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APUSH Unit 14 Notes
by PABLO REINA GONZALEZ - Wednesday, March 2, 2016, 07:41 PM
 

Pablo Reina-Gonzalez

Mr Kann

2/20/16


APUSH Unit 14 Notes


Crash Course #36


  • WW2 brought about several changes to the US, in terms of how people saw themselves and how they wanted others to see themselves.

  • WW2 strengthened the federal government.

    • More than one would usually see after a war of this magnitude.

    • Agencies like the War Production Board took control of the economy.

      • There was rationing of food and supplies.

      • Entire industries were taken over by the government.

  • The Federal government fixed wages, production quotas, rents as well as prices.

    • (SOCIALIST)

  • The government prevented companies from creating new car model in 1941.

  • Unemployment dropped from 14% in 1940 to 2% in 1943.

    • 13 million Americans joined the army.

    • American factories were making a new plane every five minutes and ships every day.

      • US gross national products went from 91 billion to 214 billion dollars during the war.

        • Government expenditure was up (two times more than in the previous 150 years combined).

        • Much of the war was paid for with taxes.

          • They would tax paychecks directly.

        • Big businesses grew bigger during the war.

          • Government spending spurred development, cities became more industrial.

            • The South was left out, since it only had two cities, and industrialisation happened primarily in cities.

  • Unions became more popular (from 9 million to 15 million).

    • Employers were forced to recognize them.

      • So war production would not decrease.

    • Many of the workers were women (one third of the civilian labor force).

      • 350,000 were serving in the war.

      • Types of women who worked changed.

        • Married women in their 30’s outnumbered single women.

      • This was seen as temporary.

        • They were fired once WW2 ended.

          • Many were left to work in the service/food industry.

  • FDR’s four freedoms.

    • Freedom of speech, from fear, from want and of worship.

  • GI Bill (servicemen's readjustment act)

    • To prevent unemployment of returning veterans (very successful).

  • Big business added a fifth freedom, the freedom of enterprise.

    • These freedoms were supposedly also to help other countries.

  • FDR stated that to be American was to have set beliefs and not to be a certain race or color.

  • People were debunking eugenics, and other types of scientific justification for racism.

    • Anti semitism still existed.

  • The war years saw a dramatic increase in immigration from Mexico.

    • 500,000 Mexican men and women served in WW2.

  • There was horrible discrimination against Japanese Americans.

    • Executive order 9066 expelled all Americans from Japanese descent from the West coast.

      • They resided in internment camps where they were kept under lock and key and constant surveillance.

  • 1 Million African-American joined the cause to fight in WW2.

    • WW2 began the Civil Rights movement.

  • FDR made sure the US the US stopped being isolationist.

    • He planned for a more prosperous post war world.


Crash Course #37


  • The cold war.

    • Thought of as cold because it never heated up into actual conflict.

      • It did involve actual war though.

    • It should be considered an era.

    • It let us know that our worst existential threat is ourselves.

      • It changed how we saw the world and our role in it.

  • After WW2, the US and the USSR were the only two countries with any power left.

    • The US was more powerful.

      • We had atomic weapons and the like.

    • The USSR had lost more people in the war.

    • Russia was scared of Germany invading them.

      • Russia encouraged communist governments in countries between Germany and them, which were inhabited by USSR soldiers.

        • They wanted to create a buffer between Germany and themselves.

    • The Us wanted to contain communism, so it would not spread.

      • They had no problem with letting it be.

      • The Truman doctrine's were passed.

        • Any freedom loving peoples would be defended from the USSR by the US.

          • This created how we saw the world.

  • There was an armed race, which was a primary part of the Cold War.

  • The Marshall plan.

    • A response to economic chaos in Europe.

    • It sought to use US aid to combat the instability.

      • It was like a new deal for Europe.

        • It transformed Europe into the Capitalist, mass consumer society it still is today.

  • General Douglas Macarthur.

    • Forced Japan to adopt a new constitution, demanding the country forswear war.

      • In exchange, the US became Japan's defense force.

  • Germany was divided, from East to West.

    • The Berlin wall was built in 1961.

    • The capital and the country was very much divided.

  • The US thought of the Cold War as a war between freedom and tyranny.

    • Both Democrats and Republicans agreed with Cold War policies.

  • The Red Scare.

    • The US funded anti Communist art, movies and propaganda.

    • There was only the question of, “when would we be bombed?”


Chapter 27 (pg.’s 720-736)


  • Replacing the League (pg. 720)

    • American membership in the League of Nations was impossible.

      • The US wanted the benefits of the treaty of Versailles.

      • They created a plan in the Washington Conference of 1921 to end the arms race between the US, England, France, and Japan.

        • Hughes scrapped many ships, ending warship construction.

        • The Five Power Act of 1922 called for a ratio of 5 tons of weaponry for the US and England for every 3 tons for Japan and every 1.75 tons for France and Italy.

        • This was the start of the promotion of an era of peace.

        • The Kellogg-Briand Pact made war of any sort illegal.

  • Debts and Diplomacy (pg. 720-721)

    • The US needed to make sure that it was stable and unharmed abroad.

      • The Allies (besides the US) were in a terrible economic state after WW2.

        • They owed the US 11 billion dollars.

      • The Dawes Plan was created to lower Germany’s reparation fees.

        • France and England would help.

          • They would be paid by Germany with US money and would use that money to pay back their war debt to the US.

            • Europe could not afford the high reparations because they were not able to export thing to the US.

        • The US tried the same concept with the Latin American countries that were indebted to them.

  • Hoover and the World Crisis (pg. 721-724)

    • Hoover was not at all prepared to deal with the Great Depression.

      • He attempted to repair issues in Latin America while trying to extract soldiers from Haiti.

        • He offered diplomatic recognition for all surrounding Latin American countries in the areas.

          • He refused to to FDR’s addition to the Monroe Doctrine.

    • Mussolini had complete control of Italy.

      • He lead a fascist party that was very much militant.

    • Hitler was taking control over Germany who was rebuilding itself after the failure of the Weimar Republic.

    • Japan invaded Manchuria because they were afraid of the fear of the Soviet power, which lead them to crave control.

    • The US saw the incoming failure of the Kellogg-Briand Pact and decided to return to isolationism.

  • Depression Diplomacy (pg. 724)

    • FDR the country know that he had no plan of wanting to stabilize the global currency.

      • In 1936, Roosevelt had a change of heart and agreed to stabilize the currency.

      • He did not allow American banks to make loans to any European country that defaulted on their loans.

        • The Reciprocal Trade Agreement Act of 1934 lowered all tariffs by 50%.

          • The Secretary of State, Cordell Hull negotiated a trade agreement with 21 new countries which boosted the US’s output by 40%.

  • America and the Soviet Union (pg. 724)

    • The US and the USSR had a strict distrust after the Bolshevik revolution passed.

      • In 1933 , both countries attempted to come to an agreement.

        • Russia would protect Americans if they allowed trade to the USSR and if they agreed to help stop Japanese expansion and recognize communism.

          • This lasted for practically no time at all.

  • The Good Neighbor Policy (pg. 724-725)

    • The US’s effort to help economic as well as diplomatic policies in Latin America.

      • 1930’s.

  • The Rise of Isolationism (pg. 725-727)

    • International economic deals were all dropping.

      • FDR needed to either dedicate himself to restoring the US or to restoring international trade.

        • FDR wanted the US to have a role in the US.

    • FDR had asked the senate to make the US part of the world court.

      • He lost, and made no further attempt to end military isolation.

    • The Neutrality Act of 1935

      • To prevent the events that events that Americans felt dragged the country into WW1.

        • This was the beginning of the “cash and carry law” which had forced other countries to pay for weapons in cash.

          • They also needed to come to the US to obtain them.

    • Once Mussolini took over Ethiopia, more Americans encouraged military isolationism for the country.

      • None of the Allied powers wanted to deal with the fascist countries.

        • Even when Japan invaded China.

  • The Failure of Munich (pg. 727-729)

    • Hitler invaded and took over of the Rhineland in 1936 and stepped into Austria two years later.

      • A part of Czechoslovakia, Sudetenland, wanted to fight back but they were not strong enough to stand a chance.

      • The Munich Conference.

        • The Allies let Hitler take Czech, but in turn he would not take any more land.

          • They had said they would have defended Poland against Hitler.

    • Stalin had signed an anti-intercourse agreement with Hitler in 1939.

    • In late 1939,   Hitler invaded Poland, and in the same month WW2 began.

  • Neutrality Tested (pg. 729-731)

    • The US had said that they would stay neutral, but they sided with the Allied powers.

      • In 1939, they had revised the Neutrality Acts.

        • US ships were not able to sail in war zones.

          • The US could supply Britain with arms.

      • The SSR took over Latvia, Estonia, Finland and Lithuania. In 1940, Germany invaded Denmark and Norway.

        • In June 1940, France fell to Germany.

    • The US was scared of Hitler.

      • They increased their war budget and funded Churchill.

        • The US people were more open to entering war

      • The Burke Wadsworth Act.

        • Allowed for the first peacetime draft.

    • The Committee to Defend America lobbied for increased American assistance.

      • The Fight for Freedom Committee wanted the US to declare war as soon as possible.

        • The America First Committee wanted to stay neutral.

  • The Third-Term Campaign (pg. 731-732)

    • FDR ran once again.

      • He won, of course.

  • Neutrality Abandoned (pg. 732-733)

    • The Lend Lease Program allowed FDR to give supplies to England without having to pay them back for a long while.

      • They shipped the weapons through the Northern Atlantic.

        • An unspoken neutrality zone.

    • Germany attacked Russia and it resulted in a somewhat two front war.

      • The US lent them weapons for an extended amount of time as well.

    • Germany started to target US ships .

      • For example, the Reuben James.

        • This led to US arming merchant ships.

    • Presidents of the US and England met in secret, to strengthen their pact.

  • The Road to Pearl Harbor (pg. 733-734)

    • FDR was displeased with Japan for its assault on China.

      • FDR froze their assets when they took Vietnam, a french colony, and threatened the Dutch West Indies.

        • Instead of negotiating, they decided to fight.

          • Japan attacked Pearl Harbor and killed 2,000 Americans.