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Unit 14
by JULIETTE LOW FLEURY - Sunday, February 28, 2016, 09:20 PM

Juliette Low Fleury

Mr. Kann  

February 26, 2015

Unit 14,  

  • The Diplomacy of the New Era (720-723)

    • Replacing the League

      • Even though the US was not part of the league of nations they still wanted all of the benefits of the treaty of Versailles.

      • In the Washington Conference of 1921, they created a plan so that the arms race between france, england, the US, and Japan would end.

        • Hughes called for many ships to be scrapped, and the ending of warship construction.  

        • The Five Power Act of 1922 called for a ratio of 5 tons of weaponry for the US and GB for every 3 tons for Japan, and every 1.75 tons for France and Italy.  

        • This was the start of a new era to promote peace.

        • The Kellogg-Briand Pact makes war illegal.

  • Debts and diplomacy

    • The first priority for the US was to make sure US trade wasn’t damaged abroad.  

      • The econ. state of Europe after WW2 was a mess, the Allies owed the US 11 billion.

    • The Dawes Plan: Britain and France would lower Germany’s reparation fees, and then Britain and France would use that money to pay the US back their reparations.

      • Europe could not really afford such high reparations because they were not able to export things to the US.

    • The US did the same thing in Latin America.

  • Hoover and the World Crisis

    • Hoover was not prepared for the great depression.  

    • Hoover tried to fix issues in Latin America and take troops out of Haiti. He offered to diplomatic recognition to any government in the Latin Region.

      • Refused to follow Roosevelt’s addition to the Monroe Doctrine.  

    • Mussolini and his facist party had complete control of italy and they were completely militant.

    • Hitler was taking over Germany due to the failure of the Weimar republic.

    • Japan was invading Manchuria because they were afraid of Soviet power and wanted control.  

    • The US realized that the Kellogg-Briand Pact wasn’t working, and decided to fly solo.

  • Isolationism and Internationalism (723-728)

They did not want to participate in anything regarding the war, in order to stop the depression.

    • Depression Diplomacy

      • Roosevelt released a “bombshell” about not wanting to stabilize global currency.

      • In 1936, FDRs administration agreed to stabilize.  

      • He forbade American banks from making loans to European countries that were defaulting on their debts.

      • The Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act of 1934 Lowered tariffs by as much as 50%.  

        • Then Sec of State Cordell Hull negotiated trade agreements with 21 new countries, boosting the US’s output by 40%.

    • America and the Soviet Union

      • The US and Russia did not trust eachother since the Bolshevik revolution.

      • In November 1933, The US and Russia tried to come to an agreement, Americans would be protected in Russia, and the Trade would be allowed, if the US agreed to help stop Japanese expansion and recognized communism.

        • The relationship did not last long.

    • The good Neighbor Policy

      • America’s attempt at helping the diplomatic and economic policies of Latin America in the 1930s.

    • The rise of Isolationism

      • International economic agreements started dropping, and Roosevelt had to decide whether he wanted to try to maintain those, or his own country.  

      • Roosevelt hoped for the US to have at least a moderate role in ensuring world peace.

      • He asked the senate to make the US part of the world court, but he lost, and he didn’t try to end the isolation for a while after that.

      • The Neutrality Act of 1935 was to prevent the events that Americans felt dragged them into WW1. THis was the beginning of the “cash carry law” which made it so that non-military goods had to be paid for in cash  

        • When italy took over ethiopia, more Americans wanted to isolate themselves.  

        • The US government along with France, and GB decided not to get involved with mussolini and hitler.

        • Japan was invading China as well, but the US stayed neutral.

    • The Failure of Munich

      • Hitler took over the Rhinelands in 1936, and marched into Austria in 1938.

        • After that he wanted to take the Sudetenland, a part of Czechoslovakia. They wanted to fight back but they did not have enough manpower.  

        • At the Munich conference, France and England decided to appease hitler and let him have the Sudetenland if he did not take any more territory.

          • They did say that they would defend Poland against hitler.  

      • Stalin signed an anti-intercourse agreement with Hitler in August 1939.  

      • On Sept 1, 1939, he invaded Poland and on Sep 3, WW2 started.

  • From Neutrality to Intervention (728-736)

    • Neutrality Tested

      • The US said they were neutral but they sided with Britain and France.

      • In 1939, they revised the Neutrality Acts.

        • US ships still could not sail in war zones, but the US could supply Britain with arms.  

      • The soviet union took over Latvia, Estonia, Finland, Lithuania. In 1940, Germany invaded Denmark and Norway.  In June 1940, France fell to Germany.

      • The US began to fear being invaded by Germany, so they increased the war budget. They also decided to fund Churchills needs.

      • The public was scared, so they were more oblidged to enter the war.

      • The Burke Wadsworth Act allowed for the first peacetime draft.  

      • The Committee to Defend America lobbied for increased American assistance. The Fight for Freedom Committee wanted the US to declare war immediately.  

        • The America First Committee wanted to keep things the way they were and remain neutral.

    • The Third-Term Campaign

      • FDR decided to run for the third time, and he won.

    • Neutrality Abandoned

      • The Lend-lease program allowed Roosevelt to loan Britain the supplies they needed without having to pay for them until later.  

        • They shipped through the northern atlantic, an unspoken neutrality zone.

      • Germany attacked the USSR and that resulted in a two front war.

        • US extended loans to them too.

      • The Nazis began targeting American ships, and sunk a few of them including the Rueben James. This resulted in the US arming merchant ships.

      • The presidents of GB and the US met secretly and made their partnership stronger.

    • The Road to Pearl Harbor

      • Roosevelt was unhappy with Japan for its continued assaults on china.

      • When Japan took Vietnam, a french colony, and then threatened the Dutch East Indies, he froze their assets.

        • Instead of negotiating with the US, they decided to fight. On November 29, it was made clear there would be an attack by the Japanese, but it was unclear what would be attacked.

      • Japan Firebombed Pearl Harbor, and 2000 people died, and warships were lost, so the US declared war.

Crahscourse 36: The war at home.

WW2 prep completely boosted the economy. federal agencies, like the War Production Board, War Manpower Commission and Office of Price Administration took unprecedented control of the economy.

food and supplies were rationed and some  industries were completely taken over

by the government. The fed. gov’t fixed wages, rents, prices, and

production quotas. Was not completely hated for communist-esque president, most people

were glad for work  after the Depression.

Unemployment dropped from 14= 1940 to 2%=1943. millions of Americans were

serving in the military in some way.War kickstarted the economy. U.S. Gross National Product  from $91 billion to $214 billion during the war. Happened because of government spending. Gov’t took taxes before you were paid.

Because my dad made me. Federal income taxes were regulated.

big business got bigger during the war because of gov’t contracts. by the war’s end the 200 biggest corporations controlled half of all of America’s corporate assets. LA became the second largest manufacturing center in the country. Gov’t forced corporations to recognize unions.  Many of the workers in factories were women. 1944:  women made up 1/3 of the civilian labor force +  350,000 who

were serving in the military. Not just young women, Married ones too. when the war was over most women workers, especially those in high paying industrial jobs, were fired. This was hard on working women who needed to work to survive and had to return to lower paid work FDR’s  Four Freedoms: freedom of speech, worship, from want, and from fear.

FDR  called for a new Economic Billl of rights that was basically communism.

GI Bill of Rights: Let former soldiers go to college, and have other assistance forms.

US could share its freedoms with the rest of the world. Haters called FDR a socialist and a facist. The struggle against Nazism also helped re-shapethe way that Americans thought of themselves. Anti-Semitism still existed and was part of the government not helping many jews during the holocaust. only 21,000 Jewish people were allowed to come to the U.S. during the of the war. Lots of Mexicans in the US, many fought in the war, and some native Americans as well.

Executive Order 9066 in February 1942 kicked japanese people off the west coast.

Sent more than 110,000 to internment camps.

Beginning of civil rights movement. Black labor leader A. Philip Randolph threatened a march on Washington asking for  access to defense jobs, an end to segregation and a federal anti-lynching law. Instead he got Executive Order 8802 which banned discrimination. created the Fair Employment Practices Commission. helped African American workers obtain jobs in arms factories and shipyards.

The war was the end of segregation (partially) and the army and navy began to integrate.

And conferences at Teheran, Yalta, and Potsdam

But, the 1944 conference Bretton Woods, New Hampshire, established America’s economic dominance as the dollar  The United States also took a leading rolein establishing the UN.

WW2 ended the depression.

Crashcourse 37 : The Cold War

Was called the cold war because it was never heated into an actual conflict. Cold war Era: lasting roughly from 1945 to 1990.

after WWII the U.S. and the USSR were the only two nations with any power left. The US had more power, and lost less during the war. They were scared of communism and wanted a strong capitalist market, so they didn’t want Communism to expand any further. They also wanted communism to  go away. Harry Truman,  became President in 1945 after FDR died, was a big fan of containment. Truman

Doctrine: Pledged to support people in the fight against communism. Started a huge arms race between the US and the soviet union. The Marshall Plan: a response to economic chaos in Europe brought on by a harsh winter that strengthened support for communism in France and Italy.

Wanted to use US Aid to combat economic instability that made people want communism. Rebuilt everywhere with a non-America New deal. General Douglas MacArthur was basically a dictator in Japan, forcing them constitution giving women the vote, and pledging that Japan would not ever go to war, and the US would be their army.

Germany was experiencing the first Berlin crisis. At the end of the war, Germany

was divided into East and West.  Stalin had a blockade and took it away after cajoling from the US. built the Berlin the end of 1950, the shape Cold War had been established, West versus

East, Capitalist vs Communist. Both democrats and republicans supported the cold war. The US intervened in lots of places because they were “Protecting against Communism”

The US funded lots of anti-communist propaganda. The Cold War  shaped domestic policy--anti-communist sentiment, for instance, prevented Truman from extending the social policies of the New Deal.  Nothing viewed as socialist or communist could be passed. the government

spent money on education, research in science, technology like computers, and transportation

infrastructure. Cold war is the reason for our highways because congress thought we needed good evacuation routes.  They had lots of spies Klaus Fuchs worked on the Manhattan Project and leaked information to the Soviets and then helped the Chinese to build their first bomb. Julius Rosenberg also gave atomic secrets to the Soviets, and was executed. 1947: with Truman’sLoyalty Review System: required government employees to prove their patriotism when accused. Dennis v. United States, the Supreme Court upheld hat being a communist leader itself was a crime.

any criticism of the government and its policies or the U.S.l was seen as disloyalty.