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Picture of XOLOTL ALFONSO CRUZ-DEJESUS
Unit 14 Notes
by XOLOTL ALFONSO CRUZ-DEJESUS - Sunday, February 28, 2016, 01:08 PM
 

Pilli Cruz-De Jesus

February 27, 2016


The Global Crisis


Headings/KeywordsNotes:

and Phrases


  • replacing the  league 720

    • 1921 administration realized league of Nations unrealistic

      • Evans Hughes secured legislation  ending war with Germany

      • Hughes looking to find replacement for the League w/  world peace and stability

    • Washington conference of 1921

      • was an attempt to prevent its a naval armaments race between America and Britain and Japan

      • plan for dramatic reduction in the fleets of all three nations and 10 year moratorium on construction of warships

    • nine power packed placed a continuation of open-door policy China

    • four power pact US Britain France Japan promise to respect Pacific territories and cooperate

    • Kellogg Briand Pact 1928

      • Harborside Brian Rich Foreign Minister US joint alliance against Germany

  • deaths and diplomacy 721

    • Europe in staggering debt after WWI US

      • US relied heavily on Europe unwilling to relieve debts

    • circular loan Charles G Dawes 1924

      • American banks provide enormous loans to Germany to meet reparations

        • Britain and France agreed to reduce the amount of those payments

        • circular cycle of enormous loans and debt from the US

        • caused US to become daily presence in economic life of your

    • economic expansion in Latin America

      • US gov maintained constant military force in numerous regions

      • investments in Latin America more than doubled 1924 – 1929

      • amazed that similarly to Europe began being open to US

  • Hoover and the world crisis 722

    • world crisis 1929 intensified in 1931 creating economic distress toppling political leaders and replacing them with powerful belligerent governments

    • Latin America Hoover attempted to repair the destruction done by the US

      • economic distress caused collapse in  Latin American regime over announced new policy which granted diplomatic recognition to any sitting government obtained through any means

      • economists and political leaders appealed to the president to cancel all were debts to US  Hoover denied and damaged the already tense relationship between nations

    • Manchuria

      • Japan recovering from their own depression concerned about Soviets increasing strength

      • Japan’s military leaders staged a coup in 1931 seizing control of or policy which led to the later  launching a major invasion of northern Manchuria

      • Japan continued and attacked further into China killed thousands of civilians in Shanghai

  • depression diplomacy 724

    • FDR’s bombshell

      • Roosevelt decided to allow the gold value of the dollar to fall rejecting any agreement on currency stabilization and 1936 agreed to stabilize Western currencies

      • 1934 signed a bill to forbid American banks for making loans to any nation in default on its debts

      • engine circular system war debt payments from nearly every nation  stop

    • reciprocal trade agreement act

      • interest in improving America’s position in world trade

      • reciprocal trade agreement 1934 to negotiate treaties lowering characters by as much as 50% in return for reciprocation from other nations

      • resulted in nearly 40% increase in exports

  • America and the Soviet Union 724

    • powerful voices in US urging to recognize Soviet regime as source of trade

    • Russians American help in containing Japan

    • agreement reached Soviet with C’s propaganda in US and protect American citizens in Russia in return US would recognize communist regime

    • disappointment on both sides led to reemergence of mistrust

  • the good neighbor policy  724

    • Latin America biggest target  for trade reciprocity

    • increasing exports and imports from other nations of Western Hemisphere by over 100%

    • good neighbor policy matters US influence in Latin America was economic instead of military

  • the rise of isolationism 725

    •  arms control conference in Geneva had no result since 1932

      • May 1932 Roosevelt submitted American proposal for arms reductions

      • months later Hitler and Mussolini which are from talks

      • Japan withdrew from London Naval conference which tried to limit naval  armaments two years after(Washington conference of 1921)

    •  sources of isolationism

      • most Americans chose to isolate the nation instead of stabilize the world

      • many such as older Sony internationalists believe that internationalism had failed

      • businessmen such as Wall Street had tricked the government into World War I to protect their loans abroad (Nye investigation)

      • 1935 Roosevelt tried to ratify a treaty which could have expanded America’s commitment to internationalism

      • devastating loss isolationism did not allow for this to pass

    • neutrality acts

      • 1935 American legislators geared war in Europe Mussolini preparing to invade Ethiopia

      • 1935 1936 in 1937 neutrality acts meant to prevent recurrence of events that pressure US into World War I

      • establishing mandatory arms embargo 1935

      • 1937 cash and carry policy only nonmilitary goods can be bought from US and must be carried on their own

    • Ethiopia

      • withdrew from league of Nations form the alliance with Germany taxes

      • US responded with renewed isolationism two thirds of the population at the time oppose American action

      • 1936 – 1937 civil wars and stand Phalangist group revolted was supported by Hitler and Mussolini France Britain and US did not intervene

    • quarantine speech

      • Japan expanded attacks on China Roosevelt attempted to rally the people  to help but was met with disturbing  hostility

      • is also wanting to quarantine countries which seek out more or syndrome that

  • the failure of Munich 727

    • Hitler in Germany 1936 moved German army into Rhineland violating versaille treaty

      • Hitler took over Austria claimed a union  began expanding to a nearby nations

      • September 1938 demanded Czechoslovakia cede to him and check was willing to fight but knew they could not win without support  from Europe

    • Munich conference

      • Hitler met with leaders of France and Great Britain in a conference

      • Hitler promised to expand no partner then Czechoslovakia

    • failure of appeasement

      • March 1929 dealer occupied remaining areas of Czech Slovakia violating Munich agreement

      • began issuing threats to Poland Britain and France told Polish government they would assist  if an invasion occurred

      • Hitler faked a Polish attack responded with and invasion on Poland Britain and France  declared war on Germany

  • neutrality tested 729

    • September 1939 in hopes of providing the allies with armaments

      • Roosevelt asked Congress for revision of neutrality acts which forbade US from selling weapons to any nation in war

      • powerful isolationist opposition forced him to not allow American ships to enter war zones

    • cash and carry

      • cash and carry basis from earlier neutrality acts continue

      • only fighting at the beginning was Russia annexing Baltic republics and then invading Finland

    • fall of France

      • Germany launched an invasion West first contacting Denmark and Norway swept across Netherlands and Belgium and then into France

      • Roosevelt.1,000,000,000 from Congress for defense from Germany

      • Winston Churchill List to Roosevelt meeting ships are immense and other assistance he claimed England would not survive without

    • shifting public opinion

      • 66% of public believe Germany code was direct threat to US

      • Congress more willing to permit American assistance to the Atlas

      • Burke Wadsworth act inaugurated first peacetime military draft in US history new committee to defend America members lobbied actively for US assistance to the Allies against actual intervention

      • fight for freedom committee urge immediate declaration of war not very popular

      • America first committee isolationists

  • the third term campaign 731

    • Roosevelt one a campaign for the third term against Wendell Wilkie closest it had ever been

  • neutrality abandoned 732

    • 1940 Great Britain bankrupt could not meet cash and carry requirements

    • lend lease system allow government to sell and lend lease armaments to any nation which was vital to the defense of the United States

      • opposed bitterly but passed easily by congress

    • German submarines destroyed half million tons of shipping each month made it extremely difficult to funnel supplies into Britain

    • July 1941 American ships escorting and patrolling sea as far as iceland to protect exchange

    • Germany invades the USSR

      • Fall 1941 German forces invaded Soviet Union shattering Nazi Soviet pact

      • US begins providing assistance to Soviet similarly to Britain

      • German boat attack and sunk American destroyer US engage in naval war with Germany

    • Atlantic charter

      • better future for the world calling for the final destruction of Nazi tyranny

  • the road to Pearl Harbor 733

    • tripartite pact

      • depends on tripartite pact defensive alliance with Germany and Italy

      • Roosevelt announced Japanese assault on China remove a commercial treaty with Tokyo Japanese driver continued

      • July 1941 troops moved into Indochina sees capital of Vietnam and a colony of France

      • strong anti-japanese prejudices developed and supported these hostile actions which stopped all trade with Japan and cut off the essential supplies

    • Tokyo’s decision for war

      • Japan instead of seeking reparations with US decided to find resources by fighting in war

      • wave of Japanese bombers attacked the US naval base at Pearl Harbor

      • ships and airplanes were bunched up defenseless the end had disastrous results to American vessels

      • over 2000 soldiers and sailors died another one came were injured