroy the Nazi tyranny

The Road to Pearl Harbor (pg. 733)

  • September 1941

    • Tripartite Pact

      • Japan, Germany, Italy

      • defensive and non-intervention alliance

  • July 1941

    • imperial troops moved to Indochina

    • seized capital of Vietnam, colony of France

    • Roosevelt knew Japan’s new target of the Dutch East Indies

      • warned Japan

      • all Japanese assets frozen and trade embargo

  • new military leader in Japan

    • General Hideki Tojo

  • Japan in need of fuel

  • Japan somewhat open to negotiation unless regarding China

    • Washington did not want to negotiate w/o the end of that policy

  • Americans aware that Japan would attack but not the location

    • detected a Japanese naval force towards Hawaii

    • miscalculation and confusion led to the overlook of gov

  • Pearl Harbor

    • December 7, 1941

      • wave of Japanese bombers attacked the US naval base at Pearl Harbor

      • 2nd wave came an hour later

      • military commanders took no precautions

      • more than 2,000 soldiers and sailors died

        • 1,000 were injured

      • changed the opinions of people to join the war

 


 

Crash Course 36

  • WWII strengthened fed gov

    • more control of economy

    • massive rations of foods

    • became more of a socialist gov

    • people happy to work after the Depression

      • people were in military

    • unemployment decreased

      • made ships, airplanes, and other weapons

    • more gov spending

      • used taxes such as income taxes to gain money

  • most of the Industrialization happened in the Cities, not the South

  • New Deal policies forced employers to recognize unions

  • women start to have civilian works

    • when the war was over, they left their jobs for the men

  • Scientists began publishing books about “scientific racism”

  • 500,000 Mexican American men served in the armed forces

  • Chinese not excluded anymore

  • Japanese faced racism

    • because of Pearl Harbor attack

    • they were expelled

    • sent to internment camps

  • Civil Rights movements rise

    • A Philip Randolph

      • wanted discrimination and lynching to end

      • employment for blacks

  • US established the United Nations in 1944

    • to ensure world peace

  • WWII took the US out of the Depression


Crash Course #37

  • Cold war

    • 1945-1990

    • led to Space Race

  • after WWII

    • US and USSR were the only 2 nations with power

    • US became stronger

    • USSR lost 20 million people in the war

  • USSR was led by Joseph Stalin

  • US needed a strong Europe trade

  • USSR feared a German invasion

    • encourage pre-communist gov in Soviet occupied territory

  • US feared communism

    • containment

      • block expansion of Soviet Power

      • expose the falsities of soviet pretensions

      • destruct the Soviet Union within itself

  • Truman president after FDR dies

  • Truman Doctrine

    • promised to support “freedom-loving people”

      • against communist threats

      • sent $400 million aid to Greece and Turkey

  • creation of new security apparatus

    • National Security Council

    • Central Intelligence Agency

    • Atomic Energy Commision

  • Marshall plan

    • response to economic chaos in Europe

    • strong support of communism in France and Italy

    • US aided the country

  • Western Europe becomes capitalist economy

  • Japan became rebuilt

  • Germany become West and East Germany

    • Stalin built the Berlin wall

  • Hollywood produced anti-communist movies

    • Red Menace

      • scared people

  • Cold war increased infrastructure

    • highways

  • Dennis vs. United States

    • declared that being a communist leader was a crime