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Unit 14 Notes and Crash Courses
by BMENET GIRUM - Sunday, February 28, 2016, 12:00 PM

Bmenet Girum

Mr Kann


26 February 2016

Replacing the League (720)

  • The Harding administration took office in 1921.

  • The league of Nations was no longer a thing they could rely on now.

  • Charles Evan Hughes, the secretary of state secured legislation from Congress in 1921.

  • This leading to the declaring of the war with Germany at an end.

  • Separate peace treaties were negotiated with the former Central powers.

  • The Washington Conference of 1921 which was an attempt to prevent destabilizing naval armaments race between America, britain, and Japan.

  • cutback on his fleets of all three nations and a ten-year  moratorium on the construction of large warships.

  • 2 million tons of existing shippings were removed.

  • The Five-Power Pact of February 1922 established both limits for total naval tonnage and a ration of armaments among the signatories.

  • For every 5 tons of American and British warships, Japan would maintain 3 and france and italy 1.75 each.

  • The treaty sanctioned Japanese dominance in East Asia.

  • Americans and Britons spread the fleets across the world.

  • The Washington Conference produced two treaties that were very important.

  • Nine-Power Pact, pledging a continuation of the Open Door policy in China.

  • Four-Power Pact, by which the United States, Britain, France and Japan promised to respect one another’s Pacific territories and cooperate to prevent aggression.

  • The conference was to protect the peace without accepting active international duties.

  • The Kellogg-Briand Pact of 1928 concluded it.

  • The French minister asked the U.S in 1927 to join the alliance but instead not too.

  • He proposed a multilateral treaty outlawing war as instrument of national policy.

  • Fourteen nations signed the agreement in Paris on August 27, 1928, amid great solemnity and and wide international acclaim.

  • forty-eight joined the nations a little after and joined the pact.

Debts and Diplomacy (720)

  • In 1924 Charles G. Dawes, an American banker and diplomat, negotiated an agreement under which American banks would provide enormous loans to the Germans.

  • it enabled them to meet their reparations payments; in return, Britain and France would agree to reduce the amount of those payments.

  • The banks and corporations were doing more than providing loans.

  • The high tariffs barriers that the Republicans Congress had erected (through the Fordney-McCumber Act of 1922) were creating additional problems, such skeptics warned.

  • Europeans nations had found it difficult to earn the money necessary to repay their loans.

  • During the 1920s, American military forces maintained a presence in numerous countries in the region.

  • U.S. investments in Latin America more than doubled between 1924 and 1929.

  • The corotation built roads and other facilities and challenged to weaken the appeal of revolutionary forces in the region.

  • They wanted to increase their own access to Latin America’s rich natural resources.

Hoover and the World Crisis (721-723)

  • The international climate of the 1920s, the diplomatic challenges facing the Hoover administration must have seemed ominous and bewildering.

  • The world financial crisis that began in 1929 and greatly intensified after 1931.

  • it was producing a dangerous nationalism that threatened the weak international agreements established during the previous decade.

  • When Hoover’s proposed moratorium on debts in 1931 failed to attract broad support or produce financial stability.

  • They wanted him to appeal to the president to cancel all wars debts to U.S.

  • Benito Mussolini’s Fascist Party had been in control of Italy since the early 1920s.

  • By the 1930s, the regime was growing increasingly nationalistic and militaristic, and Fascist leaders were loudly threatening an active campaign of imperial expansion.

  • There was a growing power which was going to change everything going on.

  • They were the National Socialist (or Nazi) party in Germany.

  • By the late 1920s, the Weimar Republic, the nation’s government since the end of World War I, had lost virtually all popular support discredited by among other things, ruinous inflation.

  • Adolf Hitler was rapidly growing in popular favor.

  • He lost the election to become chancellor in 1932.

  • A year later would sweep himself into power and people took notice.

  • Japan was unconcerned and early in 1932 expanded its aggression farther into China, attacking the city of Shanghai and killing thousands of civilians..

  • Hoover left office a year later in 1933.

  • United States attempted to make a international  system in the 1920s.

  • It was a system based on voluntary cooperation among nations and on an American refusal to commit itself to the interests of other countries.- had collapsed.

Depression Diplomacy (724)

  • The Word Economic Conference quickly dissolved without reaching agreement, and not until 1936 did the administration finally agreed to new negotiations to stabilize Western currencies.

  • Roosevelt abandoned the commitments,of the Hoover administration to settle the issue of war debts.

  • April 1934 he signed a bill to forbid American banks from making loans to any nation in default on its debts.

  • The new administration had an effect on the active interest in improving America’s position in world trade.

  • Roosevelt approved the Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act of 1934.

  • It authorize the administration to negotiate treaties lowering tariffs by as much as 50 percent in return for reciprocal reductions by other nations.

  • By 1939, secretary of state Cordell Hull, a devoted free trader, had negotiated new treaties with twenty-one countries.

  • Increase in the American exports up to 40 percent.

The Rise of Isolationism (725)

  • The arms control conference in Geneva had been meeting, without result, since 1932,

  • In May 1933, Roosevelt attempted to spur it to action by submitting a new American proposal for arms reduction.

  • Japan withdrew from the London Naval Conference.

  • In 1935, he asked the Senate to ratify a treaty to make the UNited States a member of the World Court.

  • The treaty that would have expanded America’s symbolic commitment to internationalism without increasing its actual responsibilities in any important way.

  • Through the summer of 1935, it became clear that Mussolini ‘s Italy was preparing to invade Ethiopia in an effort to expand its colonial holding in Africa.

  • Fear of joining an European war.

  • American legastigators designed legal safeguards to prevent The U.S. to being put into the conflict..

  • The creation of Neutrality Act of 1935.

  • The 1935 act, and the Neutrality Acts of 1936 and 1937 that followed, were designed to prevent a recurrence of the events.

  • The pressure of World War I.

  • The 1935 law established a mandatory arms embargo against both victim and aggressor in any military arms embargo against both victim and aggressor in any military conflict.

  • They empowered the president to warn American citizens that they might travel on the ships of warring nations only at their own risk.

  • The 1936 Neutrality Act renewed those provisions.

  • And in 1937 with world conditions growing even more precarious, Congress passed a still more stringent measure.

  • The American stance of militant neutrality gained support in October 1935 when Mussolini finally launched his long-anticipated attack on Ethiopia.

  • two-thirds of those responding to public opinion polls at the time opposed any American action to deter aggression.

  • Isolationist sentiment showed its strength once again in 1936-1937 in response to the civil war in Spain.

  • The Italian Fascists, revolted in July 1936 from the Republican Government.

  • Hitler and Mussolini supported General Francisco Franco, who became the leader of the Falangists in 1937.

  • They both did this both vocally and with weapons and supplies.

  • 1935 and 1936 Roosevelt changed the Isolationists on the nation's foreign policy.

  • There was no difference and it brought them closer to war.

  • In the summer of 1937, Tokyo launched an even broader assault, attacking China’s five northern provinces.

  • This event got the attention of the Roosevelt.

  • He believed that it could not allow the Japanese aggression to go unremarked or unpunished.

The Failure of Munich (727)

  • The German power was visible in 1936 due to Hitler determination for it.

  • They were violating the versailles Treaty.

  • In March 1938, German forces marched into Austria , and Hitler proclaimed a union between Austria, his native land, and Germany, his adopted one.

  • His dream was successful and he uniting the German speaking peoples into one great nation.

  • The Austrian invasion happened soon after and created a crisis

  • He at the time had territory on three sides of Czechoslovakia.

  • He also dreamed about annexing the region

  • In September 1938, he demanded that Czechoslovakia cede to him part of the region, the Sudetenland, an area on the Austro-German border in which many ethnic Germans lived.

  • The Czechoslovak  people who had a decent military force was willing to fight rathan submit to Hitler.

  • They need help from other European countries in order to be successful.

  • They got none because nobody wanted to get into another war.

  • Countries were willing to pay anything to resolve it peacefully.

  • On September 29, Hitler met with the leader of France and Great Britain at Munich in an effort to resolve the crisis.

  • The british and French  agreed to accept the German demands in Czechoslovakia in return for Hitler’s promise to expand no farther.

  • In March 1939, Hitler occupied the remaining areas of Czechoslovakia.

  • Thus violating the Munich agreement unashamedly.\

  • He issued threats on Poland a month after that.

  • Britain and France were in there service if they tried to invade.

Neutrality Tested (729-731)

  • In September 1939, he asked Congress for a revision of the Neutrality Acts.

  • It was original to forbidden American weapons to anybody engaged in the war.

  • He wanted the arms embargo lifted.

  • The 1939 measure maintained the prohibition on American ships entering war zones.

  • Most Americans were outraged, but neither Congress nor the president was willing to do more than impose an ineffective “moral embargo” on the shipment of armaments to Russia.

  • By March 1940, the Soviet advance was complete.

  • The reality of the war in Western Europe were shattered in the spring of 1940.

  • Germany launched an invasion to the west-first attacking Denmark and Norway, sweeping next across the Netherlands and Belgium and driving finally deep into the heart of France.

  • Allied efforts provide futile against the Nazi blitzkrieg soon after that.

  • Italy joined the war lead by Mussolini..

  • They helped invade France from the South as Hitler was attacking from the North.

  • On June 22, finally France fell to the German onslaught.

  • Roosevelt increased the American aid to the allies.

  • He made a plan to make sure the resist of any  possibility of a Nazi invasion of the United States.

  • In April 1940 created an organization of their own the fight for Freedom Committee.

  • The opposing them was a group called the America First Committee.

Neutrality Abandoned (732- 733)

  • In December 1940, Great Britain was virtually bankrupt.

  • British could not meet the cash-and-carry requirements.

  • The new system was labeled “lend-lease.”

  • It would allow the government not only to sell but to lend or lease armaments to any nation deemed “vital to the defense of the U.S.”

  • By July 1941, American ships were patrolling the ocean as far east as Iceland, escorting convoys of merchant ships, and radioing information to British vessels about the location of Nazi submarines.

  • Germany could not challenge the American actions.

  • However the events that happened later changed the position on everything.

  • German forces invaded the Soviet Union in June and shattered the 1939 Nazi-Soviet pact.

  • Germans quickly got deep into the Russian territory.

  • Soviets did not surrender but a lot of people thought they would of.

  • In April 1941, senior military officer of the two nations met in secret and agreed on the joint strategy.

  • They would follow were the United States to enter the war.

  • By the fall of 1941, the United States became official belligerent.

  • The public opinion would declare war only in the event of an actual enemy attack.

The Road to Pearl Harbor (733)

  • In September 1940, Japan signed the Tripartite Pact, a loose defensive alliance with Germany and Italy that's seemed to extend the Axis into Asia.

  • It never had a strong relationship with Japan.

  • In July 1941, imperial troops moved into Indochina and seized the capital of vietnam, a colony of France.

  • The United States had broken the Japanese codes and knew what they were doing and planning on doing next.

  • The president froze all Japanese asserts in the United States.

  • It affected them to the point they could not get any Oil anymore.

Crash Course #36 World War II Part 2- The Homefront

  • World War II strengthen the federal government of the United States.

  • It brought more governmental intervention and control.

  • People started working again after the Great depression due to the success of the federal government once again.

  • Unemployment dropped from 14% in 1940 to 2% in 1943.

  • 13 Million Americans were serving in the military.

  • Married women in their 30s outnumbered single women in the workforce.

  • By 1946 more than one million former soldiers were enrolled in college.

  • Almost 4 million got assistance with mortgages, spurring a post war housing boom.

  • More than 1 million African Americans answered the call to fight.

  • 700,000 african Americans left the south, moving to northern and especially western cities where they could find jobs.

  • World war II saw the rise in the Civil Rights Movement.

Crash Course #37 Cold War

  • The Soviets were concerned about Germany invading them again.

  • As the government report from 1950 put that the goals of containment were:

  1. Block further expansion of Soviet power.

  2. Expose the falsities of soviet pretensions.

  3. Induce a retraction of the Kremlin’s control and influence.

  4. In General, foster the seeds of destruction within the Soviet system.

  • 400 million to aid Greece and Turkey.

  • The Truman Doctrine created the language through which Americans would view the world with Americans as free and communities as tyrannical.